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Centralbl. f. d. medicin. Wissens":h., 1891 : Ueber den feineren Bau der Thymus und deren Bezie-
hung zur Blutbildung, Sitzungsb. d. K. Akad. d. Wissensch., \Vien, Bd. cii., 1893 ; Kritische
Bemerkungen ilber einige neuere Thymusarbciten, Intern. Monatsschr. f. Anat. u. Physiol., Bd. xi.,
1894.

"Waldeyer, Die Riiclcbildung der Thymus, Sitzungsb. d. Kgl. preuss. Akad. der Wissensch. zu
Berlin, 1890.

"Watney, H., The minute anatomy of the thymus, Phil. Trans., 1882.

Zoja, Or., Sulla permanenza detta glandola timo neifancuilli e negli adolescentl, Boll, scientif. ,
vii, No. 1, e R. Institute Lombardo, 1885.



THE THYROID BODY.



311



THE THYROID BODY.



The thyroid body is a highly vascular organ consisting of two lateral lobes generally
united towards their lower ends by a transverse portion named the isthmus. Viewed
as a whole it is convex on its external and anterior aspects forming a rouuded pro-
jection upon the trachea and larynx. It is covered by the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid,
and sterno-thyroid muscles, the last-mentioned being in close contact with the
lateral lobes. The sterno-cleido-mastoid muscles also overlap it. Its deep surface is
concave where it rests against the trachea and larynx, and external to these structures
and the recurrent laryngeal nerves its lateral lobes extend backwards to the sides of
the pharynx and O3sophagus. In consequence of the deviation of the oesophagus to
the left side the lower end of the left lateral lobe lies slightly in front of that struc-
ture. The lateral lobes also pass outwards in front of the common carotid arteries,
the carotid sheaths intervening. Each lateral lobe is somewhat conical in form with
the apex upwards, and extends from the fifth or sixth ring of the trachea to the side
of the thyroid cartilage of which it covers the inferior cornu and adjacent portion of





Fig. 319. HORIZONTAL SECTION OP TRACHEA, (ESOPHAGUS, AND THYROID BODY. (J. S.)

1, oesophagus ; 2, cavity of trachea ; 3, cartilaginous ring of trachea ; 4, thyroid body ; 5, inferior
thyroid artery ; 6, recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Fig. 320. SKETCH SHOWING THE FORM AND POSITION OF THE THYROID BODY. (Allen Thomson.) One

half the natural size.

The larynx and surrounding parts are viewed from before ; on the right side the muscles covering
the thyroid body are retained, on the left side they are removed ; h, hyoid bone ; th, right thyro-hyoid
muscle ; o It, omo-hyoid ; uh, sterno-hyoid ; st, sterno-thyroid ; c, crico-thyroid membrane ; tr, trachea ;
a, oesophagus ; t, right lobe of the thyroid body ; t', the left lobe ; i, the isthmus ; It, the fibrous or
muscular band termed levator thyroidese, which is more rarely found in the middle line or to the right
side, and which existed in the case from which the figure was taken.

the ala. The transverse portion or isthmus commonly lies across the second, third
and fourth rings of the trachea, but is very inconstant in size, shape, and position.
From the upper part of the isthmus or from the adjacent portions of one of the lobes
a slender conical process called the pyramid or middle lobe often proceeds upwards to
the hyoid bone to which it is attached by fibrous or muscular tissue (fig. 31(5). The
thyroid gland is connected to the. trachea and larynx by fibrous tissue so that it
follows the movements of these organs. In front the pretracheal fascia extends



312



THE DUCTLESS GLANDS.



from the isthmus and adjacent portions of the lateral lobes upwards to the front of
the cricoid cartilage and the lower border of the thyroid cartilage, forming a some-
what indistinct anterior ligament of the gland. Further, each lateral lobe is attached
by a firm band of fibrous tissue, the lateral ligament, to the side of the cricoid
cartilage and the first two or three rings of the trachea.

Size, weight, and colour. Each lateral lobe measures about two inches
(50 mm.) in length, an inch and a quarter (30 mm.) in breadth, and three quarters
of an inch (18 mm.) in thickness at its largest part which is below its middle ;
the right lobe is usually a little wider and longer than the left. The isthmus
measures nearly half an inch (12 mm.) in breadth and from a quarter to three
quarters of an inch in depth.

