Joseph Edmund Collins.

Life and times of the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald, premier of the Dominion of Canada online

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of the surrounding population. I am far Ir.-m wishing to encourage indis-
orima e pretensions to superiority on the part of any particular

race ; but while the greater part of every portion of the American conti-
nent isstil. un 1 unoccupied, and while the English exhibit such
constant and marked activity in colonization, so long will it be idle to
imagine that there is any portion of that continent into which that race
will not penetrate, or in which, when it has t, it will not predo-
minate. It is but a question of time and mode ; it is but to determine
whether the small numb m inhabit Lower Canada shall
be made English, under a government which can protect them, or whether
the process shall be delayed until a much larger number shall have to un-
dergo, at the rude hands of its Uncontrolled rivals, the extinction of a
nationality strengthened and embittered by continua:

\ndisthis French Canadian nationality one which, for the good
merely of that people, we ought to strive to perpetuate, even if it were
possible ? I know of no national distinctions marking and continuing a
more hopeless inferiority. The language, the laws, the character of the
North American continent are English ; and every race but the English
(I apply this to all who speak the English language), appears there in a
condition of inferiority. It is to elevate them from that inferiority that
I desire to give to the Canadians our English character. I desire it for
the sake of the educated classes, whom the distinction of language and
manners keeps apart from the great empire to which they belong.

" At the best, the fate of the educated and aspiring colonist is, at pre-
sent, one of little hope, and little activity ; but the French Canadian is
cast still further into the shade, by a language and habit foreign to those
of the imperial government. A spirit of exclusion has closed the higher
professions on the educated classes of the French Canadians, more, per-
haps, than was absolutely necessary ; but it is impossible for the utmost


liberality — on the part of the British government — to give an equal posi-
tion in the general competion of its vast population to those who speak a
foreign language. I desire the amalgamation still more for the sake of
the humbler classes. Their present state of rude and equal plenty is fast
deteriorating under the pressure of population in the narrow limits to
which they are confined. If they attempt to better their condition, by

tiding themselves over the neighbouring country, they will necessarily
.ore and more mingled with an English population ; if they prefer

lining stationary, the greater part of them must be labourers in the
employ of English capitalist*, [neither ease it would appear, that the
reneh Canadians are doomed, in some measure, to oc-
cupy an i:.- tion, and to be dependent on the English for employ-
ment Th poverty and dependence would merely be aggravated
in a ten-f.>ld degree, by a spirit of Jealous and resentful nationality, which
slum! working clan of the community from the possessors
of wealth and employers <>i labour. t t t

ui hardly be OOnoeived a nationality more destitute of all that
.-«■ a people, than that which is exhibited by the

descendants of the French of I oada, owing to their retaining their

iliac language and manner* They are i people with no history, and

DO W Ingland is written in a language which

• theirs; and the only literature which their language renders familiar

to them, is that of a nation from which they have been separated by eighty
years of a foreign ra as which the Revolu-

tion and i - >ught in the whole political, moral and

a a people whom recent history, man-
ners and mode of thought, to entirely separate from them, that the French
liana are wholly dependent for almost all the instruction and amuse-
ErOBQ books; it is on this essentially foreign literature, which
is conversant about events, opinions and habits of life, perfectly strange
and unintelligible to thi are compelled to be dependent.

Their newspapers are mostly written by natives of France, who have either
it nnes in the province, or been brought into it by the
f leaders in order to supply the dearth of literary talent available for
the political press. In the same way, their nationality operates to deprive
them of the enjoyments and civilizing influence of the arts. Though de-
scended from the people in the world that most generally love, and have
moat successfully cultivated the drama — though living on a continent, in
h almost every town, great or small, has an English theatre, the
■ h population of Lower Canada, cut off from every people people that
speak its own language, can support no natioral stage.

632 A rVF.XDIX.

I'HK l M<>\ S( lll.M K.

