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Chaplain receiving double. Each fellow was also
allowed ten pence a week for his 'commons,' but a
proportion was deducted for each day that a fellow
was absent, and so of his yearly allowance if he was
absent for more than four weeks in the year. We
also find a sum of 3-r. \d. allowed for ' visiting friends ' ;
and some clothes (liveries) were supplied apparently
once in three years. In 1544 the arrangement about
liveries is as follows : on the feast of All Saints every
third year each fellow who is M.A. is to receive 20r.,
each B.A. \6s. 8d. , others 13.C 4//., subject, how-
ever, to the rule that ^20 at least shall always be
reserved in the college chest ; at the same time an
improvement was made in the commons, especially
in what were called ' thirteen penny commons,' i.e. on



H3



EXETER COLLEGE.



114



twenty feast days. The common chest had three
keys kept by the Rector, Senior Fellow, and Chaplain
respectively, and there is still an old chest of this
description in* the muniment room. The allowance
of ten pence a week for commons may seem small,
especially as the arrangement was made just after the
great famine of 13 15, probably the time of greatest
dearth that England ever experienced, but Exeter was
a poor college, and the sum allowed in some of the
richer colleges at Oxford was not much larger. At
Exeter the allowance was raised to a shilling in 1408.
The last twenty years of the fourteenth century had
been singularly abundant but afterwards prices rose.
In 1326 the Oriel statutes gave twelve pence as the
sum, which was to be made fifteen pence in times of
scarcity. In 1340 the Halliol statutes allow eleven
pence, which might be raised to fifteen pence when
food was dear. Merton in 1270 and 1274 allowed
40^. before determining and 50^. afterwards, part for
the weekly commons, the rest to be paid at the end
of the year, and in 1284 Archbishop Peckham checked
an attempt of the fellows to increase the sum.

The hall and kitchen are of course constantly men-
tioned. They were not on the site af the present hall
and kitchen, but more to the north. There was a
large washing basin in the hall ('lavacrum') with
a pipe to it (fistula), and once we hear of a ' Lavacrum
pendens in aula.' There are constant payments for
towels . . . The Hall was lighted with torches,
torticii, or rather large candles ; a great torch of wax
cost 3s. 6d. in Lent 1 358, a torch for the hall 4s. yd.
in wintei 1360, io%d. is given for making two torches
in winter 1385. Charcoal (carbones) was used for
the fire, and was in fact employed in college halls
till within comparatively modern times. The smoke
escaped through a hole in the roof. Chimneys came
into use in the fourteenth century. . . . There was a
tendency to remain round the fire in hall after dinner,
partly perhaps for the warmth, but still more for the
sake of an occasional drinking bout (bibesia) ; hence
several colleges have stringent rules against staying
in hall after dinner. Thus at Magdalen all are to
leave the hall at curfew time, hora ignitegii, except
on Saints' days, when they may stay on and amuse
themselves with ballads, and read historical poems,
chronicles, and the wonders of the world. Candles
were dear, nearly two pence a pound, that is two
shillings of our money ; men could not afford to read
in their rooms after dark. Other young students be-
sides Sixtus V. may have had to read by the light of
the lantern hung up at the crossing of the streets.
The burning candle was sometimes protected by a
lantern. A very old lantern is preserved in the
Ashmolean Museum. It is of bronze and the light
is transmitted through crystals . . . The men,
too, were much crowded in their rooms. We con-
stantly hear of chamber fellows, and there were some-
times as many as four in one room. The churches
and castles were splendid, but the inmates of colle-
giate houses were closely packed and indifferently
lodged, while the furniture was rough and scanty.
The Magdalen statutes order that in each of the better
rooms there shall be two chief beds and two beds
on wheels, ' lecti rotales, Trookyll beddys vulgariter
appellati,' and in each of the other rooms two chief
beds and one truckle bed if the size of those rooms
allow of so many. The services of a rat catcher had
to be called in sometimes. Autumn, 1363, ' 8d. to a
ratter (ratonarius) when he destroyed the rats in the
rooms. ' The number of students then at Oxford was



large. The Universities were in fact the great public
schools of the country. In 1261 the expenses of a
boy called ' little Stephen ' at Oxford, from Christmas
to Easter, were 4 s-. 3d.

