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Second molars . . . . . . ' . 20 to 24 months.

Development of the permanent Teeth. Ten permanent teeth in each jaw




II.



III.



Fig. 72. SKETCHES SHOWING THE RELATIONS OF THE TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT DENTAL SACS AND
TEETH. (After Blake, with some additions. )

The lower parts of the first three figures, which are somewhat enlarged, represent sections of the
lower jaw through the alveolus of a temporary incisor tooth : a, indicates the sac of the permanent
tooth ; c, its pedicle ; b, the sac of the milk tooth or the milk tooth itself ; a', b', indicate the bony
recesses in which the permanent and temporary teeth are lodged, and c', the canal by which that of the
former leads to the surface of the bone behind the alveolus of the temporary tooth. The fourth and fifth
figures, which are nearly of the natural size, show the same relations in a more advanced stage, in IV.,
previous to the change of teeth, in V., when the milk-tooth has fallen out and the permanent tooth
begins to rise in the jaw ; c, the orifice of the bony canal leading to the place of the permanent tooth.

succeed the milk-teeth, and six are superadded further back in the jaw. It will be
convenient to treat first of the ten anterior teeth or teeth of succession.

The sacs and pulps of these teeth have their foundations laid before birth in
the way already described. It will be remembered that behind and lateral to each
milk-follicle there is found about the sixteenth week a thickening of the common
dental lamina (pp. 40, 41, and fig. 64, E.L.\ and this forms the enamel-germ of the
corresponding permanent tooth. They are ten in number in each jaw, and are
formed successively from before backwards. These germs soon elongate and recede
into the substance of the gam behind the germs of the milk-teeth. In the mean-
time, a papilla is formed at the bottom of each enamel germ (that for the central
incisor appearing first) and the germs become each enclosed within a dental sac, the
sac of the permanent tooth adhering to the back of that for the temporary tooth.

VOL. III., PT. 4. E



50



OJBGANS OF DIGESTIOX.



The bone of the jaw not only forms a cell for the reception of the milk sac,
but ultimately also a small posterior recess or niche for the permanent tooth-sac, with
which the recess keeps pace in its growth. In the lower jaw, to which our descrip-
tion may now, for convenience, be confined, the permanent sac is at length found at
some distance below and behind the milk-tooth ; the sac for the permanent tooth
acquiring at first a pear-shape, and being then connected with the gum by a solid
pedicle of fibrous tissue (fig. 72, I., II., c). The recess in the jaw (a') has a similar
form, drawn out into a long canal for the pedicle, which opens on the edge of the
jaw, by an aperture behind the corresponding milk-tooth. The permanent tooth is
thus separated from the socket of the milk-tooth by a bony partition, which, as well
as the root of the milk-tooth just above it, becomes absorbed as the crown of the
permanent tooth rises through the gum. When this has proceeded far enough, the
milk-tooth becomes loosened, falls out or is removed, and the permanent tooth takes




Fig. 73. PART OP THE LOWER JAW OF A CHILI> OF THREE OR FOUR YEARS OLD, SHOWING THK

RELATIONS OF THE TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT TEETH.

The specimen contains all the milk-teeth of the right side, together with the incisors of the left ;
the inner plate of the jaw has been removed, so as to expose the sacs of all the permanent teeth of the
right side, except the eighth or wisdom-tooth, which is not yet formed. The large sac near the ram us
of the jaw is that of the first permanent molar, and above and behind it is the commencing rudiment of
the second molar.

its place. The absorption of the dental substance commences at or near the ends of
the fangs, and proceeds upwards until nothing but the crown remains. The cement
is first attacked, and then the dentine ; but the process is similar in the two tissues.
The change is not produced merely by pressure, but, as in the case of the absorption
of bone, through the agency of multi-nucleated absorbing cells or osteoclasts,
developed at the time, and applied to the surface of the fang. The sockets begin to
be formed around the neck of the tooth as soon as the crown projects, and are formed
simultaneously with the developing fangs.

The six posterior (or superadded} permanent teeth, that is, the three permanent
molars on each side, do not come in the place of other teeth. They arise from
successive extensions of the common dental lamina carried backwards in the jaw
behind the milk-teeth.

