Joseph Barbow.

Barbow's booklet on tree scale and section diagram : useful to timber estimators, timber owners, and compass men online

. (page 2 of 3)
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17



First Column Number of 16 feet logs in the tree

Second Column Diameter of tree, in bold

face figures, at mean height, with reading

of Folding Scale in inches, and hundredths



1 2



3



3



1


Dia


1


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1


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18



underneath it.

Third Column Number of feet B. M. in the
tree, with number of logs per M., given
in logs and hundredths, underneath it.



1 2



3



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2



3



tn
3


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1


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19



First Column Number of 16 feet logs in the tree

Second Column Diameter of tree, in bold

face figures, at mean height, with reading

of Folding Scale in inches, and huridredths



1 2



3 2



3 2



1


Dia


1


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1


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7
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.20




.20


.19


20



underneath it.

Third Column Number of feet B. M. in the
tree, with number of logs per M., given
in logs and hundredths, underneath it.



1 2



3 2



3



3



2



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1


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1


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.19




.18




.18




.18



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.17




.17




.16




.16



21



First Column Number of 16 feet logs in the tree

Second Column Diameter of tree, in bold

face figures, at mean height, with reading

of Folding Scale in inches, and hundredths



1 2



3



3



3



1


Dia


I


Dia


1


Dia


i


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1


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91


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.16




.15




.15




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96





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.14




.14




.14




.14



22



underneath it.

Third Column Number of feet B. M. in the
tree with number of logs per M., given in
logs and hundredths, underneath it.



3



2



3



3



1


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99


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3


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4


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5


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6


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7
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3


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4


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.13




.12




.12



23



First Column Number of 16 feet logs in the tree

Second Column Diameter of tree, in bold

face figures, at mean height, with reading

of Folding Scale in inches, and hundredths

underneath it.

Third Column Number of feet B. M. in the
tree, with number of logs per M., given in
logs and hundredths, underneath it.
12 32 32 3



a


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1


Dia.


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1


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3


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26190


4


1.05


33640


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1.07


34920


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1.03


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67280


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cc
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1.10


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1.08


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1.10


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3


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1.09 27180


1.10


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25



HINTS ON CRUISING.

Where timber is small and dense and
rapid cruise is desired, apply "Averaging
System." Run twice through each forty
acres, count all trees on 8 acres as you go,
base estimates on the average acre. If for
example, the S. W. i of the S. W. of a
Section is to be examined, pace East one tally
(20 rods) from S. W. corner of Section, thence
run North. Have Compassman call out
each tally (20 rods); the Cruiser will judge as
accurately as possible by sight an 8 rods
strip, run through center of strip, counting
all trees 4 rods each side of him. (4 rods
equals 12k paces). In counting or tabu-
lating your trees as found, of course, due
regard must be given noticeable defects in
considering Heights and Diameters and pro-
per allowance made therefor. Class the
kinds of timber separately. It is very im-
portant to the owner to note streams, and
prominent topographical features even in a
rapid examination. At three tallies North
(60 rods), run east one tally (20 rods); then
you will have counted all the trees on four
acres. (Check average acre and other ob-
servations made of the West half, etc.).
Continue run one tally further East, thence
South 3 tallies, you will be proceeding through
East half of the 40 acres to Section Line.
Tabulating the trees as you go or counting
and booking the total results found, when
you have finished this run. Therefore, hav-
ing examined carefully the 8 acres you then
have gained the knowledge of stand per acre.
Assuming the timber on the 40 acres is equal-
ly dense, then 40, multiplied by the average
acre gained is the total stand, of course, due
allowance and j udgment must be used for bare
spots, light stands, burns, etc.

NOTE Whenever the term "Pace"
appears, it means two steps or 64 inches.

A Close Cruise.

Run 5 times through each 40 acres, count
all trees on each 2 acres as you go, booking
26



knowledge gained at each tally (20 rods). If
for example, the S. W. J of the S. W. i of a
Section is to be examined, pace East (25
paces) from the S. W. corner of Section,
thence run North. Have Compassman call
one tally (20 rods) stop, and give a right
angle, the Cruiser will judge as accurately as
possible by sight a 16 rods strip, run through
center of strip, counting all trees (8 rods) on
each side of him. (8 rods equals 25 paces).
Therefore having carefully counted the
trees on 2 acres and booking the results.
Continue North one tally further, counting,
observing and again booking knowledge gain-
ed. Continue North and repeat at each tally
until you have reached 4 tallies, then run
East (25 paces) and book final observations
of this 8 acre strip. Thence continue East
25 paces further, thence south one tally,
again booking knowledge gained. Continue
back and forth through the 40, observing,
counting and booking at each tally (2 acres),
and proving up at the Section Line at each
strip. Therefore having examined carefully
the 40 acres by 2 acres, you then have gained
the knowledge of stand, sizes, kinds, quality
and contents of timber of each kind, etc. as
well as the minutes of the topography of the
surface, etc.

NOTE The Cruiser should have an
assistant.

