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Frederick William von Steuben and the American Revolution, aide to Washington and inspector general of the Army online

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of the President, on February 28, 1822, and here James
\\'ilson died on October 17, 1850. With his wife, who
died on September 25, 1863, he is buried in Union Ceme-
tery.

The basis for the Clark portrait is a miniature by
John W. Jarvis, who was born in England in 1780, and
was brought to America five years later. Although
somewhat eccentric he enjoyed considerable popularity,
but finally died in poverty at New York in 1840. The
Clark portrait was painted early in the nineteenth cen-
tury when he (Clark) was pretty well up in years. Rely-
ing on Jan^is for features Mr. Filson's portrait is an
original which is sure to attract favorable comment. Al-
though not possessing the brilliant society decorations of
Steuben, yet Clark's Continental uniform and other ac-
cessories have given Mr. Filson an opportunity of dis-
playing his skill in the way of coloring, of which he has
taken full advantage. The picture represents Clark
seated in the woods, figuring out his great campaign. On
his right is a stand (possibly the stump of a tree) covered
with the Continental flag of thirteen stars and stripes, and
spread out above it is a map of the territory northwest
of the Ohio from an old plate made in 1761 on which
Mingo town is conspicuous. The forest foliage over-
shadows the warrior and statesman, while in the back-
ground flows the Ohio river, with two peaks beyond, as
they appear on the seal of the state of Ohio.

The Wilson picture is the only oil portrait of that
gentleman in existence, being based on an old daguerreo-
type. It depicts the strong rugged but not disagreeable
features of its subject, indicating force and decision of



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POSTHUMUS HONORS 381

character. The judge is seated at a table holding an open
law book in his lap, with two others on the stand, the
books used for this purpose being contemporary reprints
of Bacon's Abridgment of the Laws of England and Vat-
tell's Law of Nations. A copy of the Western Herald
indicates the blending of the judicial and editorial mind.
Mr. Filson has reason to congratulate himself on this his
latest work. *

* Sketches of Messrs. Andrews and Filson will be found in
the Author's Memorial Life of Edwin M. Stanton, pp. 390-391.

NOTE— The word "liberal" on page 1 should read "literal."
"Lowell" on page 139 should read "Lovell," "northern" on
page 160 should read "southern."



APPENDIX

THREE WARS CELEBRATION

Semi-Centennial of Most Northern Invasion During the Civil
War — Unveiling of Portraits — Dedication of Monuments
and Cannon — Unveiling Maine Tablet.

It happened that the completion of the portraits de-
scribed on the preceding pages was contemporaneous
with the semi-centennial of probably the most stirring and
interesting historical event in the history of Eastern Ohio.
Popularly known as ''Morgan's Raid," it was the farthest
point north reached by any invading force during the
Civil War. On the morning of Saturday, July 25, 1863,
the Confederate general John H. Morgan entered Jeffer-
son County from the town of Harrisville into Mount
Pleasant township with a force of 600 men pursued by
the Union general James M. Shackelford with an equal
force of Federal troops including cavalry, mounted in-
fantry and a battery of artillery.

Thte invaders followed the wagon road down Long
run to Short Creek, and thence down the creek to the
present town of Dillonvale, evidently making for the Ohio
river, but learning that there was a trainload of troops
at Portland (now Rayland) turned northward up ''Dry
Fork" to Smithfield. From there they went eastwardly
to New Alexandria, reaching it about noon, and then
went northwardly down Mclntire to Cross Creek, and up
the creek a couple of miles where they burned a Steuben-
ville & Indiana railroad bridge, cutting the city's west-
ward communications. They then moved northeasterly
to \A^intersville where they encountered a force of Steu-
benville militia, and in the firing that ensued one of the
latter, Henry Parks was fatally wounded. A short dis-
tance beyond Margaret Daugherty (now Mrs. Davis of
Steubenville) was wounded bv a strav bullet. Shackel-