The following are the suggest ins which gave impulse to the movement
which finally resulted in confederation, though the earlier result was the
union of Upper and Lower Canada, an unwise and short-sighted piece of
legislation: —

"Two kinds of union have been proposed — federal and legislative. By
the first, the separate legislature of each province would be preserved in
its present form, and retain almost all its present attributes of internal
legislation: the federal legislature exercising no power, save in those mat-
ters of general 00H6MB, which may have been expressly ceded to it by the
constituent provinces. A legislative onion would imply a complete incor-
poration of the provinces included in it under one legislature, exercising
universal and sole legislative authority over all of them, in exactly the
same manner as the parliament legislates alone for the whole of the British
Isles. On my first arrival in Canada, 1 was strongly inclined to the pro-
ject of a federal union, and it was with such a plan in view, that I dis-
cussed a general measure for the government of the colonies, with the
deputation from the lower provinces, and with various leading individuals
and public bodies in both the Canadas. I was fully aware that it might
be objected that a federal union would, in many cases, produce a weak
and rather cumbrous government ; that a colonial federation must have,
in fact, little legitimate authority or business, the greater part of the or-
dinary functions of a federation falling within the scope of the imperial
legislature and executive ; and that the main inducement to federation,
which is the necessity of conciliating the -the pretensions of independent
states to the maintenance of their own sovereignty, could not exist in the
case of colonial dependencies, liable to be moulded according to the plea-
sure of the supreme authority at home. In the course of the discussions
which I have mentioned, I became aware also of great practical difficulties
in any plan of federal government, particularly those that must arise in
the management of the general revenues, which would in such a plan have
to be again distributed among the provinces.

But 1 had still more strongly impressed on me the great advantages of an
united government ; and I was gratified by finding the leading minds of
the various colonies strongly and generally inclined to a scheme that would
elevate their countries into something like a national existence. I thought
it would be the tendency of a federation sanctioned and consolidated by a
monarchial government, gradually to become a complete legislative union ;
and that thus, while conciliating the French of Lower Canada, by leaving


them the government of their own province and their own internal legis-
tion, I might provide for the protection of British interests by the general
government, and for the gradual transition of the provinces into an united
and homogeneous community.

If the population of Upper Canada is rightly estimated at 400,000, the
English inhabitants of Lower Canada at 150,000, and the French at 450,-
000, the union of the two provinces would not only give a clear English
majority, but one which would be increased every year by the influence
of English emigration; and I have little doubt that the French, when once
placed, by the legitimate course of events and the working of natural
causes, in a minority, would abandon their vain hopes of nationality. I
do not mean that they would immediately give up their present animosi-
ties, or instantly renounce the hope of attaining their end by violent
means. But the experience of the two unions in the British Isles may
teach us how effectually the strong arm of a popular legislature would

el the obedience of the refractory population; and the hopelessness
of success would gradually subdue the existing animosities, and incline the
French Canadian population to acquiesce in their new state of political

"But while 1 convince myself that such desirable ends would be secured
by the legislative union of the two provinces. 1 am inclined to go further,
and inquire whether all these objects would not more surely be attained
by attending Uui legislative union over all the British provinces in North
Aim-rica; and whether the advantages which I anticipated for two of them
might not, and should not in justice be extended to all. Such a union
would at once decisi\ tin- question of races ; it would enable all

th«- provii; operate for all common purposes; and, above all, it

ironld form a great and powerful people, possessing the means of securing
good and resyonsiUe gO fanunml for itself, and which, under the protec-
tion of the British Empire, might in some measure counterbalance the

odermnl and increasing influence of the United States on the Amer-
ican continent. I do not anticipate that a colonial legislature thus strong
and thus * Jng, would desire to abandon the connection with

Britain. On the contrary, I believe that the practical relief from
undue interferences which would be the result of such a change, would
strengthen the present bond of feelings and interests ; and that the con-
nection would only become more durable and advantageous by having

of e.juality. of freedom, and of local independence."


isi'i i iik OObOH [IB.

Here, however, it rtateamroihip grand enough t<> be able not alone to
stand unawed before that horrible possibility seen lowering behind the
urtain of the future, independence, but to say if such a destiny is writ
for the colonies, then to let it be J we cannot stay its fulfilment; it is

" 1 »n t at our first duty is to secure the well-being of our colo-

nial countrymen: lad if, in the hidden decrees of that wisdom by whieh
this world is ruled, it is written that these countries are not forever to re-
main portions of the empire, we 01 n" honour to take good care
that, when they separate from us, they should not be the only countries
on th- :.tineiit in which the An^lo-Saxon race shall be found

unfit to govern itself."

run MES.

