Joseph Barbow.

# Barbow's booklet on tree scale and section diagram : useful to timber estimators, timber owners, and compass men online

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course, perhaps a rapid, easy and accurate
means will be found to determine on a given
course the diagonal distances. Multiply
secant number by length of one side of the
square, product will be required distance.
If for instance, you desire to ascertain dis-
tance in rods from corner of Section diagon-
ally to opposite corner, the angle is 45 degrees,
secant number 1.41421. Multiply 1.41421 by
320 rods, the result is 452.54720. Cut off
5 decimals. Therefore the result is 452 J rods.

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Te find OT..

AE,e^arAs 0Z. ABC, inaccessible.
find >/? the ground tysiybtiny to Z.
measure i'a \tfindD.liif sifA/tny to Z.
ED.zsx *f E A. 07..

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WIND RIVER

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HINTS Use Barbow's Mirror
Cruising Compass.

Made useful. Assists Compassmen as well
ated in degrees from to 90 each way. Car-
dinal letters on raised circle as well as a con-
spicuous black pointer at each letter. Letter
E. and W. reversed so as to facilitate angles
readings. Variation turned off and set for
locality to be used. Inner edge of raised
circle graduations harmonize with the several
corners bounding a section. A simple device
attached to (stop to needle bar) preventing
the adherence of bar upwards when it should
be downwards, removing one great annoy-
ance.

Hints to Beginners The art of Compassing
is best learned by doing it. Should state
briefly however Hold Compass squarely be-
fore you, cover or North end always ahead ,
practice to run straight and pace correctly, face
course as nearly as possible, when you
either open or close compass, tilt compass a
little to prevent unnecessary swinging of
needle. Practice to take a sight quickly,
don't wait until needle comes to a stop, course
known as soon as needle swings equally on
each side of (pointer). See that you hold
compass level, let the continuous center line
through compass guide your sight to object
ahead on your line. In case of an open
country, sight object as far as possible
(rather two objects) on your line, keeping the
nearer object covering the farther one, etc.
(cultivating the art of running a straight line) .
When it is desired to run diagonally through
a Section or ascertain the distance across a
canyon, streams or any points not accessible,
consult section diagram and Key thereto.

To avoid obstructions, etc., found in your
course bear off, say, 10 degrees from said
course, distance one tally. Then having got-
ten around obstructions, bear in 10 degrees,
one tally, back to original course. (Add two
paces to two tallies.)

3G

lember Always read the North end
of needle, it will indicate your angle.
If, for example, while sighting to an object
the north end points 10 degrees between S.
and E., read the angle South 10 East.

Number of Paces.

You will vary from a given point in running
one mile (17% paces) for each degree. If you
err to the right, variation is too low; raise it.
If to the left, you are too high; lower it. i or
of one mile will cause you to vary i or of
the number of paces given, etc.

NOTE Please remember that surveys don't
always show true corners. Too often is it
found that the Governmental Surveyors have
been careless or negligent in their establish-
ment of proper Section or quarter posts.
Therefore be diligent in your search for them .

Standard Corners and Closing Corners,
marked S. C. and C. C. respectively, are es-
tablished by the government on township
lines (rather Correction lines) from a few feet
to several hundred feet apart. Therefore
guard against taking the wrong one. The
government establishes no Quarter Post on
Correction lines to a Closing Section; in other
words, between two Closing Corners.

Sight Trees Are those which the line ac-
tually passes through, and are marked with
two notches on each side, and are called for
in the field notes mark the line.

TEXAS LAND MEASURE.

(Also used in Mexico, New Mexico, Arizona
and California.)

1 vara equals 331 inches.

1,900. .8 varas equals 1 mile.

3,612,800 square varas equals 1 section
equals 640 acres.

225,800 square varas equals 1^ section
equals 40 acres.

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Square of 475 varas equals JL section equals
40 acres.

To find the number of acres in any number
of square varas, multiply the latter by 177
(or to be more exact, by 1771), and cut off
six decimals.

San Antonio, Texas, variation in 1904,
8 3' +3.1.

MAGNETIC DECLINATIONS.

Variations of the compass for the Epoch
January, 1904:

With the annual change from 1900 to f90.
for the principal places in the United States.

A ( + ) sign denotes West Declinations;
a minus ( ) sign East Declinations. For
the annual change a plus sign denotes in-
creasing West or decreasing East Decli-
nation, and a minus sign the reverse.
(Part of reports of the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey given.)

Variation Annual
Jan., 1904 Change

Sitka, Alaska 29 53' O'.O"

Olympia, Wash 22 41 0.0

Portland, Oregon 22 32 0.0

San Francisco, Cal 16 42 0.0

Madison, Wis 4 57 -f5.0

Portland, Maine +14 32 +1.3

Columbia, S. C 12 +3.1

Demarcation Point, Alas. 39 50 +10 .0

Philippines, Manila 52 1.0

THE MAGNETIC POLE.

In a lecture at Glasgow, by Professor
Thompson, he stated that the magnetic pole
is at present near Boothia Felix, more than
1000 miles to the west of the geographical
pole.

In 1557 the position of the needles showed
the magnetic pole to be due north. It had
been eastward before that; it then began to
point westward, and this ^yestwa^d variation
continued to increase until 1816, when the
maximum was attained; it has since steadily
diminished, and in 1976 it will again point
to the true north.

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Profesror Thompson sayr thiit the changes
which have been observed, not only in this
direction but in the strength of the earth's
magnetism, show that the same causes
which originally magnetized the earth are
still at work; and, strangely enough, these
changes do not occur at long intervals in
the course of centuries but are going on from
day to day, from week to week and from
year to year. Authority.

AGREEMENT FIXES BOUNDARY.
Decision in Case of Washington Line
Fence in 1906.

The Supreme Court decided that where
a boundary line between two tracts of land
has been fixed by mutual agreement between
the owners and remains the recognized
dividing line for a period of 20 years, it in
fact becomes the actual boundary, notwith-
standing a subsequent Government survey
finds it is wrongly located.

The case on which the point was decided
was appealed from Columbia County where
two neighbor farmers agreed on the boundary
line between their land in 1881 and set their
fence on that line. In 1903 a Government
survey developed the fact that the fence
was not on the true line and one of the
owners set his fence over on the line fixed
by the Government survey. His neighbor
brought an action to compel the removal of
the fence to its original location and the
courts have upheld him. The case was
entitled E. L. Lindley, respondent, vs. K. A.
Johnston, appellant.

Note. Oregon Statute limitation is 10
years.

Conclusion.

I am indebted to many kind friends for
suggestions, help and encouragement extended
me. My chief endeavor has been to place in
compact form information of value to them
and to others. JOSEPH BARBOW.

Portland, Oregon.

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