The Library was thatched in autumn 1375, ' $s. ^d.
for straw and for covering the Library.' It had just
received a donation : Lent 1375, "40^. for the use of
the Library in part payment of 20 marks given by
M. William Reed, bishop of Chichester, but tempo-
rarily used for College payments." Winter 1385, '3d.
for repairing two books, id. for paper, 2s. $d. for
glass in the great window of the Library.' In the
east window was the picture of a man kneeling,
with his gown and formalities on him, with this in-
scription, ' Pray for the soul of M. William Palmer of
this place, who caused this chapel to be lengthened. '
The Library had been the founder's chapel. Palmer
was physician to Margaret of Anjou, and his name
was well known in the west, as he built Greystone
Bridge over the Tamarnear Launceston, thus fulfilling
a promise made in his schoolboy days, perhaps when
at Launceston school.

The books were chained to desks, and some of
them kept in chests : Lent 1441, id. for a hanging
lock for a book-chest. A new Library was built in
I383-

The bishops of Exeter were kind patrons. Bishops
Grandisson, Lacy, and Brentingham gave books.
Bishop Stafford obtained a bull for the fellows from
Innocent VII. , and he built a new gate at the west
end of the College, and a chamber under the old
Library .

Henry V. , who is said to have been educated under
Cardinal Beaufort's care at Queen's, had always taken
much interest in Oxford matters. His father had
been displeased with the University when it resisted
a Visitation by the archbishop, and Prince Henry
defended its liberties. Benedict Brente, a fellow of
Exeter College, was one of the proctors who were
compelled to resign on this occasion, and was com-
mitted to the Tower. As soon, however, as the Uni-
versity could assert its liberty they were re-elected.
Prince Henry was attached to Richard II., who had
treated him kindly, and on his accession to the throne
he restored Richard's friends to their possessions.
Henry IV. was supported by his nobles and the
higher clergy, but Richard met with support from
many of the clergy and the lower classes. Henry V.
succeeded in conciliating both parties.

Several members of the College were somewhat
closely connected with the House of Lancaster.
William Palmer, mentioned above, was physician to
Margaret of Anjou. John Arundell, another fellow,
was physician to Henry VI. Another, Michael
Tregury had been chaplain to Henry V., and was
made byHenry VI. Rector of the University of Caen
during the English rule in Normandy, on which occa-
sion Paris remonstrated with Oxford on the unkind-
ness of setting up a rival University against the mother
University of Europe. Paris, however, was also
suffering from the rise of a new University at Bourges.
In fact, after its great effort at the Council of Con-
stance, through Gerson and D'Ailly, the University
of Paris steadily declined. Tregury became Arch-
bishop of Dublin, and his tomb was discovered at
S. Patrick's, in 1730, by Dean Swift. It may have
been this connection with the royal family that
induced Henry V. 's executors (one of whom was



H5



EXETER COLLEGE.



Il6



Edmund Lacy, bishop of Exeter) to give the College
'50J. 8d., and Cardinal Beaufort's executors a larger
sum ....

Exeter College is favourably known in connection
with the men who were helping forward the Revival
of Learning. William Grocyn taught Greek in the
College Hall, and Richard Croke sojourned in the
College, for some time. We find the College twice
entertaining Grocyn's friend Dean Colet. The Cor-
nelius mentioned several times in the Computi was
probably Cornelius Vitelli, a learned Italian, who
taught Greek in the University. Lent 149 1, ' 6d. for
a new lock for the door of the fuel-house of Cornelius,
and 3<£ for a key to his study. . .

The Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1535-6 gives a complete
view of the revenues of the College at this time which
only amounted to ^83 is. , out of which the Rector
and Chaplain have each £/\. os. 4^., thirteen fellows
£t, ioj. 4a!. each. The Rector and Fellows petition that
the present allowances may be continued, viz., the
barber 10s., laundress 13^. 4^., cook 13^. 4^/., manciple
£3 6s. 8a'., chapel expenses ^3, the Rector 20s., the
Fellows £6 10s., besides 50^. for visiting their friends.
Henry VIII. had no intention of taking the University
property, only he required the establishment of public
lectures, and hence we now find payments mentioned
for lectures in philosophy and theology. The College
Register begins in 1539, and henceforth our informa-
tion is clearer. This may not be unconnected with
Cromwell's order in the injunctions of 1538 that every
parish clergyman should henceforth keep a Register

Besides the valuable (Sarum) Breviary, the College
also possesses nine other Sarum books of various
kinds. The destruction of the old service books at
the time of the Reformation was, perhaps, not so ex-
tensive as is usually supposed. A far more complete
destruction fell on the Protestant Service Books and
Bibles. The Library has only two copies of Tyndale's
New Testament (No. 3 and No. 5 in Mr. Fry's list),
and of the latter only two other copies are known. The
" Dialogue between a Christian father and his stub-
born son," written by William Roye, Tyndale's assis-
tant, has only survived in one copy at Vienna, from
which Adolf Wolf republished it in 1874 ; the only
known MS. of Wiclif's treatise "De Officio Pastorali "
is also at Vienna.

In 1547 a Devonshire fellowship was given to
Maurice Ley, an Irishman, for Dr. Cox, the chief
of the Royal Visitors, was pressing every College to
take one Irish fellow for the benefit of Ireland, and
to strengthen the English Church there, but Ley soon
vacated and the plan seems not to have been further
carried out. The annual election of Rectors now
came to an end. William More was continued in
office by Edward VI. 's visitors, but his term of office
ceases abruptly at Mary's accession, when the Queen's
Visitors put a medical fellow, William Corindon, in
his place . . .

. . . The, endowment of Exeter College, however,
came from some lands which Sir William Petre had
purchased of Queen Elizabeth for the purpose, the
Queen's urgent need of money forcing her to part
with considerable portions of the Royal possessions
. . . . The Revenue of the College was more
than doubled by Petre, but the valuable ground on
which the College stood all came from the old founda-
tion . . . ' Petre also gave the College a
curious Latin Psalm-book which had been the family



Bible of the Tudors, the most learned royal family in
Europe. It is from it that we know the birthday of
Henry VII., 28th Jan., 1457.'

Elizabeth's Charter of Incorporation" is dated 22nd
March, 1566. She empowered William Alley, S.T. P.,
the Bishop of Exeter, to draw up new statutes for the
College, with the advice and consent of Sir William
Petre. Under these new statutes the Rector was
to be at least a Master of Arts and thirty years of age,
but not a Bishop ; and no one was to be elected a
Fellow who had more than ten marks of inheritance
or life interest. The day of election was 30th June,
the morrow of S. Peter and S. Paul . . . The
Rector's stipend was to be 20J., that of the chaplain
26s. 8rf., of the fellows iar. each. There are regula-
tions about dress and about not entering the Buttery
without leave, and all gaming is forbidden — except
that at the usual festival times, All Saints day, Christ-
mas, and Candlemas, the fellows might play ' pictis
cartis vulgo cards ' in hall at proper hours, and for a
moderate sum. Latimer's famous ' Sermons on the
Card,' delivered on the Sunday before Christmas,
had a special relevancy to the approaching season.
Shooting inside the College is forbidden, and no one
may keep hunting dogs, ferrets, rabbits, hares, or
hawks within the precints. The Bible was to be read
during meals in hall, and no one was to talk while
the appointed portion of Scriptnre was being read ;
afterwards they might talk in Latin or Greek, but
not in English — except on great feasts, or unless
strangers were present, or there was some other
reasonable cause, such as College business. The
Battellars were to talk Latin and Greek always while
in College except they were excused for lawful reasons.
The Fellows sat in messes, four to a dish, and only
Masters of Arts might sit at their table unless the
Rector and five seniors should give permission to some
one else ....