The part of the common lamina posterior to the last temporary molar long
continues unobliterated, and from it there becomes developed at about the seven-
teenth week of embryonic life a special enamel germ which forms the rudiment of
the first permanent molar tooth (fig. 57, 4, m 1 ). After a long interval, viz., about the
fourth month after birth, the germ for the second permanent molar tooth appears
in the dental lamina, which is now projecting backwards from the neck of that for
the first molar. After another long interval, during which the sac of the first
permanent molar and its contained tooth have acquired great size, and that of the



THE TEETH. 51

second molar has also advanced considerably in development, the same changes once
more occur and give rise to the sac and papilla of the wisdom-tooth -(third year).
The subsequent development of the permanent molar teeth takes place within their
sacs just like that of the other teeth. In exceptional instances, a fourth molar may
be formed in like manner in a further backward extension of the dental lamina.

After all the teeth of the second dentition are thus formed, the dental lamina
generally ceases to form more special enamel germs and gradually atrophies in the
manner already described. But in rare instances a third series of germs make their
appearance postero-lateral to the teeth of the second dentition, and a third complete
series of teeth may result therefrom.

Calcification begins first in the anterior permanent molar teeth. Its order and




Fig. 74. DIAGRAM FROM WKLCKER, SHOWING ON THE LEFT SIDE THE ORDER, AND ON THE RIGHT

SIDE THE TIME (iN TEARS) OF APPEARANCE OF THE PERMANENT TEETH OF THE UPPEK JAW.

(Rauber. )

periods may be thus stated : First molar, one cusp shows calcification at birth, the
rest soon after birth ; central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine, about six months
after birth, the central incisors first, the canines last ; bicuspids, two years or more ;
second molar, two years ; third molar, or wisdom-tooth, about twelve years.

Eruption of the permanent Teeth. The time at which this occurs in
regard to each pair of teeth in the lower jaw is exhibited in the subjoined table.
The corresponding teeth of the upper jaw appear somewhat later :

Molar, first 6 years.

Incisors, central . . . . . 7 .,

lateral ..... 8

Bicuspids, anterior j

posterior . . . . . 10 ,,

Canines 11 to 12

Molars, second . . . . 12 to 13

third (or wisdom) . . . 17 to 25

It is just before the shedding of the temporary incisors i.e., about the sixth

K 2



02 ORGANS OF DIGESTION.

year, that there is the greatest number of teeth in the jaws. At that period there
are all the milk-teeth, and the crowns of all the permanent set except the wisdom-
teeth, making forty-eight (see fig. 75).

During the growth of the teeth the jaw increases in depth and length, and
undergoes changes in form. In the child it is shallow, but it becomes much deeper
in the adult. In the young subject the alveolar arch describes almost the
segment of a circle ; but in the adult the curve is semi-elliptical. The increase
which takes place in the length of the jaw arises from a growth behind the
position of the milk-teeth, so as to provide room for the three additional




Fig. 75. THE TEETH OF A CHILD OP six YEARS, WITH THE CALCIFIED PARTS OF THE PERMANENT TEETH
EXPOSED. (After Henle, and modified from nature, A. T. )

The whole of the teeth of the right side are shown, together with the three front teeth of the left
side : in the upper and lower jaws the teeth are indicated as follows : 1, milk-teeth i, inner or first
incisor ; z', outer or second incisor ; c, canine ; m, first molar ; m', second molar. 2, permanent-trcth
I, inner or first incisor ; I', outer or second incisor ; C, canine ; B, first bicuspid ; B', second bicuspid ;
M 1 , the first molar, which has passed through the gums ; M 2 , the second molar, which has not yet risen
above the gums ; the third molar is not yet formed.

teeth on each side belonging to the permanent set. At certain periods in
the growth of the jaws there is not sufficient room in the alveolar arch for the
growing sacs of the permanent molars ; and hence the latter are found enclosed in
the base of the coronoid process of the lower jaw, and in the maxillary tuberosity of
the upper jaw, but they afterwards successively assume their ultimate position as the
bone increases in length. The space taken up by the ten anterior permanent teeth
very nearly corresponds with that which had been occupied by the ten milk-teeth ;
the difference in width between the incisors of the two sets being compensated for
by the smallness of the bicuspids in comparison with the milk-molars to which they
succeed. Lastly, the angle formed by the ramus and body of the lower jaw differs
at different ages ; thus it is obtuse in the infant, approaches nearer to a right
angle in the adult, and again becomes somewhat obtuse in old age (see Vol. IL,
p. 78).