The weight of the thyroid body is ordinarily rather more than an ounce (30 to
40 g.). It is generally larger in females than in males, and appears in many of the
former to undergo a periodic increase about the time of menstruation. It varies
a good deal in size and occasionally undergoes enormous enlargement.

Its colour is usually of a dusky brownish red, but sometimes of a yellowish hue.






Fig. 321. A THYROID GLAND SHOWING BIFURCATION OF THE LOWER END OF PYRAMID PROCESS. ONE

PART GOING TO EACH LATERAL LOBE. (After C. F. Marshall.)

Fig. 322. A THYROID GLAND WITH PYRAMIDAL PROCESS ATTACHED TO LEFT LOBE OF GLAND, ISTHMUS

ABSENT. (After C. F. Marshall.)

Fig. 323. A THYROID GLAND, WITH BOTH PYRAMIDAL PROCESS AND ISTHMUS ABSENT. (After C. F

Marshall.)

Varieties. As a rule the two lateral lobes are approximately equally well developed, but
occasionally they are very unequal in size and in rare cases one lateral lobe may be entirely
absent. The isthmus varies greatly in size and not unf requently it is absent or fused with
one or other of the lateral lobes. Observers differ considerably as to the frequency with
which a pyramidal process occurs. Thus Streckeisen met with it in 104 out of 153 cases, or
nearly 68 per cent., while Marshall only found it in 24 out of 60 cases, or 40 per cent. It is
usually attached below to the isthmus on the left side of the median plane, but it may join
one of the lateral lobes, and above it is connected with the hyoid bone. Out of the 104
specimens in which the pyramidal process was present 55 were glandular up to the hyoid
bone, in 12 the process was connected to that bone by fibrous tissue, and in 2 by muscle. The
muscular fasciculi which are occasionally found to descend from the hyoid bone to the thyroid
gland or its pyramidal process are known as the Irmtor f/landttlfff thi/roidw (fig. 320). The fibres
are most frequently derived from the thyro-hyoid muscle, but occasionally they are independent.
In one of Marshall's cases there .were two pyramidal processes, while in another a single
process divided into two parts, one for each lateral lobe. Accessory thyroids may be formed
by transverse division of the pyramidal process iuto several separate masses, more rarely they
are found in relation with the lateral lobes. Small glandular masses, resembling in structure
the thyroid, are also frequently found in front of and above the hyoid bone.

Structure. The texture of this organ is firm, and to the naked eye appears
coarsely granular. It is invested by a thin transparent layer of dense areolar tissue




THE THY BOLD BODY. 313

which connects it with the adjacent parts, and imperfectly separates its substance
into small lobules of irregular form and size.

When the organ is cut into, a yellow glairy fluid (colloid) escapes~from the cut
surface. Imbedded in its substance are multitudes of closed vesicles (fig. 324), which
are held together in groups or imperfect lobules by areolar tissue. The size of the
vesicles varies from '045 mm. to 1' mm., so as to be visible to the naked eye. They
are spherical, polyhedral, or flattened in shape. The wall of each vesicle consists of
a simple layer of cubical or columnar epithelium-cells which, according to Langen-^
dorff, are of two kinds, viz.: those which are actually secreting the material of the
contents of the vesicles (colloid cells) and others (reserve ceils) which may take the

Fig. 324. SECTION OF THE THYROID GLAND
op A CHILD. (E. A. S. )

Two complete vesicles and portions of others
are represented. The vesicles are filled with
colloid which, in this case, also occupied the
interstitial spaces. In the middle of one of
the spaces a blood-vessel is seen cut obliquely,
and close to it is a plasma-cell. Between the
cubical epithelium cells, smaller cells like
lymph-corpuscles are seen here and there.

place of some of the colloid cells

which become detached or mingled

with the secretion. Both Langen-

dorff and Hiirthle agree in stating

that the secretion is formed partly

by exudation from the cells an

partly by the complete transformation of some of the cells into colloid substance.

According to Baber there is no basement membrane to the vesicles.

The vesicles may contain, besides the characteristic yellow glairy fluid, detached
epithelium-cells, white blood-corpuscles which seem to have migrated into the cavities,
and also red blood-corpuscles in various stages of disintegration and decolourization,
but whether these last are accidental or normal constituents is still undecided.