APPENDIX 383

ford's force had conie up by diis time, and a skirmish en-
sued at Two Ridge meeting house three miles beyond in
which a Michigan soldier, Martin Keane, was fatally
wounded, and several others seriously. Morgan's men
passed through Richmond and East Springfield during
the evening, closely followed by Shackelford and the
Steubenville militia. A division, however, w^as made at
Richmond. Leaving Major Way with a portion of the
Ninth Michigan cavalry and Eleventh Michigan battery,
in all 250 men, to follow Morgan, Shackelford with his
main body including the Steubenville militia turned
northward toward Hammondsville intending to flank
Morgan. The latter went northwest from East Spring-
field, and camped that night on the Herdman Taylor
farm on Elkhorn branch of Yellow Creek with Way on
the hills above. Before daylight on Sunday morning he
slipped away, burning the county bridge, and the chase
was renewed. Way overtook him at Monroeville on the
extreme northern limit of the county, where a battle en-
sued, the raiders being routed with a loss of several killed,
forty-five wounded, 239 prisoners, horses &c. The race
was nearly ended, and Morgan being now over the Co-
lumbiana county line, surrendered to Shackelford at 2
o'clock on Sunday afternoon, the force of 2,246 with
which he had crossed the Ohio river at Brandenburg be-
ing now reduced to 336. The prisoners were taken to
Steubenville by rail the next morning, and thence
to diiTerent points. Morgan wdth his officers were
confined in the Ohio penitentiary, in retaliation for
similar treatment of Union raiders in the South,
from which institution he escaped, apparently through
a tunnel, but the manner has been the subject of
considerable controversy. To commemorate these
events and to indicate Morgan's and Shackelford's zig-



384 GENERAL WILLIAM VON STEUBEN

zag course of fifty miles through Jefferson county it was
resolved to place fourteen granite monuments at as many
different salient points which should mark the course for
all time. Each monument weighs about 1,800 pounds,
being twenty inches square, resting on a concrete founda-
tion, and four feet high, with a front bevel to receive a
suitable bronze tablet 16x24 inches. Monument No. 1,
located at Harrisville, bears the following inscription :

"General John H. Morgan in command of Confed-
erate troops entered Jefferson County here July 25, 1863 ;
proceeded northward via Short Creek Valley, Smithfield,
and other villages, pursued under orders of Gen. Am-
brose E. Burnside, by Gen. James M. Shackelford com-
manding 14th 111. Cav., First Ky., Cav., 9th Mich. Cav.,
11th Mich. Bat'y, 86th Ohio Mounted Inf., 2d Tenn.
Mounted Inf., Tablet No. 1. Erected July, 1913."

The others have the same general statement changed
to suit each particular location. No. 2 being located on
Short Creek bridge above Dillonvale; No. 3 in Dillon-
vale ; No. 4 at Smithfield ; No. 5 at New Alexandria ; No.
6, mouth of Mclntyre; No. 7, Cross Creek at burned
bridge; No. 8, Wintersville; No. 9, Two Ridges; No. 10,
Richmond; No. 11, East Springfield, No. 12, Morgan
bridq-e; No. 13, old Nebo, near Bero^holz; No. 14, Mon-
roeville. The Steubenville militia appear on the tablets
beginning at Wintersville.

Four similar monuments were placed at the corners
of Fort Steuben in the city of Steubenville, bearing the
following inscription : "Corner of Fort Steuben, erected
1780, named in honor of Major General Frederick Wil-
liam Augustus Baron von Steuben, who rendered dis-
tinguished service to the United States army in the War
of the Revolution with General George Washington,
February 7, 1778 to April 15, 1784."



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APPENDIX 385

At this time two bronze cannon which had Ijeen
used during- the Civil War were donated by the National
Government as addenda to the bronze statue of Hon.
Edwin M. Stanton, which had been erected in front of
the Jefferson County Court House two years before.
These cannon v.ere made at the celebrated Revere foun-
dry at Canton, Mass., where Paul Revere, of Revolution-
ary fame, vvorked from 1801 to 1818. They were se-
lected by Captain J. C. Ault from the Chattanooga battle-
field, and, mounted on cast iron carriages make a marked
addition to the Court House lawn.