THE TEETH 53

Historical. The first complete account of the development of the teeth was given by
Goodsir (Edin. Med.'and Surg. Journal, 1838), who described the formation of a gxoo_ye in the
mucous membrane of the jaw, the formation of special depressions in this groove corresponding
to the milk-teeth, the appearance of papillae within these, the enclosure of the papillae within
follicles covered by membrane, and finally the time and mode of eruption of the several
teeth.

Goodsir's results, which, so far as they went, were fairly accurate, were obtained from
specimens which had been badly preserved, and in which the epithelium, which is now
regarded as the important element in tooth formation, had become detached in consequence of
maceration.

The views of Goodsir prevailed until 1863, when Kolliker (Gewebelehre) clearly showed the
important part taken by the involution of the Malpighian layer of the epithelium of the jaw
in the formation both of the common and of the special enamel germs. (This had been already
pointed out by Marcusen (Bull, de 1'Acad. de Petersbourg, 1849) and by Huxley (in fishes and
reptiles, Quar. Jour, of Micr. Sci., 1853), but was nevertheless not generally accepted.) Kolliker's
results were confirmed and extended by the work of Waldeyer, Kollmann, Magitot, C. S. Tomes,
and others. Baume first pointed out the independent origin of the teeth of succession from the
common dental lamina ; previous observers had followed Kolliker (and G-oodsir) in ascribing the
origin of their germs to the special germs of the milk-teeth. Pouchet and Chabry were the first
to describe the common origin of the labio-dental furrow and the common dental lamina.
Finally, the most important details regarding the origin of the human teeth are to be met
with in the works of Magitot and Legros and of Rose. Rose's account is based upon
sections of the jaw of embryos of various ages, from which he has constructed models shewing
several stages of development in a strikingly objective form ; figures of some of these models
have here been reproduced.



RECENT LITERATURE OP THE TEETH.

d'Ajutolo, Gr., Quinta dentizione in un fanciuUo di dodici anni, Bologna, 1893.

Albrecht, P., Ueb. zweiwurzelige Eck- u. Schneidezahne beim Menschen, Centralbl. f. Chirurgie,
1885 ; Ueb. das sechschneidezdhnige Gebisse beim normalen Menschen, Ibid.

Andrews, R. K., The origin of the dental fibril, New York Medical Record, vol. xxxii, 1887 ; On
the formation and calcification of the enamel, Verhandl. des 10 internat. medicin. Kongresses zu
Berlin, 1890, Bd. v, Abt. 14 ; The formation of enamel,, Internat. Dental Journ. vol. xii, 1891.

Annell, GK, Zur Kenntniss der zahnbildenden Geivebe, Biol. Unters. herausg. von Gr. Retzius, ii
1882.

Azonlay and Kegrnault, Des diverses formes des dents incisives supe'rieurs, Bull. Soc.
d'Anthrop., Paris, 1893.

Balkwill, F. H., Notes on some morphological dental irregularities in some of the skulls of the
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, British Journal of Dental Science, 1891.

Ballowitz, E., Das Schmelzorgan der Edentaten, Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. xv, 1892.

Barillet, A., Des anomalies dentaires de nombre. Union m6d. du Nord-Est, Reims, 1893.

Bateson, "W., On numerical variation in teeth with a discussion of the conception of homoloyy,
Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1892.

Baume, R., Odont. Forschungen, 1 Theil. Vcrsuch einer Entwicklungsgesch. d. Gebisses, Leipzig,
1882.

Beauregard, H., Gonsid. sur I. deux dentitions d. mammif., C. r. d. 1. soc. biol., 18.85.

Berten, Ueb. Anomalien der Zahnstellung, Phys. med. Gcesellsch. zu Wiirzburg, 1893.

Betty, E. Gr., A critical examination of the teeth of several races, including one hundred and
fifty moundbuilders, &c., Dental Review, Chicago, 1 890.

Black, G-. V., The Periosteum and Peridental Membranes, Dental Review, Chicago, vol. i, 1886.