Shaftesbury's account of his college career is a
curious contribution to the knowledge of Oxford Uni-
versity life in the seventeenth century. ' I kept both
horses and servants in Oxford, and was allowed what
expense or recreation I desired, which liberty I never
much abused ; but it gave me the opportunity of
obliging by entertainments the better sort, and sup-
porting divers of the activest of the lower rank with
giving them leave to eat, when in distress, upon
my expense, it being no small honour among those
sort of men that my name in the buttery book willingly
bore twice the expense of any in the University.
This expense, my quality, proficiency in learning,
and natural affability easily not only obtained the
good will of the wiser and elder sort but made me the
leader even of all the rough young men of that College
and did then maintain in the schools coursing against
Christ Church, the largest and most numerous College
in the University.

The troubles of the civil war now (1642) began,
and as Oxford became the King's head-quarters and
most advanced post on the road to London, the
students joined the army in large numbers and the
work of education was nearly suspended. The
College plate offered the King a ready resource for
the war. The Colleges, considering themselves as
trustees of the plate and other property, at first hoped
to buy themselves off with ready money ; thus Exeter
presented the King with ^310, of which .£138 had to
be borrowed, but the King's needs were too pressing
and he took the plate as well, promising, however,



EXETER COLLEGE.



117



repayment ; it was valued at ^750, the pound weight
of silver plate being reckoned as worth £3, and of
gilt plate somewhat more. This, of course, allowed
nothing for the workmanship. The only part of its
old plate which the College now possesses is an egg
set in gold. The College also paid some of the
King's foot soldiers for a month at four shillings a
week each. Several of the fellows became officers in
the Army, such as Matthias Prideaux, son of the
Rector, and Digory Polwhele, who, when expelled
by the Parliamentary Visitors is termed a "scandalous
person and a man of blood. " He was one of the last
of those who held out for the King in Pendennis
Castle. The College had also contributed a very
eminent officer to the Royal cause in the person of
Sir Bevil Grenville, one of the leaders of the Cornish
force, which won victory after victory for the King
till Grenville fell at the battle of Lansdowne near
Bath and with him the western army lost its onward
impulse.

The ejection on S. Bartholomew's

Day deprived Oxford and the Church of some of their
best men, and was quite contrary to the spirit of the
union of the two great parties which had brought
about the Restoration. Twice in successive genera-
tions, in 1662 and 1689, the Church of England lost
some of her best sons. She suffered on either hand.
By the ejection of 1662, through the too stringent
nature and enforcement of the new act of uniformity,
she lost the services of some of the most devoted of
her Puritan sons, men whose views were no way dis-
tinguishable from those which had been held without
rebuke by some of the most honoured Bishops of
Elizabeth's time. By the ejection of the non-jurors
in 1689 many high minded men of a different order
of thought were driven, if not from her communion,



at all events from her ministrations. She lost suc-
cessively some of the most earnest and disinterested
upholders of the Protestant and Catholic elements of
her constitution, and this partly accounts for the
spiritual deadness of the eighteenth century, though
there were also more general causes at work all over
Europe to produce that deadness. An attempt was
made by John Walker, a fellow of Exeter College, in
his famous book called " The Sufferings of the Clergy
in the Great Rebellion " to justify the ejection of 1662
by showing how many royalist clergy had been ejected
previously, so that the Act of 1662 might be considered
a sort of legitimate revenge. But the Royalists did
not return in 1660 after a victory over their enemies.
They returned by virtue of a union between the two
great parties analogous to that which had closed the
Wars of the Roses ; and though the Declaration of
Breda reserved the whole of the religious question
for the consideration of Parliament, yet that Declara-
tion was certainly not carried out fairly when the
ministry and the bishops used their influence in Par-
liament to prevent any toleration. The King himself
complained of the conduct of the bishops and other
leading churchmen in this matter. The result of
their action was disastrous in the University as else-
where