In the interstitial connective tissue of the gland there occur a number of cells
similar to the " plasma-cells " of Waldeyer (" parenchyma-cells," Baber). The spaces
(areolas) of this tissue and the lymphatic vessels may be filled with the same colloid
substance as that which occupies the vesicles. The blood-vessels and lymphatics are
conducted to the vesicles in the interstitial tissue, but the lymphatic vessels do not come
into such intimate relations with the walls of the vesicles as the blood-capillary net-
work, the vessels of which are in close contact with the epithelium and may even
project between the epithelium-cells.

Occasionally small bodies detached from the main mass of the thyroid are found,
having all the structure of the normal thyroid (accessory thyroids).

One of the most frequent pathological changes to which the thyroid body is
subject consists in the accumulation within its vesicles of colloid substance : in
certain forms of goitre it distends them to an enormous degree. Removal of the
thyroid produces myxoedema.

In the foetus, and during early infancy, this organ is relatively larger than in
after-life ; its proportion to the weight of the body in the new-born infant being
that of 1 to 240 or 400, whilst at the end of three weeks it becomes only 1 to 11 GO,
and in the adult 1 to 1800 (Krause). In advanced life the thyroid body is liable to
become indurated, and frequently contains earthy deposit ; its vesicles also attain a
very large size.

Vessels and nerves. The arteries of the thyroid body are the superior and
inferior thyroids of each side, to which is sometimes added a fifth vessel, the thyroidca



314 THE DUCTLESS GLANDS.

ima. The arteries are remarkable for their large relative size, and for their frequent
and large anastomoses ; they terminate in a capillary network upon the outside of
the vesicles. The veins, which are also large, ultimately form plexuses on the sur-
face, from which a superior, middle, and inferior thyroid vein are formed on each
side. The superior and middle thyroid veins open into the internal jugular ; the
inferior veins issue from a plexus formed in front of the trachea, and open into the
innominate veins. The lymphatics of the thyroid body form numerous and large
anastomosing trunks, both at the surface of the organ and throughout its substance ;
they originate, according to the observations of Frey, in the connective tissue which
unites the gland-vesicles, with the cavity cf which they appear not to be in
communication. Hiirthle has however by using intermittent pressure succeeded in
causing injection-material to pass into the vesicles from, the lymph-paths. The
lymphatics may contain colloid substance, similar to that found within the vesicles
(Baber). This appears to pass between the epithelium cells into the interstitial
connective tissue and so into the lymphatics.

The nerves are derived from the middle and inferior cervical ganglia of the
sympathetic. They accompany the blood-vessels. According to Anderson there are
no ganglion-cells in their course. Their branches extend close to the base of the
epithelium cells.



PARATHYROIDS (GLANDUL^E PARATHYROIDE^E.)

Under the name of parathyroids Saudstrom described (in 1880) a pair of small
glandular masses, constant in occurrence in man and other mammals, and always
lying in close proximity to the lateral lobes of the thyroid body (fig. 325, p, p') They
vary in size from 3 mm. to 15 mm. in diameter, being on the average about 6 mm.
They are usually flattened, and their colour is reddish-brown, somewhat like that of
the thyroid itself. In structure, however, they differ from the thyroid proper, being
composed not of hollow vesicles but of solid masses of epithelium-like cells (which
sometimes appear in sections as if arranged in anastomosing columns) with numerous
convoluted blood-vessels between them (fig 326). Connected with the cell-masses
there are frequently lymph-follicles. They differ completely in structure from the
normal thyroid and are not therefore to be confounded with the accessory thyroids
which have just been mentioned. These bodies have undoubtedly been previously
noticed (by Remak, Virchow, and others), but their importance, as shown by their
constancy of occurrence, was not recognised nor were they systematically described.
Since the appearance of Sandstrom's account, their structure was independently
described by Baber (in 1881), and more recently several observers have directed their
attention to these bodies. According to Gley they represent embryonic portions of
the true thyroid, and it' left after the removal of the latter, they are able to develop
further and to take on the functions of the main organ, and it is thus he accounts
for the failure to obtain in some animals the usual effects of thyroidectomy. It is
however denied by Edmunds that they develop into thyroid tissue proper under these
circumstances, although they appear as stated by Gley to undergo hypertrophy if left
after removal of the thyroid, and to act to some extent vicariously for it.

