1607 Hudson, ....
1773 Phipps, (Lord Musgrove),
1806 Scoresby, ....
1874 Meyer, (on land),
1875 Markham, (Nare's exp'd),
1884 Lockwood, (Greely's party),
Mr. Lockwood, a member of the celebrated Greely expedi-
tion, reached within 6 deg. 36 min. or 455 miles of the pole.
The region reached by Lockwood is covered with ice gorges
and precipices of snow and ice of almost insurpassable diffi-
culty. No instrument could measure the degree of cold; it
blisters the skin upon touch like a red hot iron. Progress is
necessarily extremely slow, five or six miles being a long day's
journey. Then several days rest must be taken before another
attempt is made to penetrate this forbidding wilderness of
snow and ice.
seven wonders of the world.
Pyramids of Egypt.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon, including Tower Walls
Statue of Jupiter Olympus, on the Capitoline Hill, at
Temple of Diana, at Ephesus.
Pharos, or the Watch Tower, at Alexandria, Egypt.
Colossus of Rhodes, a statue 105 feet high, overthrown
by an earthquake 224 B. C.
Mausoleum at Halicarnassas, a city in Asia Minor.
Every school boy is taught that London, England, is the
largest city in the world, but few have any idea of this won-
derful collection of human beings. It covers 700 square
miles and numbers over 5,000,000 people. They are not all
Englishmen ; two out of every five are foreigners from every
part of the earth 2,000,000 foreigners. London has a birth
every five minutes, 288 a day, 105,128 a year; has a death
every eight minutes, 180 a day, 65,700 a year. Has 8,000 miles
of streets and seven accidents a day upon them. She opens
up 40 miles of new streets a year and builds 15,000 new
London has a 1,000 ships and over 10,000 sailors in her
ports every day ; her beer and gin shops would, if placed side
by side, extend a distance of 78 miles. Out of these shops
come every year 38,000 drunkards before her magistrates. She
has 15,000 cabmen, 15,000 police and 15,000 people connected
with the post-office. Her people receive 300,000,000 letters
every year. Every day 850 trains pass Clapham Junction and
the under-ground railroad runs 1,211 trains a day. Her omni-
bus companys' 700 busses carry 56,000,000 passengers every
year. It cost $3,000,000 a year to light her streets. She has
400 daily and weekly newspapers. There is more danger in
walking her streets than in crossing the Atlantic Ocean. In
one year 130 persons were killed and 2,060 injured by vehicles
in the streets. London, the greatest city in the world, has
the most perfect draii.age system and is a very healthy city,
her death rate being very low. She is 3,009 years old, having
been founded by Brute, the Trojan, in the year of the world
SALARY OF THE PRESIDENT.
Since Grant's last term the President of the United States
has received a salary of $50,000 per annum. Previous to that
time it was $25,000. In addition to the $50,000 salary he re-
ceives $36,064 for subordinates and clerks. His private sec-
retary receives $3,250; an assistant private secretary $2,250; a
stenographer $1,800; five messengers, each $1,200; a steward
$1,800; two doorkeepers, each $1,200; two ushers, one $1,400,
the other $1,200; a night usher $1,200; a watchman $900; a
man who takes care of the fires $864. Then he gets $8,000
for incidental expenses, such as stationery, carpets, care of the
presidential stables, etc. He gets $12,500 for repairing and
refurnishing the White House ; $4,000 for the green house ;
$2,500 for fuel ; $15,000 for gas, matches and the stable. The
President and White House cost the country, all told, over
$125,000 a year.
COST OF ROYALTY.
While the above figures seem large for the expense of our
Chief Magistrate, they are in reality very small compared with
the cost of the royal families of Europe to their governments.
Her Majesty, Queen Victoria's privy purse or salary is ,60,000
or $300,000. Salaries and expenses of household, Royal
bounty, etc., added to this give a total of ^385,800 or $1,929,000
for Her Majesty alone. Then there are 13 princes, princesses,
dukes and duchesses that draw handsome salaries and do
nothing, running the grand aggregate up to ,566,800 or
$2,834,000, making the salary and expenses of our President
who does more work in a month than the whole royal family
do in a lifetime, appear very insignificant.
CUSTOM REGULATIONS. 455
UNITED STATES CUSTOM REGULATIONS AS TO BAGGAGE.