A revival of interest in Academical studies is shown
by some new foundations. In 17 10 Meriel Symes, of
Somerset, founded an exhibition for a poor scholar at
Exeter College. In 1715 Dr. Hugh Shortridge,
acting for Dame Elizabeth Shiers, founded two new
fellowships for Herts and Surrey, though it was not
until 1744 that they were actually created. Short-
ridge also gave the Library the best part of its
existing funds, and founded a fund for buying advow-
sons for the College. Dr. John Reynolds founded



CoLLEdlVM ExONlEN$fi.




view BY bereblock, 1566. {Facsimile from Hcarnc.~\



n8



EXETER COLLEGE.



the Reynolds exhibitions at the College in 1756,
three from Eton and three from Exeter. St. John
Eliot founded the two Eliot exhibitions from Truro
school, and Chancery settled the details of the scheme
in 1767.

Some of the fellows of this time redeemed
the fame of the College. Joseph Attwell, George
Stinton and Francis Milman (a learned physician)
were fellows of the Royal society. John Upton was
known for his edition of Arrian's Epictetus and of
Spenser's Faerie Queen, and for his Observations on
Shakspere, Benjamin Kennicott was the leading
Hebrew scholar of his day and collated the Hebrew
MSS. of the Bible ; William Holwell Carr made a
fine collection of Italian paintings which he bequeathed
to the National Gallery, Demainbray was royal
astronomer at Richmond, and Stephen Peter Rigaud
was Savilian professor of Astronomy.

One of the fellows, Thomas Broughton, had already
come under John Wesley's influence in 1732, before
his election, and was afterwards secretary of the
society for promoting Christian Knowledge. John
Wesley and his brother Charles had founded the
private religious society in 1 730, to which its enemies
soon gave the name of Methodists. Some of the
fellows after the beginning of this century belonged to
the evangelical school in the church, such as John
David Macbride and James Thomas Holloway, but
when the wave of Catholic reaction spread over
Europe and England, after the close of the Revolu-
tionary War, the College was somewhat noted for its
High Church writers, of whom it may suffice to name



William Sewell, and among those who joined the
Church of Rome, John Brande Morris. But here
" the fires still glow under the ashes," and we must
leave this part of our history to some later writer.
The list of Fellows in this century shows some other
distinguished names, John Taylor Coleridge and his
son the present Lord Coleridge, Josiah Forshall, the
editor of Wiclifs Bible, bishops of Chester Oxford
and Southwell, Stephen Jordan Rigaud, bishop of
Antigua, Thomas Henry Haddan, the founder of
"The Guardian," Wharton Booth Marriott, canon
Rawlinson, James Anthony Froude, the regius
professor of History, professors Ince, Holland,
Froude, Sandy, Napier, Lankester, and Pelham,
George Herbert Curteis, Francis Turner Palgrave,
professor of poetry, Sir Charles Turner ; and among
those who were not fellows men like Sir Gardner
Wilkinson and Sir Charles Lyell.

In 1854 the University Commission threw all the
fellowships open, and, as the College was in want of
scholarships, a number of fellowships were suppressed
to found scholarships, ten of them open, ten Stapeldon
scholarships for (in the first place) the diocese of
Exeter, and two for the Channel Islands.

Charles William Boase, M.A.

A further account of the constitution and history
of the College by the same author, and from which
this is taken, will be found in " Registtuni Collegii
Exoniensis" a second edition of which is now in the
press.




drake's chair, ashmolean.



U9



RECTORS OF EXETER COLLEGE.



120



VISITOR— THE BISHOP OF EXETER : Rt. Rev. Edward Henry Bickersteth, D.D.

RECTORS.