Kohn, who has made a careful investigation of the structure of these bodies and
their relations to the main part of the thyroid, states that there is one parathyroid
("outer epithelial body") constantly to be met with in mammals on the lateral
surface of each lateral lobe of the thyroid and another on the mesial surface of each
lateral lobe (" inner epithelial body") (see fig. 325, p, p'). Associated in position
with these bodies there is, at least in some animals, almost constantly to be met
with a small mass of " adenoid " tissue, which has all the structural characteristics of



THE PARATHYROIDS.



315



thymus tissue, including the well-known epithelial nests (concentric corpuscles), and
which tends to blend insensibly with the neighbouring interstitial tissue of the thyroid
(fig. 325, V). According to Prenant, again, the tissue of the parathyroids is similar in
general structure and appearance to that of the carotid glands, and is not embryonic
thyroid tissue. This author states that it takes origin from the fourth inner branchial
cleft of the embryo, from which also part of the thymus and the lateral rudiments




Fig. 325. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF THE LEFT LOBE OF THE THYROID OF A TWO-MONTHS KITTEN. (Kohn.) -^

a, thyroid tissue ; 6, b, thymus tissue ; p, p', inner and outer parathyroid bodies.
Fig. 326. PART OF THE OUTER PARATHYROID REPRESENTED IN THE PRECEDING FIGURE, MORE HIGHLY

MAGNIFIED. (Kohn.) 5 y-

The figure shows the columns of epithelium-like cells with intervening vascular septa of which the
parathyroid is composed, in, m, cells undergoing mitotic division.

of the thyroid are derived (de Meuron, see Vcl. I., Part 1, p. Ill), whereas the
main part of the thymus and the carotid gland are derived from the third cleft.



RECENT LITERATURE OF THE THYROID AND PARATHYROIDS.

Andersson, O., Die Nerven der Schilddrusc, Biol. Foreningens Fb'rhandl., Stockholm, Bel. iv.,
1891-92 ; Zur Kcnntniss d. Morph. d. Schilddriise, Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol., Anat. Abth., 1894.

Baber, E. Cresswell, Researches on the minute structure of the thyroid gland, Phil. Trans.,
1881.

Berkeley, H. J., The intrinsic nerves of the tki/roid gland in the dog, Johns Hopkins Hosp.
Rep., vol. v., 1894.

Berry, J., Suspensory ligaments of the thyroid gland, Proceed, of the Anatom. Soc. of Gt.
Britain, 1887.

Biondi, Bcitraa zur Histologie, Physiologic und Chirurgie der Schilddriise, Verhandl. des
internat. m:dicin. Kongresses zu Berlin. 1890, Bd. iii., Abt. vii. ; Contribute atto studio detta
glandola, tiroide, Comm fatta alia viii adunanza della Soc. Itali. di chir. en Roma, 1892.

Brooks, W. K. , On the origin of the thi/roid gland, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., vol. iv.

Christian!, H. , Remarqucs sur I'anatomie tt la physiologic des glandex et glandule* thyro'i-
diennes chez le rat, Arch, de Physiol., t. v., 1893; DCS glandules thy roidicnnes chez la sour is et le
campagnol, Ibid.



316 THE DUCTLESS GLANDS.

Crisafulli, E., Nervi della glandola tiroide, Bulletino mens. della acad. di scienz. nat. in Catania,
1892.

Edmunds, W. , Experiments on the thyroid and parathyroid glands, Proc. Physiol. Soc., Journ.
of Physiol., vol. xviii. , 1895.

Freund, Die Beziehung der Schilddruse zu den wciblichen Geschlectorganen, Deut. Zeitsch. f.
Chirurgie, 1883.

Gaudier, Henri Joseph, Anatomic de la glande thyroide, Lille, 1891, These.
Gley, E., Glande et glandules thyroldcs du ehien, C. r. d. la soc. de biolog., t. v., 1893.
Gley, E. , et Phisalix. C., Sur la nature des glandules thyro'idiennes du chien, C. r. soc. de
biolog., t. v., 1893 ; Sur la fonction des glandules thyroldcs, Atti de' XI congresso medico internat. ,
Roma, 1894, vol. ii.