NOTE Observations should include in
your diagram locations and width of streams
and their courses, hills, divides, low passes,
roads, trails, undergrowth, dead trees, down
trees, canyons, etc., burns, improvements, if
any, and what may be the fire risk, etc., quality
of soil, 1st, 2nd, or 3rd grade, etc. At best, the
average estimate is only an approximate one;
have your deduction, therefore, safe. Judg-
ment as to quality and logging conditions as
well as the knowledge of finding, counting and
estimating timber should be cultivated.



27



PRESERVATION OF TIMBER.

Disease, Cause and Effects.

The decay of timber is caused by the
growth and activities of fungi. The minute
spores of one of these fungi, germinating
on a piece of wood, send out fine threads,
which enter the wood cells and soon give
off a complex compound called a ferment
or enzyme, which dissolves certain parts of
the wood fibre. The dissolved fibre serves
as food for the fungus. The threads throw
out branches and sub-branches, and soon
the timber is permeated by a mass of such
threads, the growing parts of which give
off ferment. The action of the ferment
changes the chemical and physical properties
of the wood, rendering it, in some cases,
like brown charcoal, in others white, soft
and stringy, and the wood is said to be rotten
or decayed. Eventually some of the threads
grow out from the surface of the timber, and
form toadstools and other excrescences.
Under these are found cavities containing
thousands of spores, which, when ripe, are
blown off into the air and settle upon other
timbers, where the precess is repeated.
Moisture and heat are favorable to the
growth of the fungi, as are also the starches,
sugars and oils found in the cells of the sap-
wood but wanting in the heart wood. If
protected from the action of these fungi,
wood will last indefinitely. Hence the
accumulation of dead wood should be avoided.
If air is excluded, as when timber is kept
constantly and entirely immersed in salt or
fresh water, the fungi cannot thrive. Sap
confined in timber with air, ferments, pro-
ducing dry rot; as where beams are enclosed
air-tight in brick work. etc.. and where
green timber is painted or varnished, or
treated with creosote, etc. The sap then
not noly prevents the thorough penetration
of the oil, etc., but may cause the greater
part of the wood to rot although its firm
outer shell gives it a deceptive appearance

28



of strength. Sap should therefore be first
removed by seasoning; that is, either by
drying the wood in air at natural or higher
temperatures, or by first steaming the wood
under pressure so as to vaporize the sap,
and then removing the latter by means of
a vacuum. Thorough seasoning of large
timbers in dry air at ordinary temperatures
may require years; too rapid kiln-drying
cracks and weakens the wood. But it is
questionable whether steaming and vacuum
removes sap as thoroughly as do the slower
dry processes. Alternate exposure to water
and air is very destructive. It causes wet
rot.

Sea worms, the limnoria terebrans, works
from near high water mark to a little below
the surface of mud bottom; the teredo navalis
within somewhat less limits. The teredo
is said to be rendered less active by the
presence of sewage in water.

The best limber-preserving processes are
practically useless unless thoroughly well
done. If the gain in durability will not
warrant the expenditure of time and money
required for this, it is more economical to
use the wood in its natural state. The
woods best adapted to treatment are those
of an open or porous texture. They absorb
the oil, etc., better than the denser woods;
and their cheapness renders the use of the
treatment more economical. Most of the
processes in common use seem to render
wood less combustible. After treatment
by any process, the wood should be well
dried before using. Creosote oil, or dead
oil, is the best known preservative. Against
sea worms it is effective for 15 to 20 years.
The teredo is less active in the north than in
the south.

-See paper by Dr. Hermann von Schrenk,
read before the American Railway Engi-
neering and Maintenance of Way Associa-
tion, March, 1901.



29



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32



SECTION DIAGRAM AND KEY THERE-
TO AND NATURAL SECANTS.

The Diagram and Key will enable a Compass-
man to easily approach, from a given point, any
of the several corners bounding a Section and
call out the various 40 lines to the Cruiser. (One
may, too, solve other problems from it, should
circumstances require). The seven courses
shown on diagram are North-Easterly,
but the method applies to any direction.
It may occur at times that the Compassman
may have to solve his own problem. (The
key will assist him). If Compassman stands,
for instance, at 1-8 post, four tallies North of
the S. E. corner of Section, desiring to reach
center of Section (course 6 suggests itself,
latitude being half of departure). See course
6 in Key. One tally equals 69 paces, 2
forties equal 554 paces. Angle 63 26'
(marked on inner edge of Compass Circle)
Therefore, run North 63 26' West, a distance
of 554 paces, and you have center of section. At
four tallies of 69 paces each you have the 40
line (call it to your Cruiser), at 8 tallies (4
more from 40 line) you reach central point of
Section.

The compiler of this book recommends (the
use of paces) the value of one pace equaling
64 inches or two ordinary steps. Therefore
62 paces equals one tally, equals 20 rods
distance, etc.

NATURAL SECANTS.

In furnishing the natural secants for each


2

Online LibraryJoseph BarbowBarbow's booklet on tree scale and section diagram : useful to timber estimators, timber owners, and compass men → online text (page 2 of 3)