All persons entering any of the ports of the United States
from a foreign country are subjected to an examination of
their baggage. On all dutiable articles a duty must be paid
according to the schedule fixed by Congress. The following
articles are free from duty: Wearing apparel and other per-
sonal effects (not merchandise), professional books, implements,
instruments and tools of trade, occupation or employment.
The owner of articles brought into the United States, or
his agent, shall make an entry of all articles of wearing ap-
parel and other personal baggage, and professional books, im-
plements and instruments of trade, the same as of other mer-
chandise, but separate and distinct from the entry of any
other merchandise imported from a foreign port. This entry
shall be made with the Collector of the district in which the
articles are intended to be landed. It must state the person
by whom or for whom such entry is made and must particu-
larize the several packages and their contents, with their
marks and numbers. And the person making the entry must
take and subscribe an oath before the Collector, declaring
that the entry subscribed by him and to which his oath is
annexed, contains, to the best of' his knowledge and belief, a
just and true account of the contents of the several packages
mentioned, specifying the name of the vessel, the name of her
master and the port from which she has arrived; and stating
that the said packages contain no merchandise whatever, other
than wearing apparel, personal baggage, or as the case may
be, tools of trade, specifying it; that they are all the property
of a person named who has arrived, or is about to arrive, in the
United States, and are not, directly or indirectly, imported for
any other, or intended for sale.
If any article is found in any of the packages or baggage
which is subject to duty and which was not mentioned in the
45 6 MISCELLANEOUS.
entry made to the Collector by the person making the entry,
such article shall be forfeited to the Government, and the
person in whose baggage it is found shall be liable to a penalty
of treble the value of the article found.
" Professional books, implements and tools of trade, occu-
pation or employment," embrace such books or instruments
as would naturally belong to a surgeon, physician, engineer
or other scientific person returning to this country. The real
rule of determining whether an article is free or not is
whether it is intended for personal use or for sale.
Jewelry that has been in use as a personal ornament and is
expected to be worn again by the person, being only tempor-
arily laid aside, may be admitted free.
A single passenger can only bring in one watch free. If
he have several watches, all old, he may select one to be con-
sidered his personal effects; if some are new and some old, all
the new are dutiable he may select an old one for his own.
Following is the decision of the United States Supreme
Court: The free list includes (i), wearing apparel owned by
the passenger and in a condition to be worn at once without
further manufacture; (2), brought with him as a passenger
and intended for the use or wear of himself or his family who
accompanied him as passengers, and not for sale or purchased
or imported for other persons, or to be given away; (3), suit-
able for the season of the year which was immediately ap-
proaching at the time of his arrival; (4), not exceeding in
quantity, or quality, or value what the passenger was in the
habit of ordinarily providing for himself and his family at
that time, and keeping on hand for his and their reasonable
wants, in view of their means and habits of life, even though
such articles had not been actually worn.
Since November 18, 1883, all the railroads of the United
STANDARD TIME. 457
States have been run on "Standard Time." Previous to that
there were fifty-eight kinds of time in use by the railroads of
the country, resulting in endless confusion and rendering it
impossible for travelers to calculate the arrival and departure
of trains. A conference of the railroad men of the country re-
sulted in the establishment of "Standard Time," which has
only four variations, the difference in each case being exactly
one hour. This system of time for the railroads was estab-
lished by dividing the country into four sections, each fifteen
degrees of Longitude wide from East to West. Every school
boy knows that the sun passes over fifteen degrees of Longi-
tude in one hour, hence it is that the change from one time to
another is always exactly one hour.
The time of the first section on the East is called "Eastern
Time." It is the time of the 75th Meridian from Greenwich,
which runs a few miles east of Philadelphia. The time of the
entire section is the same as the time of the Meridian through
the center. For 7^ degrees east and 7^ degrees west of the
75th Meridian all trains run on the time of the 75th Meridian,
which is called Eastern Time. This section extends from the
eastern part of Maine to near Detroit, Michigan. The princi-
pal cities in this section are Boston, Albany, New York, Syra-
cuse, Rochester, Buffalo, Philadelphia, Washington and many
others. The western boundary of the Eastern section is the
Meridian 82^ degrees west from Greenwich, this being 7^
degrees west from the 75th Meridian. A train running West
when it crosses this Meridian passes at once into
This is the time of the 90th Meridian and is exactly one
hour behind Eastern time. In other words, if an engineer's
watch shows 1 1 o'clock just before he passes from Eastern
into Central time he will know after he crosses the line that it
is only 10 o'clock in that section and run to make all his con-
nections accordingly. This section commences near Detroit,
Michigan, and extends 15 degrees West to the vicinity of
Yankton, Dakota, and Austin, Texas. Cleveland, Cincinnati,
Columbus, Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha and all
places in this section have the same time for railroad purposes.