In addition to all this a handsome tablet 13x18
inches made of bronze and brass cannon recovered from
the battleship Maine sunk in Havana harbor, was se-
cured, tog-ether with an electric helm indicator, bronze
port covers and ornamental tripod which had lain in the
water about fifteen years. The tablet is a work of art
designed by Charles Keck and cast by the Williams
Bronze foundry, N. Y. It represents the Goddess of
Liberty holding a shield on her left arm wdiile the right
hand is stretched towards a palm branch. In the dis-
tance is the wrecked vessel slowly sinking in the waters
of the Atlantic ocean. The tablet was placed on the front
of the Court House, and the relics in the City Museum.

To have these as well as some minor objects placed
without due recognition seemed so inappropriate that it
was decided to hold proper dedicatory ceremonies under
the name of Three Wars Celebration, to include the Revo-
lutionary, Spanish and Civil Wars. It being practically
impossible to crowd all the ceremonies into a single day
it was decided to extend them over three days beginning
with July 23, 1913.

As a matter of fact the celebrations began before
that, the fireworks combination exhibiting the Fall of



386 GENERAL WILLIAM VOX STEUBEN

Pompeii and other spectacular effects playing nightly
during the week beginning Monday, July 21, 1913, to-
gether with the camp of the 17th United States Infantry
and other gatherings.

The first official act in connection with the celebra-
tion may be said to be the visit of Col. R. C. Morgan,
brother of the general, and Col. Cicero Coleman, both of
Lexington, Ky., to some of the markers indicating the
course taken by the raiders and their pursuers. Both of
these gentlemen had been captured at Buffington, and
consequently knew nothing personally of the termination
of the raid. The monuments visited were those com-
memorating tlie shooting of Henry Parks at Winters-
ville, Martin Keane and others at Tw^o Ridges, and the
movements through Richmond and East Springfield.

Thursday, July 24, was appropriately denominated
Revolution L^ay, as then the four monuments marking
the site of Fort Steuben \\ ere dedicated, and the por-
traits of Generals Steuben and Clark unveiled, together
with that of Hon. James Wilson. The exercises were
held in Court Room No. 1, Hon. Carl H. Smith presid-
ing and delivering the opening address. The monuments
and two first named portraits were presented to the city
of Steubenville on behalf of the donors and the Stanton
Monument Association by its President, Hon. F. H. Kerr,
and the Wilson portrait to the County of Jefferson. They
were accepted on behalf of the municipality by Roy N.
Merryman, City Solicitor, with an appropriate address.

The Steuben portrait was unveiled by Miss Clara
Francis, of Martins Ferry, followed by an address by Dr.
Roger M. Griswold, representing the Putnam Phalanx,
of Hartford, Conn. The speaker w^ore the old Continen-
tal uniform, and his address w^as an able review^ of Steu-
ben's life and achievements, concluding as follows :



APPENDIX ':58^

The matchless courage and patience ^J ^ ^f'^^^^^'^'^Zf^ll't
mentVd by the great skill and energy of Steuben worked out
Te reward of oSr country's freedom, and we to-day enjoy the

^^"'Whl'^f tl\ink"of what Steuben was in his native land of
his rank and distinction, of the sacrifices he made, of what he
d 5 so thoroughly and patiently for us. of the -^^^^^^ ^e ac^^
olished in spite of the inadequate material at his command, the
fealousy of his brother officers and the. refusal of an mcompe-
tent and unpatriotic Congress to recognize his worth and assist
his efforts, content to act in an humble ^n^. >"^°"^P^^^^°"f,,^,^:
paci?y if thereby he could contribute to a jus and righteous
caSse when we consider all these things, then his name grows
luminous and resplendent, and stands as the beautiful sym-
bol of humble and dutiful service heroicly performed.

