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Bunbury Church, looking west — Tomb of Sir Hugh Calveley, and the Egerton Chapel

(see page x6oi

7. Elliott, Photo. Copyright

Gfiffitk, lyp., Chester



Journal



OF THE



Hrcbitectural, Hrcba^oloGical,

AND

Ibistoric Societ\>

for tbe County ant) tbe Cit^? of Cbester*
ant) IRortb Males .




1Rew Seriee— tDoL ^IV.

printed an& pubUsbeD for tbe Society

By G. R. Griffith, Grosvenor Street, Chester
1908



COPYRIGHT — entered AT STATIONERS' HALL



j3Ab7o
C5f\1

V. If



The Council of the Chester and North Wales Arc hceo logical
and Historic Society desire it to be known that the
Authors of any Papers printed in the Society's Journal
are alone responsible for the statements or opinions
contained in such Papers.

2 his Volume has been edited by the Hon. Editorial Secretary,
the Rev. F. Sanders, M.A., F.S.A., who takes this
opportunity of thanking the Curator (Mr. A. New-
stead) for prepari7ig the Index,



Cbeeter an& IRortb males Hrcb^oloaical
anb Ibietoric Society?

COUNCIL AND OFFICERS FOR THE SESSION 1907-1908



patron :
HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF WESTMINSTER

prest&ent :
THE LORD BISHOP OF CHESTER, D.D.

IDkesprcslDente :

EARL EGERTON OF TATTON
•THE MAYOR OF CHESTER
•THE SHERIFF OF CHESTER
•THE DEAN OF CHESTER
•THE ARCHDEACON OF CHESTER, M.A., F.S.A.

THE RECORDER OF CHESTER

Mr. T. S. GLEADOWE, M.A.

Mr. henry TAYLOR, F.S.A.

• Ex -officio

elected ObcmbcvB:

Dr. J. C. BRIDGE, M.A., F.S.A. Mr. R. NEWSTEAD, A.L.S., &c.

Mr. W. E. brown Rhv. CANON COOPER SCOTT, MA.

Mr. H. B. DUTTON Mr. F. SIMPSON

Mr. J. T. COLDER Mr. WILLIAM VERNON, J.P.

Rev. H. GRANTHAM Mr. W. E. B. WHITTAKER

Mr. G. W. HASWELL Mr. F. H. WILLIAMS

Mr. F. W. LONGBOTTOM, F.R.A.S. Mr. JAMES WILLIAMS
Mr. C. H. MINSHULL

iDon. Uieasurer:
Mr. F. SKIPWITH, J.P.

t)on. Curator and Xibradan :
Mr. ROBERT NEWSTEAD, A.L.S., F.E.S., &c.

Secretaries :
Honorary-M.K. EDWARD HODKINSON, Abbey Street, Chester
Hon. Edttortal—KiLV. F. SANDERS, M.A., F.S.A., The Vicarage, Hcylake
Genetal-M.R. WALTER CONWAY, Old Bank Buildings, Chester

757286



Zablc of Contents

PAGE

A FEW Notes on the Coins of the Potter-Meols

Collection By F. W. Longbottom, F.R.A.S. - 5 — 17

. The Chester Mystery Plays By Prof. H. GoUancz,
/^ M.A., D.Lit. 18-28



^



V



The Quakers in Chester under the Protectorate

By the Rev. F. Sanders, M.A., F.S.A. - - 29-84

The River Dee By Frank Simpson .... 85— in

Two Cheshire Soldiers of Fortune of the XIV.

Century By Dr. Joseph C. Bridge, M.A., D. Mus.