This is the time of the 105th Meridian, which passes near
Denver, Colorado. It is one hour slower than Central time
and extends from Yankton and Austin to near Salt Lake City.
For railroad purposes the time of all places in this section is
This is the time of the 120th Meridian and begins 7^ de-
grees east of that Meridian or 112J& degrees west of Green-
wich. It is one hour slower than Mountain time. The time
for railroad purposes in all places in this section, Walla
Walla, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Sacramento, Portland,
etc., is the same.
Every city which is not located on one of the four Merid-
ians above named, 75, 90, 105 or 120, has its own local time
which differs from the Standard or Railroad time according to
its distance from the central Meridian of the section. Cincin-
nati time is 22 minutes faster than Central Standard time, be-
cause Cincinnati is about $}4 degrees east of the 90th Merid-
ian. Philadelphia time is only 38 seconds slower than Eastern
Standard time, because Philadelphia is only a few miles west
of the 75th Meridian.
POINTS OF LAW. 459
POINTS OF LAW.
Ignorance of law excuses no one.
It is a fraud to conceal a fraud.
The law does not compel any one to do impossibilities.
A contract without consideration can not be enforced.
Signatures made with lead pencil are binding.
A contract made with a minor is voidable by the minor.
A note given by a minor is voidable.
A contract made with a lunatic is void.
A contract or note obtained by fraud, or from a person in
a state of intoxication, can not be enforced.
The acts of one partner of a firm bind all the others.
Each individual in a partnership is liable for the whole
amount of the debts of the firm.
Principals are responsible for the acts of their agents.
Agents are liable to their principals for errors or the results
of their mistakes.
The loss of a note by accident or theft does not release
the maker; he must pay. But it may be necessary for the
holder to prove the amount and consideration.
Notice of protest to an endorser of a note must be served
within twenty-four hours of its non-payment, otherwise he is
exempt from liability.
A receipt for money paid is not legally conclusive. It may
be allowed to prove that the money was not paid
LAW OF FINDING.
The one who finds anything has a clear title to it against
the whole world except the owner. This is true whether the
thing is found 011 the premises of the finder or of some one
else. An inn keeper has no right to demand property found
on his premises by a guest or other person. Neither has a
shop or store keeper. This law is a century old. It was set-
tled in King's Bench under these facts:
A person found a wallet on a shop floor. He handed it
and the money it contained to the shop keeper to restore to
the owner. Three years passed and no owner appeared to
claim the property. The finder then demanded the wallet and
money. The shop keeper refused 011 the ground that they
were found on his premises. The finder sued and the decision
of the court was as stated above, that the title of the finder is
perfect against all the world except the owner.
The finder has been held to stand in the place of the
owner, in this way: if a person find an article and lose it
again and a third person find it the first finder may recover it
from the second.
The police have no more rights in property found than
any one else unless a special statute may confer such rights.
Receivers of articles found are trustees for the owner or
finder. They can not hold an article against the finder any
more than the finder can hold it against the owner.
RARE U. S. COINS AND THEIR VALUE.
Silver Dollars. Rarest dates are: 1794, worth $35;
1798, with small eagle, $2j 1799, with five stars facing, $2;
1804, worth $8; 1836, $5; 1838, $25; 1839,115; 1851,120;
1852, $25; 1854, $6; 1855, $5; 1856, $2; 1858, $20.
Silver Half Dollars. The rarest are: 1794, valued at
$5; 1796, $40; 1797, $30; 1801, $2; 1802, $2; 1815, $4;
1836, reeded, $3; 1838, Orleans, $5; 1852,13; 1853,110 ar-
Silver Quarter Dollars. The rarest are: 1796, valued
at $3; 1804, $3; 1823, $50; 1853, no arrows, $4.
