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Second molars . . . . . . ' . 20 to 24 months.

Development of the permanent Teeth. Ten permanent teeth in each jaw



TEETH. (After Blake, with some additions. )

The lower parts of the first three figures, which are somewhat enlarged, represent sections of the
lower jaw through the alveolus of a temporary incisor tooth : a, indicates the sac of the permanent
tooth ; c, its pedicle ; b, the sac of the milk tooth or the milk tooth itself ; a', b', indicate the bony
recesses in which the permanent and temporary teeth are lodged, and c', the canal by which that of the
former leads to the surface of the bone behind the alveolus of the temporary tooth. The fourth and fifth
figures, which are nearly of the natural size, show the same relations in a more advanced stage, in IV.,
previous to the change of teeth, in V., when the milk-tooth has fallen out and the permanent tooth
begins to rise in the jaw ; c, the orifice of the bony canal leading to the place of the permanent tooth.

succeed the milk-teeth, and six are superadded further back in the jaw. It will be
convenient to treat first of the ten anterior teeth or teeth of succession.

The sacs and pulps of these teeth have their foundations laid before birth in
the way already described. It will be remembered that behind and lateral to each
milk-follicle there is found about the sixteenth week a thickening of the common
dental lamina (pp. 40, 41, and fig. 64, E.L.\ and this forms the enamel-germ of the
corresponding permanent tooth. They are ten in number in each jaw, and are
formed successively from before backwards. These germs soon elongate and recede
into the substance of the gam behind the germs of the milk-teeth. In the mean-
time, a papilla is formed at the bottom of each enamel germ (that for the central
incisor appearing first) and the germs become each enclosed within a dental sac, the
sac of the permanent tooth adhering to the back of that for the temporary tooth.

VOL. III., PT. 4. E



The bone of the jaw not only forms a cell for the reception of the milk sac,
but ultimately also a small posterior recess or niche for the permanent tooth-sac, with
which the recess keeps pace in its growth. In the lower jaw, to which our descrip-
tion may now, for convenience, be confined, the permanent sac is at length found at
some distance below and behind the milk-tooth ; the sac for the permanent tooth
acquiring at first a pear-shape, and being then connected with the gum by a solid
pedicle of fibrous tissue (fig. 72, I., II., c). The recess in the jaw (a') has a similar
form, drawn out into a long canal for the pedicle, which opens on the edge of the
jaw, by an aperture behind the corresponding milk-tooth. The permanent tooth is
thus separated from the socket of the milk-tooth by a bony partition, which, as well
as the root of the milk-tooth just above it, becomes absorbed as the crown of the
permanent tooth rises through the gum. When this has proceeded far enough, the
milk-tooth becomes loosened, falls out or is removed, and the permanent tooth takes



The specimen contains all the milk-teeth of the right side, together with the incisors of the left ;
the inner plate of the jaw has been removed, so as to expose the sacs of all the permanent teeth of the
right side, except the eighth or wisdom-tooth, which is not yet formed. The large sac near the ram us
of the jaw is that of the first permanent molar, and above and behind it is the commencing rudiment of
the second molar.

its place. The absorption of the dental substance commences at or near the ends of
the fangs, and proceeds upwards until nothing but the crown remains. The cement
is first attacked, and then the dentine ; but the process is similar in the two tissues.
The change is not produced merely by pressure, but, as in the case of the absorption
of bone, through the agency of multi-nucleated absorbing cells or osteoclasts,
developed at the time, and applied to the surface of the fang. The sockets begin to
be formed around the neck of the tooth as soon as the crown projects, and are formed
simultaneously with the developing fangs.

The six posterior (or superadded} permanent teeth, that is, the three permanent
molars on each side, do not come in the place of other teeth. They arise from
successive extensions of the common dental lamina carried backwards in the jaw
behind the milk-teeth.

The part of the common lamina posterior to the last temporary molar long
continues unobliterated, and from it there becomes developed at about the seven-
teenth week of embryonic life a special enamel germ which forms the rudiment of
the first permanent molar tooth (fig. 57, 4, m 1 ). After a long interval, viz., about the
fourth month after birth, the germ for the second permanent molar tooth appears
in the dental lamina, which is now projecting backwards from the neck of that for
the first molar. After another long interval, during which the sac of the first
permanent molar and its contained tooth have acquired great size, and that of the


second molar has also advanced considerably in development, the same changes once
more occur and give rise to the sac and papilla of the wisdom-tooth -(third year).
The subsequent development of the permanent molar teeth takes place within their
sacs just like that of the other teeth. In exceptional instances, a fourth molar may
be formed in like manner in a further backward extension of the dental lamina.

After all the teeth of the second dentition are thus formed, the dental lamina
generally ceases to form more special enamel germs and gradually atrophies in the
manner already described. But in rare instances a third series of germs make their
appearance postero-lateral to the teeth of the second dentition, and a third complete
series of teeth may result therefrom.