(Oxon.), F S.A. :

Sir Hugh Calveley 112— 165

Sir Robert Knolles 166—229

Appendix 230—231

Notes 232

Obituary (the late Dr. Stolterfoth) .... 233

Abstract of Proceedings 1906- 1907 .... 234—253

Excursions 234—238

Council Meetings 238—247

Report of the Council 247—250

The Hon. Curator and Librarian's Report - 250 — 252

Balance Sheet 253

List of Members 254—260

List of Illustrations 261

Index 262-268

J^ Chester Mystery Plays, proposed Revival - - 269—272

\ Appendix— Tr^v.^ Chester Whitsun Plays



sj





a few IRotee on tbe Coina of tbe potter::*
/IDeols Collection, toun^ on tbe dbesbtre Sbore,
ant) presented to tbe Cbestet ant) IRortb Males
Brcb^olOGtcal anb Ibtstoric Society by /IDr. Z.
S. Gleat)owe

BY F. W. I.ONGBOTTOM, F.R.A.S.
(Read 21st February, 1905^

I HE faint radiance that glimmers along the
distant horizons of history is so strangely
illusive, that the student welcomes any means
by which the feeble glow can be caught and focussed
into useful light. Perhaps no objects so readily yield
their many-sided story as the pieces of money, struck
and passed from hand to hand, in the days when other
records were few. None of the many creations of the
great human family are more durable ; and none fix
their enduring narrative within such certain chrono-
logical limits. It was especially an appreciation of this
last attribute that led to this modest enquiry being
undertaken.

As it is quite impossible now to say where all the
coins described by Dr. Hume^ in his book *' Antiquities
from the Sea Coast of Cheshire," ultimately found a
resting place, it seems reasonable to suppose that a few
of them, at least, passed into Mr. Potter's hands ; and
that, therefore, our list and Dr, Hume^s may, occasionally,
be describing the same specimen. But, in the main, the



« * « / ••



:';.''^o' *::..: ok*- FEW notes on the coins of

two collections are so evidently distinct, that it will be
safe to consider them as complementary to each other.

Taking this view, then, and regarding the two por-
tions of the gatherings as one whole, it may be said
that they are singularly free from the suspicion of added
pieces. A common danger in setting people to look
for things, and paying them to do so, is that items
are apt to creep in ; items, which, genuine enough in
themselves, are not of the district. The old prejudice
that associates '' endowment of research " with bogus
discovery, may, however, be ignored for once, for,
all through, there is an apparent identity of origin
indicated.

Then, concerning another frequent trouble connected
with the unearthing of treasure — the leakage. Even
liberally allowing for the inevitable loss of many speci-
mens, through their having fallen into the hands of
irresponsible people, the gaps in the long series are still
formidable. But, if they are carefully analysed, they
are found to be just of the order that the antiquary
would anticipate on purely historical grounds.

Had we, for instance, been hastily inclined to expect
more gold pieces in the collections, a second thought at
once explains their scarcity, by their limited circulation
in times when even the lowest values of them had such
a high purchasing power. Besides, with the exception
of Roman or Greek, a few early British, and Henry III.'s
so-called *' gold penny," no money was struck in the
precious metal until nearly the middle of the reign of
Edward HI., when our little settlement was in a rapid
decline.

Were we surprised at the limited number of Greek,
Roman, or early British strikings, a consideration of



THE POTTER-MEOI^ COLLECTION 7

their solidity immediately demands that a large per-
centage of those originally scattered must have sunk
deeply into the quicksands, as the sea dug them out of
their previous resting place.

Deducting reasonable exceptions, the lighter coins
have survived the trying conditions best. Copper and
Bronze must also have suffered, both in quantity and
quality, from the solvent action of vegetable acids in
these forest beds.

Turning, however, from these suggestions of loss, let
us hasten to examine the wealth we possess, and to be
grateful for it.

Taking the yield of this district in its entirety, it
proclaims itself the ordinary money of the people ; the
everyday cash of commerce showing signs of the wear
and tear of constant interchange. A favoured specimen
here and there, in '' mint" state, tells of careful hoard-
ing ; but there is no indication of a buried treasure
chest, or of the spoils of a lost galleon.

Perhaps the most important problem in connection
with a *' find " of coins is, '* How did they come there " ?
A careful weighing of all the available evidence, points
to the existence of a settlement near Dove Point from
the earliest times. This station may have originally
been on what was an island at certain states of the tide ;
but any structure of the nature of a *' lake dwelling,"
as ordinarily understood, is prohibited by the exposed
position, and the fury of the winds and waves on this
wild coast.