•he islands of Newfoundland and I'iiikv Kdward, Lord Durham

said: —

'• W ith respect to the two smaller colonies of Prince Edward Island
and Newfoundland, I am of opinion, that not only would most of the rea-
sons which I have given for an union of the others, apply to them, but
that their smallness makes it absolutely necessary, as the only means of
securing any proper attention to local interests, and investing them with
that consideration, the d. of which they have so much reason to

lament in all the disputes which yearly occur between them and the citi-
zens of the United States with regard to the encroachments made by the
latter on their coasts and fisheries." . .


Strangely enough, the high commissioner favoured an unjust plan of
representation for the provinces — unjust, if it be considered that Lower
Oanada had political rights, and were entitled to their antique and exclu-
sive existence. Says his lordship: —

11 As the mere amalgamation of the houses of assembly of the two pro-
inces would not be advisable, or give at all a due share of representation
o each, a parliamentary commission should be appointed for the purpose
of forming the electoral divisions, and determining the number of mem-
bers to be returned on the principle of giving representation, as near as


may be, in proportion to population. I am averse to every plan that has
been proposed for giving an equal number of members to the two prov-
inces, in order to attain the temporary end of out-numbering the French,
because I think the same object will be obtained without any violation of
the principles of representation, and without any such appearance of in-
justice in the scheme as would set public opinion, both in England and
America, strongly against it; and because, when emigration shall have in-
creased the English population in the upper province, the adoption of
such a principle would operate to defeat the very purpose it is intended
to serve. It appears to me that any such electoral arrangement, founded
OO the present provincial divisions would tend to defeat the purposes of
DXUOD, and perpetuate the idea of disunion. . . .

"• The MMM commission should form a plan of local government by elec-
tive bodies, subordinate to the general legislature, and exercising a com-
plete control over such local affairs as do not oome within the province of
latum. The plan so framed should be made an act of the imperial
parliament, so M to prevent the general legislature from encroaching on
the powers of the local b<><

"" A general executive on an improved principle should be established,
together with a supreme court for all North American colonies. The other
;md laws of the two colonial should be left unaltered, until
the legislature of the union should think tit to change them; and the se-
curity of the Slitting endowment! of the Catholic church in Lower Canada
should be guaranteed by the act."

;i.!.k Q01 r.Kwn

II' K>U >r note on the necessity of ministerial responsibility to

the legislature. His view on the <iuestion set the tory world aghast, — but
he probably held the belief that the universe was not made for the tories.
\\, inrote: —

"The responsiblity to tho united legislature of all officers of the govern-
ment except the governor and his secretary, should bo secured by every
means known to the British constitution. The governor, as the represen-
tative of the crown, should be instructed that ho must carry on his gov-
•y heads of departments, in whom the united legislature shall
repose continence; ami that he must look for no support from home in any
contest with the legislature, except on points involving strictly imperial


ABBOTT, .!..!.< 388.


. 151, British
Adams, Mr., 263. 264, 967.

Aihlli. : . 111. I 18, 1 1'.'.

t lie, 264.

272 274,
■ no, the. ill. 257
Ail. -\ ii. » lharies, 221,

Anglin, T. W •. 380.

Archibald, !

ll. lit, ii:..

Arthur. Sir ( leorge, f ».

Arthur. Piinoe, •

Ashburton Treaty, th- .


Ayl\viu,.Iu.: ,120.


1 19.

08, 74,
77. . -. 111. LIS, I

Baldwin. Dr. Wii. ,,,87.

Badghv, H«,n. William, 112, 129, 162.
I I imiral, 157,


i-', 378, 383,
111, 417, 431-

. William Hun..-, 119, 123, 124,


Bourinot, J. (J., 496.

Booker, Colonel, 272-276.

Boncherville, M. de, i'23.

Boulton. Major, 358.

Boyd, Hon. John. 381

Bowell, Mackenzie, 411, 120.