Calcification begins first in the anterior permanent molar teeth. Its order and



(Rauber. )

periods may be thus stated : First molar, one cusp shows calcification at birth, the
rest soon after birth ; central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine, about six months
after birth, the central incisors first, the canines last ; bicuspids, two years or more ;
second molar, two years ; third molar, or wisdom-tooth, about twelve years.

Eruption of the permanent Teeth. The time at which this occurs in
regard to each pair of teeth in the lower jaw is exhibited in the subjoined table.
The corresponding teeth of the upper jaw appear somewhat later :

Molar, first 6 years.

Incisors, central . . . . . 7 .,

lateral ..... 8

Bicuspids, anterior j

posterior . . . . . 10 ,,

Canines 11 to 12

Molars, second . . . . 12 to 13

third (or wisdom) . . . 17 to 25

It is just before the shedding of the temporary incisors i.e., about the sixth

K 2


year, that there is the greatest number of teeth in the jaws. At that period there
are all the milk-teeth, and the crowns of all the permanent set except the wisdom-
teeth, making forty-eight (see fig. 75).

During the growth of the teeth the jaw increases in depth and length, and
undergoes changes in form. In the child it is shallow, but it becomes much deeper
in the adult. In the young subject the alveolar arch describes almost the
segment of a circle ; but in the adult the curve is semi-elliptical. The increase
which takes place in the length of the jaw arises from a growth behind the
position of the milk-teeth, so as to provide room for the three additional

EXPOSED. (After Henle, and modified from nature, A. T. )

The whole of the teeth of the right side are shown, together with the three front teeth of the left
side : in the upper and lower jaws the teeth are indicated as follows : 1, milk-teeth i, inner or first
incisor ; z', outer or second incisor ; c, canine ; m, first molar ; m', second molar. 2, permanent-trcth
I, inner or first incisor ; I', outer or second incisor ; C, canine ; B, first bicuspid ; B', second bicuspid ;
M 1 , the first molar, which has passed through the gums ; M 2 , the second molar, which has not yet risen
above the gums ; the third molar is not yet formed.

teeth on each side belonging to the permanent set. At certain periods in
the growth of the jaws there is not sufficient room in the alveolar arch for the
growing sacs of the permanent molars ; and hence the latter are found enclosed in
the base of the coronoid process of the lower jaw, and in the maxillary tuberosity of
the upper jaw, but they afterwards successively assume their ultimate position as the
bone increases in length. The space taken up by the ten anterior permanent teeth
very nearly corresponds with that which had been occupied by the ten milk-teeth ;
the difference in width between the incisors of the two sets being compensated for
by the smallness of the bicuspids in comparison with the milk-molars to which they
succeed. Lastly, the angle formed by the ramus and body of the lower jaw differs
at different ages ; thus it is obtuse in the infant, approaches nearer to a right
angle in the adult, and again becomes somewhat obtuse in old age (see Vol. IL,
p. 78).


Historical. The first complete account of the development of the teeth was given by
Goodsir (Edin. Med.'and Surg. Journal, 1838), who described the formation of a gxoo_ye in the
mucous membrane of the jaw, the formation of special depressions in this groove corresponding
to the milk-teeth, the appearance of papillae within these, the enclosure of the papillae within
follicles covered by membrane, and finally the time and mode of eruption of the several

Goodsir's results, which, so far as they went, were fairly accurate, were obtained from
specimens which had been badly preserved, and in which the epithelium, which is now
regarded as the important element in tooth formation, had become detached in consequence of

The views of Goodsir prevailed until 1863, when Kolliker (Gewebelehre) clearly showed the
important part taken by the involution of the Malpighian layer of the epithelium of the jaw
in the formation both of the common and of the special enamel germs. (This had been already
pointed out by Marcusen (Bull, de 1'Acad. de Petersbourg, 1849) and by Huxley (in fishes and
reptiles, Quar. Jour, of Micr. Sci., 1853), but was nevertheless not generally accepted.) Kolliker's
results were confirmed and extended by the work of Waldeyer, Kollmann, Magitot, C. S. Tomes,
and others. Baume first pointed out the independent origin of the teeth of succession from the
common dental lamina ; previous observers had followed Kolliker (and G-oodsir) in ascribing the
origin of their germs to the special germs of the milk-teeth. Pouchet and Chabry were the first
to describe the common origin of the labio-dental furrow and the common dental lamina.
Finally, the most important details regarding the origin of the human teeth are to be met
with in the works of Magitot and Legros and of Rose. Rose's account is based upon
sections of the jaw of embryos of various ages, from which he has constructed models shewing
several stages of development in a strikingly objective form ; figures of some of these models
have here been reproduced.


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