This coast village was, probably, the immediate source
of all the miscellaneous collection of coins and antiqui-
ties which, for so many years, turned up in its vicinity ;
but a glance at the immense variety of the *' finds,"

B2



8 A FEW NOTES ON THE COINS OF

compels us to look for some extraneous auxiliary
supply. Probably, shipwreck was the great feeder in
this case. At a time when the Dee was of a greater
relative maritime importance, and more especially in
the pre-compass days (when mariners kept closer in-
shore), many a goodly vessel must have been caught
by the treacherous currents, and urged by the prevalent
gales on to this dangerous lee-shore.

Mr. G. H. Morion^ in his "Geology of the Country
round Liverpool," speaking of shipwrecks, attributes
the finds to " objects washed up from them, and sub-
sequently lost or thrown away by the villagers."

From the positions in which the various things occur,
it seems certain that they must have passed through the
hands of these villagers ; that, in fact, as Dr. Hume
puts it, " Neptune did not hide them ; but he assists at
their finding by disintegrating the turf-bog, in which
hundreds more probably lie buried."

Speaking of another interesting problem. Dr. Hume
says : " The great bulk of our heterogeneous series will
be found to appertain to the 13th century; hence the
induction that the settlement then attained the height
of its prosperity. From this period its decline seems
to have been rapid, pointing to some great flood or
other disaster — during which the forest was levelled,
and mostly swept away — as a proximate cause."

Morton confirms this, remarking, " most of the objects
found belong to the 13th century. The gap after this
is probably due to some catastrophe, caused by some
wide-spread invasion by the sea ; as at Stanlow, towards
the end of the 13th century." The picturesque account
of the flood at Stanlow, in the *' Chronicle of St. Wer-



THE POTTER-MKOI.S COLLECTION 9

burg," tells of ''a dreadful inundation from the sea in
1279. I^his calamity was followed, in 1287, by the fall
of the great Tower of the Church, in a violent storm.
In the same year the lands of the Abbey suffered from
a second inundation."

The coins^ both ours and those listed by Dr. Hume^
point to a focus of commercial prosperity about the
middle of the reign of Henry III. (say 1250) ; but they
do not support the idea of a sweeping change so early
as the end of the 13th century, as Edward I.'s later
issues, and the coinages of Edward II., and even of
Edward III., are fairly well represented. Our two
Edward III. Quarter- Nobles were not issued until
135 1. From this it would appear that, if the destruc-
tion of this settlement came from the sea, and no
doubt it did, its disappearance did not synchronise
with the disaster at Stanlow, but probably took place
during the reign of Edward III.

A broken chain of later coins might be regarded as
proving the existence of the village, under reduced
circumstances, up to quite recent times (say even the
middle of the 17th century) ; but there are evidences
that any late community must have lived on quite a
different site from the early settlers. Possibly, loss at
sea alone is sufficient to explain the existence of the
later coins, as they occur in a somewhat irregular
sequence. Guineas found on the surrounding sand-
banks undoubtedly came from the wreck of a vessel
in the reign of William III.

To take the lists a little more in detail, we note the
appearance of only three Greek pieces, and they are not
important ones ; but what a vista of early voyaging
they open up ! Who brought them from Carthage ?



10 A FEW NOTES ON THE COINS OF

The Roman period is, of course, more favoured. Omit-
ting doubtful items, the Potter selection consists of ten
specimens, which range from Claudius Caesar (a.d. 41)
to Postumus (a.d. 267). Dr. Hume's portion extends
from Claudius to Magnus Maximus (the last Roman
money struck in England, a.d. 388), and totals 55.

It is of interest to note here, that our own City*s
** finds " amount to some hundreds of specimens, and
cover a period of about two centuries ; whilst the dredg-
ings from the Thames, near London Bridge, run from
the reign of Augustus (b.c. 30) to that of Honorius
(a.d. 423), and are numbered by thousands.

After their complete conquest, the Romans permitted
only the Imperial money to circulate in Britain. They
only actually struck money here during a century.
Mints existed in London and Colchester, from a.d. 287
to 388.

Both the collections under survey are weak in coins
emanating from a Romano-British mint. Hume quotes
one, and also one bearing the ^* Britannia" reverse,
which first appeared during the reign of Hadrian, about
122 ; but was more generally used by Antoninus Pius
(a.d. 140), and is fairly frequent in ** finds " from other
parts of England.