And so to-day in your beautiful city, enjoying the fruits of
the land which he did so much to help our ancestors acquire
we unveil a portrait of that great man, who, having affluence
and honor in his own country, standing high in the esteem of
his great sovereign, with the kings of Europe bidding for ser-
vices, left behind him friends and fatherland, and catne to the
land of the stranger, that he might have a part in the birth of a
new nation, and lay his bones in a soil he helped to dedicate
to liberty and the rights of man.

Miss May Crumley, of Steubenville, gracefully
unveiled the Clark portrait, and an eloquent address was
delivered by Hon. W. B. Francis, Representative in Con-
gress. He referred to the magnificent collection of por-
traits v/hich the city and county were acquiring, and
among other things, said :

The teacher and scholar who may gaze upon these excellent
portraits will inquire in his own mind who they are, whence
they came, when they lived and what patriotic service each of
them has rendered. Lessons of patriotism are the lessons we
v/ish our children to learn, for we are now in an age where tads
and isms have been fostered to such an extent that representa-
tive government is being challenged and the cornerstone which
our fathers were instrumental in laying is being torn up and
those fads substituted. We should not forget what these pa-
triots went through. They offered their lives in support of the
principles which they cherished so dearly, and many of their
compatriots perished for the cause of constitutional liberty.
Their institutions which have lasted for 136 years were wr°^l^5^
in the crucible of misery, deprivation and blood, while the fads
of to-day are cherished in the lap of luxury.



388 GENERAL WILLIA.AI VOX STEUBEN

In order to give you an idea of the blessings which this
great man, George Rogers Clark, the subject of our discourse
to-day. has brought to the states and people, I would ask you
to take the map of the United States, beginning at Lake Erie
on the Pennsylvania line and follow the west line of Pennsyl-
vania south to the Ohio river and then follow the Ohio river to
the Mississippi, thence northwesterly with its course to British
Columbia, then with British Columbia follow the Great Lakes
eastward to the place of beginning, and I said you had the gar-
den of America; but I now say you have the garden of the
world. For alluvial land, mineral resources, timber, rivers,
lakes, harbors, fisheries, fruits, stock raising, climate — every-
thing. These are the lands which George Rogers Clark bought
and laid down for settlement for the people of the United States,
and especially to be enjoyed by the inhabitants of the respective
states comprising this territory. Few stop to think that the
lands acquired by his conquest aie as great in area and greater
in fertility, than the thirteen original states. Four times since
the acquisition of these lands, we have taken up the sword in
defense of the flag, and four times the Northwestern Territory
has furnished her quota of brave men for the common cause.

When we think of Lincoln, of Grant, Sherman, Sheridan,
Stanton, Custer, of New Rumley, who never lost a gun nor sur-
rendered a color, and that great array of soldiery who marched
to the front and held the government inseparable, we can see
that near one-half of this soldiery was furnished from these;
and here again the acquisition of Clark is emphasized. In these
great states the hum of industry is heard on every hand, at every
mile a school house, church spires from every village, hill and
vale; a network of steam and electric railways and its com-
merce has already surpassed any other like area in the whole
world.

But let us turn to the picture we have before us today of
the man who was the forerunner of the establishing of the
rights of the Union in this great country. When we consider
him justly he should have a place by the side of George Wash-
ington.

Little Gloria AA^ilson Redmon drew aside the flag
which unveiled the portrait of her great great grandfa-
ther. The address w^as made by Hon. Rees G. Richards,
depicting Judge Wilson as an editor, a legislator and a
jurist, concluding:

When we consider that, for thirty years in this community
James Wilson so devoted his life and energy to the up-building
of society, to defusing the principles of virtue and knowledge,



JE^FF EJ^SON CO. , C

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CARROLL OO.




Route ol Confederate Invasion, Jefferson County, July 25-26, 1863. Far litest
North of any invading force during the Civil War.



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MAINE MEAiORLAL TABLET

On I'^ront of Jefferson County Court House.

Courtesy Jno. Williams, Inc.