B mu oonrs M.-nkct, L29,

Bruoe, .'"in .

Brown, . 150,

Brown, Geoi W, ill. 142,

1 l». 146, 158, L59, L62, 169, 171. 172,

17:-. L76, 17:', 185, 186, 203, 204, 207-

!31, 235, 248, 281, 2-:;.

304, 306.

Brown, Peter, 56.
John, L0a

Bnonanan. President, 284,

;. M. 212.

Borpee, Isaac, 407.
Barton, Governor, '.•:;.

man, Isaac. 227, 255.

the, 207, 2*0, 283, 800,
837, 119, lis. 456, 459, 460,

CARTER, Prederiok B. J., 292-294,

Canniff, Or. ill.
Casgrain, L'Abbc B.H., L38.
Oampb.-ll, Sir Archibald, 225.
Campbell, Thomas, 280.

:, 398,

Canadian Independence, 301, 302, 41G,

117, 196-498.
Canadian Monthly, the, 336, 369, 156, 195,

Carling, Eon. John, 207, 245.

Cameron, Malcolm, 120, 138, 148.

Caron, B. B.. 119, 1 19.

Cameron, .John Hillyard, 108, 112, 180,

194, L95, 350, 374-376.
Cauehon, Joseph Kdouard, 71, 170, 171,

184, 341,3
< '.-uii pbell, Alexander, 30, 251, 255, 292,

< iartwright, John 8 , 71.
Cartwright, B. J ., 3 8, 399, 407, 418.
Caroline, The, 92, L2L


Cat). LOT, 117.

:i a. Win.. 109, 138, 179, 206,

312, 319,

■-. 142
Chauveau, P.J.O., 17 "


chri>ti<-, David. L88, 107.
Chronicle. Brim


... L/9.
Chapais, J. I

irn. Jamt -.


I .!. 1 , « - _r i - 1 : t *. I ..nada (made

Collins, 94.

, Sir J

11. 52,

urn, James,


i . 211.

~>, 185,
200. 8

John, 23a

iw-. 4'.M.

civil War in America, 239-243,


Day, .1

Daly, Dominick, 59, 93, 94.

Davis. ,940.

Davin, Nicholas Flood, 331, 369, -J I

John Charles, 29, 91, 236, 2>7
Dennis, J^ieut-Colonel, 272. IBS, 2!
ilonel, 4 i>.

Disraeli. Mr 73, 77, 80, 81, 133, 17

Dickie. K. B., 289.

Direct Taxation, 418.

Dorion. A. A. I'll, •_'_>•, 236, 238, 247.

279, 284, 297, 321, 407.
Dominion of Canada, 313-315.
Draper, William, 58, 59, 69, 70, 83, 86,

87, 108, 112, 113, 118, 319.
Drnmmond, L. J., 149, 162, 179, 188,195,

198, 211. 229.
Dufferin Lord, 363, 364, 382, 383, 392-

Durham, Lord, 41-45, 88, 182, 435, 436.

Dunn, Peter. 73, 74, 7»;.
Duval, Judge, 196, 196.
Dunkin. Mr.. 279, 287, 298, 351.
Dinar, John Hunh-i'. 488-491.

BDGAB, .1. D. 112.

Elgin,Lord, 95, 110-112, 193, 127. 12s.

i:;i. 182, 133, 136, ik l.;:.. isl>.

Klein, I. adv. 182,

. W., 424
Ennatinger. < loL, 132.

. the. 155.

Rredale, Mr.. 128.
Bvaatora, araneoie, 217.


Famine, the [riih, lo.'UOO.
Faocher, M

otberbood, 209. ::i7.
m Raid. •_'<
:h1. Abbe\ 440.
Florida, the. 232.

Blair, A. .1.. 252, 319, 344,

Mr. . L2&

. 2-.;. 227. 312, 342.
Hamilton, 37L
M. H., 211, 247, 253, 255.
Founder, Telesphore, 407.

I Forest a , 15ft


Ifaoade, Richard rTurreH, '.•*.»,
: . John •'..

Franklin. Sir Jo]

/ | ./<-///-. [21.