The appearance of a few of the undecipherable frag-
ments of Roman coins from the Meols colony, suggests
the action of fire ; no doubt a common enough occur-
rence in those unsettled days ; but how it calls to mind
the great rebellion under Boadicea ! Probably, the local
fire was totally unconnected with the British uprising,
which culminated in the destruction of Londinium in
A.D. 62. For one reason, Suetonius himself, whose
absence from the south gave Boadicea her opportunity,



THE POTTER-MEOLS COLLECTION II

was at this time up in North Wales, with his victorious
army. Even to-day, workmen occasionally cut through
the fire stratum which underlies the City of London,
and divides the older from the later Roman Metropolis.

Who can say that the coin of Claudius in our posses-
sion was not once the property of one of the XXth
Legionaries, who came over with him in a.d. 43, and
were stationed in Chester.

The coins of the Constan tines, so common in most
districts, are almost entirely wanting in the Potter
" finds," and are very poorly represented in Dr. Humeh,
York, where Constan tine the Great was proclaimed in
306, turns them up in hundreds.

At the close of the Roman occupation in 410, comes
a long break in the numismatic history of our island.
Then we arrive at that interesting link between our
Latin and our Teu-tonic conquerors, the Anglo-Saxon
sceat. Unfortunately, the Cheshire shore has not yet
yielded a specimen of this ; but it may be worth while
to note that Professor Reary considers these pieces as,
probably, antedating most of the extant Anglo-Saxon
and Irish manuscripts or architecture. Fancy little
discs of metal belonging to a past when, perhaps, the
hallowed stone of our Cathedral's 6th-century font lay
unhewn in its native quarry, and before the building
of even the Saxon walls of our much-defended City.

The Northumbrian styca (of which Dr. Hume men-
tions three), follows the sceat in about a hundred years.
Meols is one of the very few places, outside their ancient
limits of circulation, where they have been unearthed.

Amongst the later pieces, the Edgar Penny especially
appeals to us, as that King visited Chester ; though



12 A FEW NOTES ON THE COINS OF

Professor Owen throws grave doubt upon the pictu-
resque incident of his row on our famous river.

The Penny of ^thelred II., with the "Hand of
Providence " reverse, is an interesting coin. The speci-
men mentioned by Dr. Hume was a distinct one, being
more legible as regards the place of mintage.

The " Sovereign " type Penny of Edward the Con-
fessor, reproduces as its obverse the Great Seal of
England of that period.

The Pence of Bishop Beaumont and Bishop Hatfield,
recall the assistance their distinctive marks rendered in
correctly attributing some of the coins of the first three
Edwards, when neither dates nor numerals appeared
on the money.

Meols has only furnished us with some half-dozen
Chester strikings ; but then, our local mint was never
a very active one.

The little Scottish collection shows that the Scotsman
of those early days was just as enterprising as we find
him now !

Irish pieces are slightly more plentiful, as one would
expect from the proximity of the two coasts. They
commence with the nth century Hiberno - Danish
Penny, and run on intermittently to the Half-pence
of William III.

Considered as a series, our " cut " half-pence and
farthings are the most complete. '' Cutting " silver
pennies into halves for half-pence, and into four for
farthings, was a common practice, and even continued
after its prohibition, when the smaller pieces were
regularly coined, in 1280.



THE POTTER-MEOLS COLLECTION 1 3

It is very difficult for us, in this 20th century, to
realise the great marketing-power of these insignificant-
looking fractions. It helps us, perhaps, if we remember,
that a penny in the reign of Henry III. equalled nearly
thirteen shillings of our money to-day. The great
number of these divided coins in our collection, con-
firms an opinion that the colony near Dove Point was
not a wealthy one, as they far outnumber the pieces
of higher value.

" Clipping " is also amply illustrated by many of our
specimens, despite the terrible penalties this fraudulent
practice entailed.

Quite a fair proportion of " rarities " appear in our
lists, notably : Pennies of Henry I., and of the first
issue of Henry II., minted at Ipswich ; Henry III.,
struck at Rhuddlan ; and one of his of the '' Rex
Terci " type ; also a Penny of John Baliol, coined at
St. Andrews ; and a Half-penny of Robert III., of
Perth ; and Farthings of Edward I , of lyincoln and
Dublin.