Bourgois, L. F. , Etude anatomique et patholoyique sur le sinus maxillaire dans les rapports
avec les dents, Lille, 1886.

Brownlie, J. R., On certain mummy teeth, Journal of the British Dental Association, 1886.

von Brunn, A. Ueber die Ausdehnung des Schmelzorganes und seine Bedeutung fur die Zahn-
bildung, Archiv f. mikroskop. Anatomic, Bd. xxix, 1887 ; Ueber Membrana prceformativa und
Cuticula dentis, Anatom. Anzeiger, Jahrg. iii, 1888 ; Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Zahnentwickeltmg,
Archiv f. mikroskop. Anat., Bel. xxxviii, 1891.

Busch, Die Ucberzahl und Unterzahl in den Zahnen des menschlichen Gebisses mit EinscMuss
der sogenannten Dentitio tertia, Deutsche Monatsschrift fur Zahnheilkunde, 1887 ; Ueber die Deuttmg
des Milchgcbisses, Verhandl. d. deutsch. odont. Gesell., Bd. iv, 1892; Ueber Verschmdzung und
Verwachsung der Zdhne des Milchgebisses und des bleibenden Gebisses, Vhldgn, d. deutsch. odontol.
Gesellsch., Bd. v, 1893.

Canalis, Pietro, Sullo sviluppo dei denti nei mammiferi, Anatom. Anzeiger, Jahrg. i, 1886.

Cleland, J., The relation of incisors to compound teeth, British Medical Journal, 1893;, On the
devcl. of the molar teeth of the elephant, with remarks on the dental series, British Assoc. Reports
1893.



54 ORGANS OF DIGESTION.

Cope, E. D., On the tritubercular molar in human dentition, Journal of Morphology, iii, 1889 ; The
mechanical causes of the development of the hard parts of the mammalia, Journ. of Morph., iii, 1889.

Debierre, Ch. et Pravaz, J., Contributions a Vodontogenie, Archives de physiologic, 1886.

Dieblein, W., Ueber Zahnwechsel, <kc., Anat. Anzeiger, Bd. x, 1895.

Dunogier, Double het6rotopie de la dent de sagesse, Soc. de med. et de chir. de Bordeaux, 1893.

von Ebner, V., Histologie der Zahne mit Einschluss dcr Uistogenese, aus Scheff, Handb. der
Zahnheilk., Wien, 1890 ; Strittige Fragen iiber den Ban des Zahnschmelzes, Sitzungsberichte d. kaiserl.
Akad. d. Wissensch, zu Wien, 1890.

Edwards, H. H. , The missing incisors in man, Journ. Brit. Dent. Assoc., vi, 1885.

Ellenberger und Baum, Em Beitrag zu dem Kapitel : Zahnretentionen und Zahnrudimente,
Archiv f. Anat. u. Physiol., Anatom. Abt., Jahrg. 1892.

Fauton Touvet, R. , Considerations sur les anomalies des dents humaines, Paris, 1882.

Feuchel, Odontologische Schddelmessungen, Deutsche Monatsschr. f. Zahnheilkunde, 1893.

Fleischmann, A., Die Grundform der Backzdhne bei Sdugetiercn und die Homologie der
einzelnen Hdcker, Sitzungsb. der kgl. preuss. Akad. der Wissensch, 1891, Nos. 39 and 40.

Flesch, M., Bin Fall angeborener Zahnbildung, Auatom. Anz. , viii, 1892.

Flower, W. H., On the development and succession of the teeth in the Marsupiala, Phil. Trans.
1867 ; Remarks on the homologies and notation of the teeth of the mammalia, Journ. of Anat. and
Phys., vol. iii, 1869 ; On the size of the teeth as a character of race, Journal of the Anthropological
Institute, vol. xiv, Nov., 1884.

Freund, Paul, Beitriiye zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Zahnanlagen bei Nagethieren, Archiv f.
mikroskop. Anat., Bd. xxxix, 1892.

Giuria, P. M. , Formazione gemellata bilaterale dei denti incisivi superiori medii, Boll, accad.
med., Geneva, 1893.