His, Wilhelm, Der Tractus thyreoglossus und seine Beziehungen zum Zungenbein, Archiv f.
Anat. u. Physiol., Anatom. Abt. , Jahrg. 1891.

Horsley, V. , Die Function der Schilddruse, Festchrift R. Virchow gewidmet, Bd. i. , 1891.
Hilrthle, K. , Beitrdge zur Kenntniss des Secretions corganges in der Schilddriise, Arch. f. d.
ges. Phys., Bd. Ivi., 1894.

Kadyi, Ueber access. Schilddrusenltippchen in der Znngenbeingegend (Glandula praekyoides et
suprahy aides), Archiv f. Anat. u. Physiol., Anat. Abth., 1879.

Kanthack, A. A., The Thyreo-glossal Duct, Journ. of Anat. and Physiol., vol. xxv., 1891.
Kohn, A., Studien ii. d. Schilddruse, Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. xliv., 1895.
Langendorflf, O., Aeltere und neuere Ansichten iiber die Schilddriisen, liiologisches Centralblatt,
ix., 1889 ; Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der Schilddruse, Archiv f. Anat. u. Physiol., Physiolog. Abt ,
Jahrg., 1889.

landemann, W., Zur Frage iiber die Innovation der Schilddruse, Vorlaufige Mitteil. , Centralbl.
f. allgemeine Pathol. und patholog. Anat., Bd. ii., 1891.

Lustig 1 , Alessandro. Contribution a la connaisaance de I'histogenese de la glande thyreoide,
Archives italienues de biologic, tome xv., 1891.

Madelung 1 , Anatomisches u. chirurgisches ii, d. Gland, thyroid, access., Arch. f. klin. Chirurg.,
xxiv., 1879.

Marshall, C. F., Thyreo-glossal duct or canal of His, The Journ. of Anat. and Physiol.,
vol. xxvi., 1891 ; Variations in the form of the thyroid gland in man, Journ. Anat. and Phy.s.
vol. xxix., Jan., 1895.

Mayer, Sigrmund, Zur Lehre von der Schilddruse und Thymus bei den Amphibien, Anatom.
Anzeiger, Jahrg. iii., 1888.

Mertens, F. , Zur Kenntniss der Schilddruse, Diss., Gottingen, 1891.

Podack, M. , Beitrag zur Histologie und Function der Schilddruse, Inaug. Dissert., Kbnigsber^
i. Pr., 1893.

Prenant, A., Contribution d Fe'tude du de'veloppement organique et histologique du thymus, de la
glande thyroide et de la glande carotidienne, La Cellule, t. x., 1894.

Kibbert, Ueber die Regeneration des Schilddriisengewebes, Virchow's Archiv f. path. Anat., Bd.
cxvii., 1889.

Riviere, A., Contribution d I' etude anatomique du corps thyro'ide et des goitres, These, Lyon,
1893.

Sacerdotti, S-ui nervi delta tiroide, Atti d. r. Accad. d. sc. d. Torino, xxix, 1893.
Sandstrom, I., Om en ny Kortel has menniskan och dtskilliga dagydjur, Upsala, Lakarefb'r.
Forhandl., 1880 (Abstr. in Schmidt's Jahresb., 1880).

Schonemann, Hypophysis und Thyroidca, Virch. Arch. f. path. Anat., 1892.
Sebileau, Le capsule et les ligaments du corps thyroide, Bull. soc. anat. , Paris, 1888.
Staelin, A., Zur Kasuistik der accessorischen Schilddruse, Jahib. d. Hamburger Staats-
krankenanstalten, iii, 1891-92.

Streckeisen, Beitrdge zur Morphologic der Schilddruse, Virch. Arch. f. path. Anat., 1886.
Waldeyer, Beitrclge zur Anatomic der Schilddruse, Deutsche Medizinal-Zeitung, Jahrg. viii.
"Weibgen, K., Zur Morphologic der Schilddruse des Menschen, Munchen, 1891.
White, W. Hale. On the naked-eye and microscopical variations of the human thyroid body,
Proceed, of the Roy. Med. and Chirurg. Soc. of London, 1888.

Wolf, Rudolf, Ein Fall von accessorischen Schilddriisen, Archiv fur klinische Chirurgie.,
Bd. xxxv., 1889.