Prior to the year 1566 the Rectors were elected annually ; notices of these will be found in the elaborate " Register of the
Rectors and Fellows of Exeter College," by the Rev. C. W. Boase.



1. Neale, John, rector 18 Oct., 1560, perpetual rector
1566; B.A. 14 Dec, 1557. M.A. 28 Nov., 1560,
rector 1560-3, fellow 1556, and perpetual rector 1566,
until deprived by the queen's visitors 12 Oct., 1570,
for long absence ; fellow of St. John's. See
Foster's Alumni Oxonienses, 1053.

2- Newton, Robert, rector 17 Oct., 1557, perpetual
rector 1570; fellow 1548, B.A., supld. 1552, M.A.
1 July, 1557, rector 1557-9, perpetual rector 31 Oct.
(or 2 Nov.), 1570, resigned 4 Oct., 1578; B.D. 14
Feb., 1575-6, after 20 years in theology, perhaps
rector of Bugbrooke, Northants, 1560, until his
death in 1603 ; nominated 2nd fellow of Trinity
1555, though he did not proceed to election. See
A I. Ox. 1065.

3. Glasier, Thomas, rector 21 Oct., 1578; student
of Christ Church 1561, B.A. 12 Dec, 1561,
M.A. 17 Jan., 1564-5, B.C.L. 5 Nov., 1569, proctor
1570, D.C. L. 23 Nov., 1577; fellow 4, and rector
of Exeter 21 Oct., 1578, until his death ; an
advocate of Doctors' Commons 13 Oct., 1590 ; died
9 March, 1591-2, admon. at Oxford 19 April, 1592.
See Al. Ox. 571.

4. Holland, Thomas, rector 24 April, 1592; B.A.
9 Dec, 1570, chaplain-fellow Bai.liol 19 Jan.,
1573, M.A. 21 June, 1575, supld. for licence to
preach 14 March, 1578-9, B.D. 13 July, 1582, D.D.
15 July, 1584, regius professor of divinity 1589-1612;
a member of Gray's Inn 2 Feb., 1609-10. Wood
states that he was born at Ludlow (perhaps a
member of Middle Temple 1571, as 2nd son of
William, of Burwarton, Salop, gent.); canon of
Salisbury 1590, one of the translators of the bible 1604,
rector of Kctherfield Grays, Oxon, 1591, until his
death 17 March, 1611-12, buried 26th in St. Mary's
church, Oxford ; will at Oxford proved 20 April,
1612. See Al. Ox. 73T.

5. Prideaux, John, rector 4 April, 1612, resigned
3 Aug., 1642. Exeter, matric 14 Oct., 1596,
aged 18, as of Devon, pleb. ; B.A. 31 Jan., 1599-
1600, fellow 1601-12, M.A. 11 May, 1603, B.D. 6
May, 1611, D.D. 30 June, 1612, vice-chancellor
1619-21, 1624-6, and 1641-2 ; canon of Christ
Church 1615, and regius professor of divinity
1615-42; (4s. John, of Stowford, Devon), born there
17 Sept., 1578, a member of Gray's Inn 1625, chap-
lain to Prince Henry, K. James, and K. Charles,
canon of Sarum 1620, vicar of a portion of Bampton
1614-34, and of Chalgrove 1620, rector of Bladon
1625, and of Ewelme (all) Oxon 1629 ; bishop of
Worcester 1641, until his death at Bredon, co. Wor-
cester, 20 July, 1650, buried there. See Al. Ox.
1212.

6. Hakewill, George, rector 23 Aug., 1642. St.
Alban Hall, matric. 15 May, 1595, aged 16, as of
Devon, gent. ; fellow Exeter 1596-1611, B.A. 8
July, 1599, M.A. 29 April, 1602, B.D. 27 March,
1610, D.D. 2 July, 1611. built the college chapel ;
a member of Lincoln's Inn 1614(35. John, of Exeter),
chaplain to Prince Charles, archdeacon of Surrey



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