To endeavour to individualise the breaks in the con-
tinuity of our long series would be a heavy task, nor is
it a necessary one, for, as we noted earlier, they are
what could have been prophesied by any student of
the circumstances under which the antiquities were
found ; and they amply confirm the precarious exist-
ence, and rapid decline, of this little township, which
Dr, Hume thinks had quite disappeared before Eliza-
bathes time.

Appended is a list of the Potter-Meols coins, complete
as far as it goes, but not weighted with the special
distinctions of the scientific numismatist, which are
needless refinements for our purpose.



14 A FEW NOTES ON THE COINS OF

I must, in closing, gratefully acknowledge my in-
debtedness to Mr. Newstead and Mr. Shone for kindly
help ; and to Dr. Hume and Mr. Morton for their
books. Without pledging any of these authorities to
my views, I may say that this modest Paper could not
have been written without their sympathy and assist-
ance.

Summary of the " Potter-Meols " Coins

Roman^ a.d. 51-268 - - - 10

An^lo-Sa^ofiy &c.y 956-1066 . . _ 8

Wtlliafn I. to Henry I 11.^ 1066- 1272 - 79

Edward I. and 11.^ 1272-1327 ~ - - 55

Continental Sterlings^ circa 1272-1327 - - 4

Edward III.^ 1327-1377 - - - - 14

Richard II. to Mary^ 1377-155^ - - - 3

Elizabeth^ 1558- 1603 - - - 6

Later and Sundries {Scotch^ &c.) - - 42

Grand Total - - 221



Summary of Coins listed by Dr. Hume

Greek 3

Roman - - - - 55

Ancient British - - - ^

Saxon and Danish - - - - - 12

A nglo- Norman —

William II. and Henry III. - - 88

Edward I. and II, . . . . 70

Edward III. - - - 6

Richard II. to Philip and Mary - - 10

Elizabeth - - - - - - 14

Later and Scotch^ &4:, 86



Grand Total - - 34



THE POTTER-MKOLS COLLECTION



15



Xist Of Coins in tbe ** potter" Collection, tonnb on tbe Cbesbite
Sbore, near /iDeols, an^ now in tbe Cbester /IDuseunt

ROMAN



Reign.


Period.


Description


ObTerse.


Reverse.


Quan-
tity.


Notes.


1 Claudius ...


A.D. 41-54


2nd Brass


(?)


(?)




Much worn


Nero


„ 54-68




(?)


Female figure, S.C.




Worn


Vespasian ...


„ 70-79


Denarius


Imp. Cses. Augg., &c.


Obliterated






Aurelius .


„ 161-180


2nd Brass


A-urelius Antoninus,
Marcus, &c.






Much
patinated


Gallienus . . .


„ 260-268


3rd „


Gallienus Aug., &c.


A Centaur
Appolini Cons. Aug.


} 1




Postumus ...
Various


„ 258-267
Unat


3rd „
tributable


Imp. C. Postumus
P. T. Aug.


Gladiator

Total




Corroded


10











ANGLO - SAXON



Reign.


Period.


Description.


Type.


Mint.


Quan-
tity.


Notes.


Edgar
Ethebred II.


956-975
978-1015


Penny


Cross ...
Providence


York

(?)




Rare, but
broken


>j


M


,,


Common..


York






Cnut


1017-1035




Profile ...


Chester or Leicester




Rare Mint


))


>>




^-bust ...


London






Edw. Conf.


1042-1066




Profile ...


Chester







>>


"


,,


Sovereign










Hiberno-


Danish




Circa


11th Century

Total








8























i6




ANGLO - NORMAN


AND LATER






Keign.


Period,


Description.


Type.


Mint.


Quan-
tity.


Notes.


William I...


1066-1087


"Cut" Farthing...


Uncertain


Uncertain


1


j


„ I. or II.


1066-1100


,, Halfpenny


Star, side

face
Uncertain


,,


1


Rare J


Henry I. ..


1100-1135


>> >>


London


1


1


jj


>>


Penny


Profile ...


Uncertain


1


1


Henry II. ...


1154-1189


>>


1st issue...
2nd „ ...