Grasset, Louis, Pecherches sur la distribution mathematique des prismes de I'cmail dentaire,
Intern. Monatsschr. f. Anat. und Physiol., Bd. viii, 1891.

Grosscourth, Ein uberzdhliger Zahn, Deutsche Monatsschr. f. Zahnheilkunde, 1890.

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Zeitung, 1894.

Hancock, J. L., The tendency of the root of the lower canine teeth of man toward bifurcation
North American Practitioner, Chicago, 1890.

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und Ausstossen der zweiten Molaris durch Weisheitszahn ; und Milchzahnanomalie, weitcre Beobach-
tuns/en, <kc., Deutsche Monatsschr. f. Zahnheilk.. 1893.

Hertwig, O., Ueber d. Bau u. d. Entwickl. d. Placoidschuppen u. d. Zahne d. Selachitr,
Jena Zeitschr. , Bd. viii, 1874 ; Ueber d. Zahnsystemd. Amphibien, Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. xi, 1874.

Hesse, Zur Topographic des Gebisses, Deutsche Monatsschr. f. Zahnheilkunde, 1890.

Hollander, Dcmonstraticn einiger pathologischer Kieferprdparate und einiger Zahnanomalien,
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Munchener Sitzungsber. , 1891.

Kaftan, F., Stellungsanomalien permanenter Zahne, Die zahntechnische Reform, xii, 1892.

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Kiikenthal, Willy, Einige Bemerkunyen iiber die Sdugetierbezdhnung, Anatom. Anz., Jahrg. vi,
1891 ; The dentition of Didelphys, a Contribution to the Embryology of the dentition of Marsupials,
Observations on the dentition of Mammals (translated from the Anatom. Anz. ), Annals and Magazine
of Natural History, vol. ix, 1892 ; Ueber den Ursprung und die Entwickclung der Saugetierzahna,
Jenaische Zeitschr. f. Naturwissenschaft, Bd. xxvi, 1892.

Lataste, Fernand, Des deux dentitions, de lait ou permanente, des mammiferes, quelle est la
dentition primitive, Coinptes rendus de la societe de Biol . , serie ix, t. v.

Latham, V. A., Histology of the teeth; notes on methods of preparation, Journ. of Micr. and
Nattir. Sci. , new series, vol. ii, 1889.

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Jahrb., Bd. xix, 1892, and Bd. xx, 1893.

Lepkowski, "W., Beitrag zur Histologie des Dentins mit Angabe ciner neuen Methode, Anatom.
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Liippschitz, Eine seltene Zahnanomalie, Deutsche Monatsschr. f. Zahnheilk., xi, 1893.

Livi, Kidolfo, Note on the development of wisdom teeth, Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1889; Sur le devcl.
de la dent de la sagesse, Arch. ital. de biol., t. xxi, 1894.

Livy, J., On the periods of eruption of the permanent teeth as a test for age, British Medical
Journal, August, 1885.

Magritot, E., TraiU des anomalies du systtmc dentaire, Paris, 1877 ; Des lois de la dentition,
Journ. de 1'anat., 1883 ; Sur les deux dentitions des mammiferes, C. r. d. 1. soc. biol., 1888.

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These, Paris, 1893.

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Bd. xvi, 1890.

Marchand, Schaedel mit uberzahligem Schneidezahn am Boden der Nasenoffnung, Anatomischer
Anzeiger, 1888.

Monteguzza, P., II terzo molarc nelle razze umane, Rendicont. Instit. Lombard., 2 ser., torn, xi ;
alsoinZool. Anz., 1880.



THE TEETH. 55

Montigel, Ucb. zwei Fdlle von seltener Dentitionsanomalie (dritte Dentition), Deutsche Monats-
schrit't f. Zabnheilkunde, 1888.

Morg-enstern, Mich., Untersuchungen uber den Ursprung der bleibenden Zahne, Leipzig, 1886 ;
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1892. '

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type, American Naturalist, vol. xxii ; The history and homologies of the human molar cusps, Anatom.
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Parreidt, J., Die Breite der oberen centralen Schneidezahne beim mdnnlichen und weiblichen
Geschlecht, Deutsche Monatsschr. f. Zalmheilkumle, 1884 ; Ueb. d. Bezahnung bei Menschen rn.it
abnormer Behaarung, Deutsche Monatsschr. f. Zahnheilkunde, 1886 ; Mahlzdhne an Stelle der
zweiten Praemolaren, Deutsche Monatsschr. f. Zahnheilk., 1894.