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APPENDIX 380

thus molding public sentiment and directing the thoughts of
men toward a better and higher civilization, is it not well, that
we here honor his memory and commend it to this and coming
generations as a precious heritage? No stain of want of fidel-
ity to truth and justice mars the noble career of his long and
useful life. His descendants who honor us by their presence,
and the absent ones, even he who occupies the exalted position
of chief magistrate of this great Republic may well be proud
of their lineage and cherish the name and memory of Jaiiies
Wilson.

The proceedings were enlivened with some beautiful
vociil numbers by Miss Marian Forsythe with Miss
Dargue as accompanist, the audience joining in
''America," at the close.

Friday was set apart the commemorating events
of the Ci'N'il an_d Spanish wars. Being the semi-centennial
of the farthest point north reached by an invading force
during the Rebellion, the fourteen monuments indicating
the pursuit of General John H. Morgan through Jeffer-
son county, were appropriately dedicated as were the
broiTze cannon already described as addenda to the Stan-
ton monument.

The proceedings began with a re-union of the JefTer-
son County Soldiers and Sailors Association at Turner
Hall with an exceptionally large attendance. Addresses
were made by Rev. S. F. Ross and Dr. J. W. Collins of
Toronto ; Hon. John McElroy of Washington ; Congress-
man W. B. Francis of Martins Ferry ; Hon. D. S. Fergu-
son of Troy, O. ; Hon. Daniel Ashworth, of Crafton.
Pa., and Gen. A. M. Rowe, of Boise, Idaho, with musical
selections by Miss Mame Connor, of Toronto. A warm
fraternal welcome was extended to Col. R. C. Morgan
and Col. Cicero Coleman.

The military parade started at 11 o'clock A. M. with
Capt. A. A. Franzheim as chief marshal, including two
companies of 17th U. S. Infantry with local band, Du-



?00 GENERAL WILLIAM VON STEUBEN

quesne Greys of Pittsburgh, with Ijand and druni corps,
Steubenville Cadets and Spanish War Veterans, carriages
with guests, all of whom were greeted with great enthu-
siasm.

The large afternoon meeting at the Stanton monu-
ment in front of the Court House was presided over by
Hon. F. H. Kerr, who formally presented to the county
the bronze cannon received from the Government, the
Morgan-Shackelford markers and the Maine tablet. All
these including the Vv^ilson portrait were formally ac-
cepted by \^^ C. Brow^n on behalf of the County Commis-
sioners. Yn-. Brown took the position that the Civil War
was one great step in the progress of evolution of civiliza-
tion v;hich is still in progress. It has its present form
in the laws for the regulation of railroads, manufactories
and relations generally between employer and employe.

Hon. John McElroy, of Washington, D. C, deliv-
ered a most eloquent address on the passing of the caval-
ier, indicating that Morgan and his men were among the
la^t exponents of knight errantry, which, through the in-
fluence of Scott's novels, was so popular in the South.

At the conclusion of Col. McElroy's address, the
Maine memorial tablet on the front of the Court House
was unveiled by Miss Helen Franzheim.

Colonel Daniel Ashworth, of Pittsburgh, concluded
the exercises with one of the strongest speeches of the
entire celebration. He traced the composition of the peo-
ple of the great Northwest, the part they had taken in the
development and pre=;ervation of the country, and paid
glowing tributes to Stanton, the great War Secretary,
and the heroes of the Maine




JEFFERSON COUNTY COURT HOUSE.

Steubenville, O.

Decorated for Three Wars Celebration.



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APPENDIX 391

'I'he inclustrial and auto parade on Friday evening
under Marshals William Hartshorn and Ross Anderson,
made a most creditable showing, and the designs were
most artistic and effective.

Among the features of the week were the re-union
of the Wilson family at St. Peter's deanery, luncheon
tendered by the ladies' committee at the Country Club,
and the reception of Prof. A. M. Rowe, Adjutant General
of Idaho, by his former pupils.

An informnl promenade and dance at Stanton Park
Casino on Friday night furnished a delightful social ter-
mination to a round of busy functions.



