Joseph Foster.

Oxford men & their colleges online

. (page 18 of 143)
Online LibraryJoseph FosterOxford men & their colleges → online text (page 18 of 143)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


*Kidson, John Henry
*fBriggs, Francis
*fDobson, John
* Brown, Alfred Vanhouse
*Hickey, Godfrey M. V.
fRobinson, William Arthur
■f-Bouch, Joseph
f Knight, George
F. -j-Bousfield, William D.
•(•Williams, Henry Herbert
Gordon, Edward
McArthur, Malcolm S. H.



Smyth, George M. T.
Phelps, John H. D.
Cain, Charles S.
Cronshaw, George B.
Hazeledine, Frederick J.
Coulthard, Richard
Balleine, George R.
Alston, Conyers William
Humble, William E. E.
Candland, Herbert W.
Hornsby, Matthew
Home, Robert
Stanier, William S.
Lvon, James
Willis, John

1892.

*Dallin, Francis T.
*Loftus-Tottenham, A. R.
*David, Harold L.
*Veale, Rawdon A.
*MacIver, David
*Reay, Lionel E.
*Paddison, George F.
-(-Garwood, Redmond
fGoss, William N.
-(-Hodgson, Timothy
■j-Maudsley, Joshua
j-Tidswell, Walter I.
Warburton, Philip E. B.
Edmunds, Leslie W.
Sells, Arthur C.
Peachey, Gilbert P.
Horley, Richard R.
Beak, George B.
Leech, William H. B.
Bird, George B.
Mair, Robert B. R.
Simpson, Frederick C.
West, Tom




THE BOAK S HEAD.




VII.— NEW COLLEGE.




RIMARILY New College was intended to be a stronghold of the old
mediaeval system in Church and State, and a bulwark against the
Lollardism by which it had recently been shaken. It was to increase
the supply of clergy, which the Statutes declare to have been thinned
by "pestilences, wars, and the other miseries of the world." .
In the number of the scholars, in the liberality of their allowances, in
the architectural splendour of the buildings of his College, Wykeham
eclipsed all previous Oxford College-founders In many respects the
founder of Queen's had, indeed, aimed as high as Wykeham ; but
he had begun to build and was not able to finish ; he never succeeded
in providing for the seventy scholars whom he contemplated. What
Eglesfield designed, Wykeham accomplished.

The most original feature of Wykeham's design was the connection
of his College at Oxford with a grammar school at a distance.

Hard by his own cathedral, William of Wykeham, Bishop of
Winchester, erected a College for a Warden, Sub-warden, ten Fellows,
a Head Master, Usher, and seventy scholars, with a proper staff of
chaplains and choristers. From this College exclusively were to be
selected the seventy scholars of " St. Marie Colledge of Wynchester in
Oxford " ; and no one could be elected before fifteen or after nineteen, except in the case of " Founders-kin "
scholars, who were eligible up to thirty. This implies that the usual age of Wykehamists upon entering the
University would be much above the average, since it was quite common for boys to begin their course in Arts at
fourteen or earlier

The Oxford College consisted of a Warden and seventy " poor clerical scholars," together with ten " stipen-
diary priests " or chaplains, three stipendiary clerks, and sixteen boy-choristers for the service of the chapel. It
entered on a definite existence not later than 1375, the scholars being temporarily lodged in Hart Hall (now
Hertford College), and other adjoining houses while the buildings were being completed. The foundation charters
were granted in 1379; the foundation stone laid at 8 a.m., on March 5th, 1379-80; on April 14th, 1387, at
9 a.m., the Society, "with cross erect and singing a solemn litany," marched processionally into the splendid
habitation which their Founder had been preparing for them in an unoccupied corner within the walls of the town.
New College is the first, and still almost the only College whose extant building substantially represent a
complete and harmonious design as it presented itself to the founder's eye. . . .

. . Not only was the chapel a choir of cathedral magnitude, with transepts, though without a nave —
henceforth the typical form of the College chapel ; there was outside the wall (nowhere else could it have stood
so conveniently) the great Bell-tower. There was an ample hall or refectory, the oldest now remaining in
Oxford. There were Cloisters, round which every Sunday the whole College, in copes and surplices, were to go
in procession, " according to the use of Sarum," and within which members of the College might be buried, by
special papal bull, without leave of parish-priest or bishop. There was a tower specially provided over the hall
staircase with massive doors of many locks to serve as a muniment room and treasury. There was a library,
stored with books by the founder ; and an audit-room on the north side of the east gate. Just outside the
main entrance were the brewery and the bake-house. A spacious garden supplied the College with vegetables,
and perhaps the scholars with room for such exercise as was permitted by the high standard of " clerical "
behaviour demanded of Wykeham's tonsured undergraduates. And all remains now substantially as the founder
designed it, marred only by the addition (in 1675) of a third story to the front quadrangle, and by the
modernization of the windows.