Paul, F. T., Nasmyth's membrane, Brit. Journ. of Dental Science, 1894.

Preiswerk, GK, Vorlauf. Mitteilung u. d. Unters. d. Zahnschmclzes der Sdugetiere, Anat.
Anzeiger, Bd. ix, 1894.

Quilford, S. H. , Eine Zahnanomalie, Wien. med. Wochenschr., 1883. (Absence of teeth.)
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tions dentaires chez le singe, C. rendus d. 1. soc. de biologic, 1893 ; Variations dans la forme des dents
suivant les races humaines, Ibid., and in Bull. Soc. d'anthropologie de Paris, 1894.

Retzius, Q-., Ueber die Nervenendigungen in den Zahnen, Biol. Untersuch., Ser. II, Bd. v, 1893,
and Bd. vi, 1895.

Robertson, W. G. Aitchison, On the relation of nerves to odontoblasts and on the growth of
dentine, Tr. R. Soc. of Edinburgh, vol. xxxvi.

Roetter. F. , Ueber Entwickelung und Wachstum der Schneidezahne bei Mus musculus, Mor-
pholog. Jahrb., Bd. xv, 1889.

Rose, Ueber die Entivickelung des menschlichen Gcbisses, Verhandl. der deutschen odontologischen
Gesellschaft, Bd. iii, 1891 ; Ueber die Entwickelung der Zahne des Menschen, Archiv f. mikroskop.
Anat., Bd. xxxviii, 1891 ; Ueber das menschliche Gebiss, Verhandl. der Anat. Gresellsch. auf der 5
Versamml., 1891 ; Ueber die Entstehung und Formabanderungen der menschlichen Molaren, Anat. Anz.,
Jahrg. vii, 1892; Ueber die Zahncntwickelung der Beutcltiere, Anat. Anz., Jahrg. vii, 1892; Ueber
rudimentdre Zahnanlagen der Gattung Manis, Anat. Anz., Jahrg. vii, 1892 ; Beitrdge zur Zahnent-
wickelung der Edentaten, Anat. Anz., Jahrg. vii, 1892 ; Ueber die v. Koctische Versteinerungsmcthode,
Anat. Anz., Bd. vii, 1892 ; Ueber die ZahnleisteunddieEischwicle der Sauropsiden, Anat. Anz., Jahrg.
vii, 1892 ; Ueber die erstc Anlage der Zahnleiste beim Menschen, Anat. Anz., Jahrg. viii, 1892 ; Ueber
die Verwachsuny von retinirten Zahnen mit dem Kieferknochen, Anat. Anz., Jahrg. viii, 1892 ; Ueber
die Zahnentwickelung von Chamcdeon, Anat. Anz., Jahrg. viii, 1892 ; Zur Histologie der Zahnpulpa,
Deutsche Monatsschrift f . Zahnheilkunde, Jahrg. x, 1892 ; Ueber die Nervenendigungen in den Zahnen,
Deutsche Monatsschrift fur Zahnheilkunde, Jg. xi, 1 893 ; Ueber die Nicht-Existenz der sogenannten
Weil'schen BasalschicJit der Odontoblasten, Anat. Anz., Jg. viii, 1893 ; Ueber den Zahnbau und Zahn-
icechsel von Elephas indicus, Morphol. Arbeiten, Bd. iii, 1893 ; Ueber die Zahnentwickelung der
Crocodile, Morphol. Arbeiten, Bd. iii, 1893 ; Contributions to the hiitogeny and histology of bones and
dental tissues, translated by Hanitsch, Dental Cosmos, Philadelphia, vol. xxxv, 1893 ; Ueb. die
schmelzlosen Zahnrudimente des Menschen, Verhandlg. d. deutsch. odontol. Gesellsch. , iv, 1893 ;
Ue. d. Zahnentwickl. der Fische, Anat. Anzeiger, Bd. ix, 1894 ; Ueber die Zahnentwickelung der
Kreazotter, Vipera berus, L., Anat. Anzeiger, Bd. ix, 1894.



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