INDEX



Academy. Military. 299.
Adams, John. 47, 67, 336.
Adams, Samuel, 45, 67.
Albany, arms at, 158; Freedom of

to Steuben, 328; 343..
Albemarle Court House, 238.
Allen, E., 178.
Allentown, 113.
Allegheny INIountains, 289.
Amelia Court House. 246.
Anderson. R., 391.
Andre, 102, 182.
Andrews Eliphalet F.. 377.
Annapolis, 224. 306, 319.
Appomatox River, 231, 237.
Aranda. Count de, 39, 41.
Arbuthnot, 166. 225.
Armands, 86.
Army Regulations, 133.
Armstrong. Gen., 322. 330, 342.
Articles of Confederation. 267.
Arnold, Benedict, 173, 178, 201,

210, 225. 233, 237.
Arnold, Jonathan, changes name

to Steuben, 184.
Ashworth, Col. D., 390.
Augusta County. 215.
Augusta (City). 246.
Ault, ;. C. 385.
Austria, 11.

Baden, Margrave of. 19.

Baltimore, 222, 236, 255.

Bancroft, 116. 202.

Baptist Society, 354.

Beaumarchais, M. De., birth of,
24; a court favorite, 25; impris-
onment, 26; international scan-
dals, 27; advocates cause of the
Colonies, letters to Louis XVI.;
becomes agent of the French
government. 35; sends supplies
to America, 36; helps Steuben
to sail, 45; author of operas,
52; extravagant expenditures,



53; troubles at home, 54;

claims against America, 57.
Blandford, 236.
Blue Book, 136.
Boston, 65, 66, 144.
Boudinot, E., 127, 149, 287.
Boydton, 194.
Brandenburg, 7.
Brown, W. C, 390.
Burgoyne, Surrender of, 47. 66.

Cabin Point, 209, 230.

Cadwallader. Gen., 104.

Camden, 164.

Canada, 168.

Carleton. Sir Guy. 277, 288.

Carlisle, 158.

Carolinas. North and South. 148,

153, 163. 219, 246. 289.
Caron, P. A., see Beaumarchais.
Carrington. Col., 207.
Carter's Ferry, 248.
Chamblee, 302.
Champlain. Lake. 179, 301.
Charleston. 109, 148. 163, 219. 277.
Charlotte C. H., 246.
Charlottesville. 239, 256.
Chesapeake Bay, 222, 224. 234,

252, 265.
Chester, 191, 255.
Chesterfield, 198. 210, 214, 232.
Christ Church, 123.
Chickahominy. 207, 236.
Cincinnati, Society of. 310, 336.
City Point, 231.
Clairborne, Major. 204.
Clark. Gen. George Rogers, 151,

192, 208. 289, 378.
Clinton. Gov.. 331, 336, 342.
Clinton. Sir Henry. 102, 108. 115.

119, 139. 142, 148, 152, 163, 166,

201, 225, 250, 265, 277.
Cobham. 236.
Coggin's Point, 208.
Toleman, C, 386.



!94



INDEX



Cole's Ferry, 246.

Congress. Continental and Con-
federate. 71, 74, 98. 122, 133
261, 285, 293. 308, 319.

Congress, National, 323.

Connecticut Farms, 166.

Constitution, New, Z22.

Conway, Thomas, 40, 81, 87.

Cornwallis, Lord. 114, 148, 164
219. 237, 249. 261.

Coryell's Ferry, 102.

Cowpens. 218.

Crosswicks, 113.

Crumley, Elizabeth :\Iay, 387.

Cumberland. C. H., 246.

Custis, Miss, 192.

Daugherty, Margaret. 381.
Davies. Col. Wm., 197, 204, 241,

244.
Deane. Silas. 23 36. 40, 364.
De Kalb. Baron, 95. 128, 164
De la Fidelite, 19.
Delaware River, 101, 119.
Denmark, 189.
Depontiere, M., 45, 7)66.
Debarras, Admiral, 255.
D'Estaing, Count, 119.
Destouches. Admiral. 222. 225.



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