Silver Twenty Cent Pieces. The rarest are: 1874
proof, valued at $10; 1877 proof, $2; 1878 proof, $2.
Silver Dimes. The rarest are: 1796, valued at $3; 1797,
16 stars, $4; 1797, 13 stars, $4.50; 1798, $2; 1800, $4; 1801,
1802 and 1803 each valued at $3; 1804, $5; 1805 to 18 10, in-
clusive, each 50 cts.; 1811, 75 cts.; 1822, $3; 1846, $1.
LEGAL HOLIDAYS. 46 1
Silver Half Dimes. The rarest are: 1794, valued at $3 ;
1795. 75 cts -; J796 and 1797, $2 each; 1800, 75 cts.; 1801,
$1.50; 1802, $50; 1803, $1.50; 1805, $3; 1846, $1.
Silver Three Cent Pieces. The rarest are: 1851 to
1854 inclusive, 15 cts. each ; 1855, 25 cts.; 1856 to 1861, inclu-
sive, 15 cts. each ; 1863 to 1872, inclusive, 50 cts. each.
One Cent Pieces. The rarest are: 1793, with wreath,
valued at $2.50; 1793, with chain, $3.50; 1793, with liberty
cap, $4; 1799, $25; 1804, $200; 1809, $1.
Half Cent Pieces. The rarest are: 1793, valued at $1 ;
1796, $10; 1831, 1836, 1840 to 1849 and 1852, $4.
A Bull is an official letter from the Pope of Rome, written
on parchment, in the Latin language and having attached to
it a leaden seal impressed with the images of Saint Peter and
Saint Paul. It is the form of apostolic rescript generally used
in legal matters. There are two other kinds of papal edicts
known as the Brief and the Signature. When the Bull grants
a favor the leaden seal is attached by means of silken cords:
when it directs an execution to be performed, with flax cords.
New Year's Day.. Jan. 1. In all States and Territories
except Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maine, Mas-
sachusetts, New Hampshire, North Carolina, South Carolina
and Rhode Island.
Anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans. Jan. 8. In
Lincoln's Birthday. Feb. 12. In Louisiana.
Washington 's Birthday. Feb. 22. In all States and Ter-
ritories except Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, In-
diana, Kansas, Maine, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Texas,
Oregon and Tennessee.
Shrove Tuesday. March 1. In Louisiana and cities of
Mobile, Montgomery and Selma, Ala.
A?iniversary of Texan Independence. March 2. In Texas.
Firemen s Anniversary . March 4. in Louisana.
Good Friday. April 15. In Florida, Louisana, Minnesota
Memorial Day. April 26. In Georgia.
Battle of San Jacinto. April 21. In Texas.
Decoration Day. May 30. In Colorado, Maine, Vermont,
Connecticut, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode
Island, New York, Pennsylvania and District of Columbia.
Fourth of July. In all States and Territories.
General Election Day. Generally on Tuesday after the
first Monday in November is a legal holiday in California,
Maine, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, South Car-
olina and Wisconsin.
Thanksgiving Day. Usually last Thursday in November
and Fast days whenever appointed by the President are legal
holidays in all the States and Territories.
Christmas Day. Dec. 25. In all States and Territories.
VALUE OF FOREIGN MONEY IN GOLD.
. France, ....
. Netherlands, .
WEATHER SIGNAL FLAGS
Krone, (crown), .
Twenty Lire, .
WEATHER SIGNAL FLAGS OF THE UNITED STATES.
There are four flags used by the United States Government
at Weather Signal Stations to signal the approaching state of
No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4.
White Flag- Blue Flag.
Black Triangular White Flag with
Flag. black square in center.
Clear or Fair
Rain or Snow.
No. i is a plain white flag, 6 ft. square, indicating clear or
fair weather. No. 2 is a plain blue flag, 6 ft. square, indicating
rain or snow. No. 3 is a black triangular flag, 4 ft. at base
and 6 ft. long, for temperature. No. 4 is a white flag, 6 ft.
square, with a black square center, called the cold wave flag.
It indicates the approach of a sudden and considerable fall in
temperature and is usually ordered out twenty-four hours or
more in advance of the cold wave. It is not displayed unless
a temperature of 45 degrees or lower is expected. Nos. 3 and
4 are never put out together. No. 3 is always displayed with
either No. 1 or No. 2 or sometimes with both. The flags gen-
erally are attached to perpendicular poles and then are to be
read downward from the top. When No. 3 is placed over 1
or 2 it indicates warmer weather; when below it, it indicates
cooler weather. When No. 3 is not displayed the indications
are that the temperature will remain unchanged.