Freeh I Bonore, 464. 4S0, 481,


SALT. Bfe A. T.. 119. 221, 227, 255,278,
09, 312. 318, 319,

. il»i.
Gaspe". M. Philip Aubert de, 438.
In . 1 12, 160, l'.:.

: ■
Gillmor, Major, 272.
Girouard, M., 90.

[car," 138, 423.
bar. Lord, 44, 88.

. Carl. 147. 226.

. The, 58, 138, 140, 141, 142, 14!'.
163, 167, 172. 176, 179, 180, 240,244,
248, 328, 4(X1. 455, 450, 402, 464, 464.
Gladstone, 79, 81, 133, 170, 222, 223, 369,

Gosford, Lord, 37, 38.
Gordon, Governor, 291.
Gowan, Ogle R., 71, 118.
1 Gowan, Judge, 399.
Grant, Rev. Principal, 449.
Grant, President, 371.
Graham, Sir James, 170.
Gray, John Hamilton, 289, 298.
Gray, Hon. Col., 289, 442.
Gray, Earl de, 372.



Griffin, Martin J., 484, 496.
George, Henry, 344.
Gtafry, Colonel, 122, 1SL

SION, 572.
Hannay, James, 441, 442.
Half-breed, the, 352 364.

Hatheway, Geon,'. F., 301, 310.
Halifax, Lord, 170.
Habeas Corpiu Act. 27.

'. Hi;. 154.
man. ( Ihristopher A. .
Herding, sir Jobs, 264.
, Sir John, 226,

n. Mr-. •'. F. (■• Serenas 1

!. 10, II. 86, '.'t.
1 15.

sir Bdmnnd W., 163, 184. 209,

illieni A.. £
Hincki . 71. 118, 120,130,

l 16, n:. 148. L49, 154, 155,
157, 159, 161, Li t, 174,

17:.. 17tl. 177. 1-

Hui.l, I

. 1.


Howl a:



Hoard, Augustus, 127.



JACK, Edward, 271, I

i, 312.
Ire* . 271.

I AMI'MW, Mr. Archibald, 496.

hoi.l. 107.

Langevm, Hector Louis, 207, 212. 255
289, 309. 312, 319, 328-329, 420.

Laberge, O.J . 21L

Lafontaine, 54, 68, !'<», !)1. 96.119 134
L48, 152,

Leprobon, Mrs. 44S.

Lepine, Ambrose, .'i-'>4, 362.
• /, the. 258-260.

Lemienx, Francis, 184, 2U, 288,

LeMoine, .1. M.. 487.

Leslie, James, 119, L3&

Lean 359.

Leteltier, M. Lnc, 146, 252, 407 422-424

Legislative Union, 290

LeMay M.. 491.

LeSneor, W. IF, 496.

Lindsey, Charles, 41. 286, ill.

Lincoln, Abraham, 240, 212. 250, 259
260, 269.

Libera] Com t 23.

Lorne, Lord, 422, 424.

Louise, Princess, 422,

a, Sir William. (49.

■i< I'Ai/nri'iii, df

MACDONALD, EUghi Hon. Sir John

rriTet in Canada. 17 J an. ■■

18, 19, 20 : where born, 21 : put at

■Chool, 21 : holiday haunt-, Z

talent at school, 24 : studies law, 2$ ■
defends Shoults, 29-31 : preparing for
public life, 60-55 : goes to the husl

through his first campaign,
ted to Parliament, 66 ;
d in the Legislature, 72 7:> ;
bii ' cription ox

manner in House, 75. 76j method of
advancement, 77 : hn silence in the
ads primogeniture. 78 :
y opinions like month
■ : honest change of .-pinion,
; punctures a wind spout, {
a disappointment with philo-
sophical ooolaess, 108 L09 : firs!

In favor of Protection, L09 ; ' Jfour

time has com.- at last ...M.-u-.l. .mil. 1." 1 12.