Ipswich (2) ; uncertain (1)
London, Canterbury, &c.


3
5


Scarce


John


1199-1216


"Cut" Farthing...


Irish ...


Dublin


1




Henry III....


1216-1272


Pennies


Long Cross


London, Canterbury,
Oxford, Khuddlan, &c.
1 "RexTerci"


10


Rhuddlan &
"RexTerci"
scarce


„II.orIII.


1154-1272


"Cut" Half-pence


Various ...


London, Lincoln, Dublin,


46


An interest-




(Mostly


Henrv III.)




Winchester, &c.




ing lot


„ 11. or III.


1154-1272
(Mostly


"Cut" Farthings
Henry III.)


>>


Uncertain Mints


10


>>










1272-1307


Pennies


Usual bust


Total

London, Canterbury,
Bristol, Lincoln, York,


79




Edward I. ..


25


Interesting






















and Bury-St. -Edmunds






„ I. or II.


1272-1327


Half-pennies


>>


London, Dublin, and


9


) )




(Mostly


Edward I., but di
to attribute)


fficult


Waterford






„ I. or II.


1272-1327


Farthings


Usual bust


London, Lincoln, and


6


Lincoln, rare




(Edward


II. 's are not distin


guishable


Dublin




Dublin, „




Ir


om those of Edwar


dl.)








„ II. ...


1307-1327


Pennies


Usual bust


London, Canterbury, and




All,

undoubtedly

belong to

Edward II.




1327-1377


Quarter-Nobles ...


1316-1333|

3rd issue,
1351


Durham, &c.
Bishop Beaumont's
m.m. Lion rampant and

Fleur-de-lis

Total
m.m. Cross, London


■15




55




„ III. ...


2~




„ III. ... »


Half-groat


„ „


1




„ III. ...|


Pennies




London, York, Durham


1




I




1345-1381 ■[


2 Bp. Hatfield's, „
m.m. Bent Crozier


}'


Hatfield's,
scarce


„ III. ... „


Half.pence
Sterlings or


Usual type
Edwardian


London

Total
Illegible


2






14




„ L,II.,


1272-1377


4


Common


or III.




Demiers


bust




"=




Richard II...


1377-1399


Penny


Usual bust


York


1


Scarce


Henry VII...


1485-1609


Groat


2nd issue


London


1




Mary


1553-1568


M


Mary alone





1




Elizabeth ... 1658-1603


Shillings


Usual ...


m.m.'s Tun and Martin


2


Worn


t)


,,


Sixpences


M


„ Rose and Castle


2


>>





"


Pennies


1st & 2nd
issue




2




Charles I. ...


1626-1649


Siipence


Tower ...


m.m. Eye

Total


1


))




10






^^^^^





THE POTTER-MEOLS COLLECTION



17



SCOTCH



Reign.


Period. Description.


Type, Mint.

1


Quan-
tity.


Notes.


Will, the Lion


1165-1214


"Cut" Half-pence


Usual bust


Uncertain


2




Alexander II.


1214-1249


Pennies


j>


Edinburgh


2




„ III.


1249-1285


,,


>>


"Rex Scot," &c.


4




John Baliol


1292-1296


,,


,,


St. Andrews


1


Rare


Robert III.


1390-1406


Halfpenny


"


Perth

Total


1


Very rare




10











VARIOUS



r



"Abbey" Tokens ...


2




17th Century Tokens, Bristol (1657) and Westbury (1656)


2




William and Mary, Irish Half-pence, 1693 and 1694


2




Foreign Coppers (sundry)


5




One Bronze Naval Medal (worn)


1




Badly Corroded Coins and Fragments


19




Total


31











1




^be Cbeeter flD^aterv pla^6

BY PROF. H. GOLLANCZ, M.A., D.Lit.
(Read 20th November, 1906^

N Tuesday, November 20th, 1906, Prof. H.
Gollancz, the well-known authority on early
English literature, gave a lecture at the
Museum, before the Chester Archaeological Society, on
''The Chester Mystery Plays." The Archdeacon of
Chester presided, and a large audience included Sir


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Online LibraryJoseph Cox BridgeThree Chester Whitsun plays → online text (page 1 of 22)