Wyss, H. v., Ueber die Bedcutung der Schilddruse, Correspondenzblatt fiir Schweizer Aerzte,
1889.

Zielinska, Marie, Beitriige zur Kenntniss der normahn und strumosen Schilddrilsi. des
Mtnschen und des Hundes, Arch. f. path. Anat., Bd. cxxxvi., 1894.



THE CAEOTID GLAND.



317



THE CAROTID AND COCCYGEAL GLANDS.

The carotid glands (gUmdulm caroticai) are small bodies situated just above
the bifurcation of the common carotid artery on each side, and between its internal




Fig. 327. SECTION NEAR THE BIFURCATION OF THE COMMON CAROTID ARTERY, PASSING THROUGH THK

CAROTID GLAND. (Marchand.) Somewhat magnified.

ci, ce, internal and external carotid arteries cut across; gl. c, carotid gland ; y, blood-vessels;
i, interstitial connective tissue of gland ; I, glandular lobules or nodules.

Fig. 323. SECTION OP PART OP THE CAROTID GLAND, HUMAN, SHOWING THE EPITHELIUM-LIKE CKLLS

OP WHICH THE GLANDULAR NODULES ARE COMPOSED. (Schaper. ) Highly magnified.
Numerous blood-vessels are seen in section among the gland-cells.




Fig. 329. DIAGRAMMATIC VIEW OF THE DISPOSITION OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS IN A NODULE OF THE

CAROTID GLAND. (Schaper. )

a, arteriole entering nodule ; v", veins leaving nodule ; v', veins in connective tissue around nodule ;
t, enlarged capillary within nodule ; b, epithelium-like cells of the gland ; c, c, boundary of nodule
abutting upon lymph -spaces ; d, interstitial connective tissue of gland.



318



THE DUCTLESS GLANDS.



i



and external branches. They are enveloped in connective tissue which also passes
into their substance, subdividing them into small nodules. Each nodule is com-
posed of a mass of polyhedral epithelium-like cells, amongst which are distributed
numerous wide and tortuously-disposed blood-capillaries, the cells being in close
contiguity to the walls of the capillaries. These small organs somewhat resemble in
minute structure the parathyroids just described ; they are also similar in character
to the vascular islets of the pancreas. Their origin is very similar to that of the
parathyroid bodies, except that they are developed from the third inner branchial
cleft, whereas, as already mentioned, the parathyroids take origin from the fourth
cleft. The physiological relations of these bodies are unascertained.

The coccygeal gland (glandula coccygea, Luschka), is a small organ at most
2 '5 mm. in diameter, sometimes broken up into 3 to 6 smaller corpuscles, placed

Fig. 330. SECTION OP AN IR-

KEGULAR NODULK OF THE
COCCYGEAL GLAND. (Set-

toli.) -

The section shows the fibrous
covering of the nodule, ths
blood-vessels within it and the
polyhedral cells of which it is
constituted.

immediately in front of
the apex of the coccyx
and receiving branches of
the middle sacral artery.
It resembles very closely
in minute structure the
carotid glands, being com-
posed of masses and
columnsof polygonal cells,

amongst which Eberth has noticed nests of cells similar to the concentric corpuscles
of the thymus. The gland-cells closely invest the blood capillaries, which are
numerous and tortuous, and here and there show dilatations upon their course. The
gland is subdivided into nodular portions by ingrowths of the investing connective
tissue which conducts numerous nerves to the glandular part of the organ. Luschka
described the gland as rich in ganglion-cells and compared it in this respect with
the? pituitary body, but this has not been confirmed by later observers. The mode
of development and the function of this body are not known.

LITERATURE OF THE CAROTID AND COCCYaEAL GLANDS.

Arnold, J., Uebcr d. Structur dtr Steisadrusen, Arch..f. path. Anat. xxxii., 1865, xxxv., 1866,
xxxvii., 1867 ; Ueber d. Structur d. yangl. intercar.. Arch. f. path. Anat., xxxiii., 1865.

Eberth, In Strieker's Hand-bach der Geicebelehre, Bd. L, pp. 209 213.

Heppner, Uebcr d. feineren Bau der Glandula carotica, Arch. f. path. Anat., xlvi., 1869.



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