1 13 : returned second time I »r BZings-
, 118 j sttitude through the storm,
19, 125, 126 ; c-ensures government
f..r lacking precaution against it, L29,
130; connection with the British Am
erican League, L33 ; predict* the down-
fall or the Liberals, 137 . holdir
Allan in hounds. 1 »:; ; weight* upon oil
the legalisation of
murder. 1 17 : " the two masts ue over-
board,'' 148; growth of friendship be-
tween himself and F. F. Tache*. L56 ;
gets ready for the En ktitude

rdi the University Bill, the mea-
sure to restrain sale of liquor, the
Representatives Bill, and on tfa
providing for the confiscation of g

curies, 161, 162 ; -lows peevish I

Htncks' doctrine on Insufficient repre


sentation, 168 : the inspire! of Sir

Allan. 1 , '' < .' : his onslaught on tl:

form -l to thf lips in in-

■. 17"' ; prol si mi-

kitutiona] prorogation, 17-: form*

.,f Liberal*Conf overn-

in. -nt. 17s ; oeral.

17'.' : , IS . " token

by M • "'•■ LSI :

friendship between himself an. I M.

ip, 184; passage with

.wn in tin- Assembly

Mtli Colonel Kankin,

sires his hand at the helm


[iiisition of Hudson



l,j s j.. mpared with Gh


•• promoting di-

reasons foi

BishopTache, 381 ; doubts EUel'i loy-
alty. 963 ; attends Washington Con-
vention, :>7 - ">7l : his ipeeeh on treaty,
374 : personally defended l>y John
Hillyard Cameron, 374-370 ; seen
through the history of tin- Pacific
Bailway "Scandal'', 386*106; ipoooh
on Pacific Railway charter, 403 ; after

it ami before victory, 417*430 ; to

power on the wave's top." 420- !•_".» ; atti-
tude on LeteUier Question, 423; an
unanswerable aryunent, 4l'7 ; seen at

home. 499 509.

MaolonaM. I
Ma.k. 138

Maodonald, A. A.. 389.

Laid, John Sandfield, 96*96, 147,

149, l'-7. 17.;. 177. L83, 196, L97, 311,

247, 248, 251, 252, 254,

•J 77

.1 B.
Hathews, h.

Man.. . 62, ,;.;, ijc. .,;.

M tnder, 57« L32,

111. It.::, 175, 176, 17:'. 180, 188, 210,
. 350, 351,

M i tl.l, Donald A . 407.




makes a tour lnl

344, 845; militia hill miscari William 1.

132, 1 14, 146, 172, 185.
; -i ;k hill. Jif. J".": o. . 91, 92, lis, 122,

126, U5, 143, 148, 157, 169. 171. L72,

171. 177. 17-. 18*
■ 19.
Masson. I..I . K . 120.
Mars, Champ df. 137.
Macmil at, 444.

193, UN

meut with CoL \ now

lock, 280; compa
281-283; his part in tl, -ion

irauvrinj? public opinion, 286-287 : pro- Mason, William, 134.

poses a* J descent "on Prince Edward Ma 194.

Uand, - >v ^ : -'.•■■••■•h .a ivin.-.- K.lwanl Maclean, Mrs. Kate lSeymoar t v 485, 486.

Island,' 291 : at < ' h the Con- ; Machar, Miss Agnes M., 488.

federate delegates, 296 ; hi* advocacy Maroy, W. L., 166.

:i federatiou in Parliau
proceeds to England in Oonfederation M Mullen, John, 105, 440.
interests, 299; fears local and joint MeMurrich, W. J> ., 433.
authority will be una* D'Arey, 206, 207,229,
attitude towards Confederation sch. : 247, 297, 345-348, 449.
in England, 301, 302, 303 ; invited to McDougail, Hon. William, 247, 252, 284,
the premiership in room of Sir E. P. 289, 312, 319, 335, 338, 339, 344, 351,
Tache 303, 304 ; consents to act under ,374.
Sir Xarcisse Belleau, 304, 305; the
virtual premier, Sir Nacisse, the
nominal head, 306; again visits Lon-
don as a confederate delegate, 312; is McCully, Jonathan, 289, 312.
chairman of the London conference, Mc lavish, Governor, 355.
312- towers above his confreres - ML -an, Archdeacon, 358.

Online LibraryJoseph Edmund CollinsLife and times of the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald, premier of the Dominion of Canada → online text (page 56 of 57)