No. i, alone, fair weather, stationary temperature.
No. 2, alone, rain or snow, stationary temperature.
No. 3 above No. i, fair weather, warmer.
No. 3 above No. 2, rain or snow, warmer.
No. 3 below No. 1, fair weather, colder.
No. 3 below No. 2, rain or snow, colder.
No. 4 below No. 1 , fair weather, cold wave.
No. 3 on top, followed by 1 and 2 in order, warmer, fair
weather, followed by rain or snow.
Executions of condemned criminals were performed in
olden time by cutting the head off with a sword or an axe.
The victim's head was generally placed upon a large block of
wood and severed from the body by a blow of the axe in the
hands of the official headsman. In 1789 Guillotin, a French
physician, proposed to the Constituent Assemby to abolish the
usual brutal mode of execution and use machinery, although
he did not invent the machine. In 1792 Dr. Antoine Louis
invented the machine which beheads a person by a single fall
of a cutter or blade which is raised to position by a cord and
let fall upon the neck of the victim who has been fastened in
position. The machine was at first called Louison or Louisette,
after its inventor, but a satirical song published in a royalist
SHORT RULES FOR INTEREST. 465
newspayer of the day used the word Guillotine and this soon
superseded the others.
SHORT RULES FOR INTEREST.
First, express the entire time in days.
Second, multiply the principal by the number of days.
Third, divide this product according to the rate as follows:
For 3 per cent, by 1 20.
For 4 per cent, by 90.
For 5 per cent, by 72.
For 6 per cent, by 60.
For 7 per cent, by 51?.
For 8 per cent, by 45.
For 9 per cent, by 40.
For 10 per cent, by 36.
For 1 2 per cent, by 30.
As the divisor is fractional in the case of 7 per cent, it is
simpler to find the rate at 6 per cent, and increase it by one-
sixth of itself.
Reason of the Rule. The interest of any sum at one per
cent, can be obtained for any number of days by multiplying
that sum by the days and dividing by 360, pointing off two
decimal places for the one per cent. This analysis of the
operation would be different but would bring the same result.
Take an example: Interest on $20 for 96 days at i#. One
per cent, of $20 for one year (360 days) is 20 cents; for one
day it is ^ of 20 cents or ,' 8 cent; for 96 days it is 96 times as
much as for one day or % = $}i cents. Now, since the figures
are not changed by multiplying by 1 per cent., omit that oper-
ation. Then as the result is the same whether you multiply
by the number of days last or first, perform this multiplication
first, dividing by 360 afterwards. This gives the same result,
but if the rate were always one it would not matter which op-
eration were performed first. Now, the interest at 6 per cent,
is six times as much as at i per cent. But instead of multi-
plying your result by six take a short cut before j-ou get the
result and divide your product of dollars and days by 60, in-
stead of 360, because you know that dividing the divisor has
the same effect upon the quotient as multiplying the dividend
by the same number, and 60 is obtained by dividing 360 by 6,
the rate. And observe that all those divisors above are ob-
tained by dividing 360 by the rate per cent, required, and in
this way you can remember the rule.
So that the rule might be condensed for any rate as fol-
lows: Multiply the principal by the time in days. Divide this
by the number obtained b3' dividing 360 by the required rate,
and point off two decimal places in the quotient more than are
MASON AND DIXON'S LINE.
This celebrated line is the southern boundary of Pennsyl*
vania, separating it from the States of Maryland and Virginia.
It was run, with the exception of about twenty-two miles, by
Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two English surveyors,
between Nov. 15, 1763, and December 26, 1767, and separated
at that time slave and free territory. John Randolph, of Vir-
ginia, was the first to give the line prominence, using the ex-
pression frequently in the heated debates that arose in Con-
gress on the question of excluding slavery from Missouri. The
newspapers of the country caught up the phrase and it gained
a celebrity which it still retains, though now, since the aboli-
tion of slavery, only a historical reminiscence.
THE PRESIDENT HOW HE IS CHOSEN.
The people do not vote directly for President and Vice-