. . . In William of Wykeham's College the ecclesiastical character is at its maximum : Wykeham
aimed in fact at erecting a great Collegiate Church and an Academical College in one. The ecclesiastical



[ 193 — 194 ]







195



NEW COLLEGE.



I96



duties — the masses and canonical hours were chiefly
performed by the hired chaplains. But the scholars
are required to go to mass daily ; it is the first Oxford
College where daily chapel is required. . . .

Wykeham was indeed the first College-founder, at
Oxford at all events, who conceived the idea of
making his college not a mere eleemosynary institu-
tion, but a great ecclesiastical corporation, which
should vie both in the splendour of its architecture
and the dignity of its corporate life with the Cathedral

chapters and the monastic houses The

warden of New College was to live, like an abbot,
in a house of his own, within the College walls,
but with a separate hall, kitchen and establishment.
His salary of £40 was princely by comparison with
the 40.C, with commons, assigned to the master of
Balliol, or even the forty marks allotted to the warden
of Merton

Besides the commons every Fellow received an
annual "livery," or suit of clothes, suitable to his
University rank, but also of uniform cut and colour ;
and the rooms were no doubt rudely furnished at the
expense of the College. ....

The statutes contain a comprehensive list of pro-
hibited amusements. The founder's experience of
human nature told him for instance that " after
bodily refection by the taking of meat and drink,
men are made more inclined to scurrilities, base
talk, and (what is worse) detraction and strife,"
he accordingly provides that on ordinary clays
after the loving cup has gone round, there is to be
no lingering in hall after dinner or supper (except
for the usual " potation " at curfew), but on festivals
and other winter-nights, "on which, in honour of
God and his Mother, or some other saint," there is a
fire in the hall, the Fellows are allowed to indulge in
singing or reading "poems, chronicles of the realm,
and wonders of the world. "

Such were the modest amusements of the first
Wykehamists. How was the bulk of their time
passed or meant to be passed ? It must be remem-
bered that Colleges were, in the first instance, not
intended for teaching-institutions at all ; their mem-
bers resorted for lectures to the public schools.
Wykeham is the first Oxford founder who contem-
plates any instruction being given to his scholars in
College * By his provisions on this head he became
the founder of the Oxford tutorial system. Both at
Paris and in Oxford, College teaching was destined,
in process of time, practically to destroy University
teaching in the Faculty of Arts. But the process
took place in totally different ways. The form which
College-teaching has assumed in Oxford was in-
augurated by Wykeham. He, or his academical
advisers, saw the unsuitableness of formal lectures in
the public schools as a means of teaching mere boys.
Hence he provides that for the first three years of
residence the scholar was to be placed under the
instruction of a tutor ( " Informator ") selected from
the senior fellows. ....

The character of the College during the earlier part
of its history was exactly of the kind which the
founder designed. In Wykeham's day the Scholastic
Philosophy and Theology were already in their
decadence. The history of mediaeval thought, so far
as Oxford is concerned, ends with that suppression of
Wycliffism in 1411, which both Wykeham and his
College (though not quite free from the prevalent

* Except to the grammar-boys at Merton, and the "poor
boys " at Queen's.



Lollardism) had contributed to bring about. New
College produced not schoolmen and theologians
like Merton, but respectable and successful eccle-
siastics in abundance— foremost among them, Henry
Chicheley, Archbishop of Canterbury, the founder of
All Souls'. It is a characteristic circumstance that a
New College man, John Wytenham, was at the head
of the Delegacy for condemning Wycliffe's books in
141 1, all the other Doctors being monks or friars.

On the other hand, the one piece of reform which
Wykeham did seek to introduce into Oxford bore
fruit in due season. New College, the one College
which was recruited exclusively from a great classical
school, became the home of what may be called the
first phase of the Renaissance movement which showed
itself in Oxford. It is during the latter part of Thomas
Chaundler's Wardenship (1454- 1475) that traces of
this movement became apparent. Chaundler's own
style, as is shown by his published letters to Bishop
Bekynton of Wells (himself a Wykehamist and bene-
factor of the College 1 , was more correct than the
ordinary " Oxford Latin " of his day ; and sometime
before his death he brought into the College as
" Prselector " the first Oxford teacher of Greek, the
Italian scholar Vitelli, who remained till 1488 or 1489,
and must have imparted at least the rudiments of
Greek and the desire for further knowledge to William
Grocyn, the great Wykehamist, with whose name the
"Oxford Renaissance" is indissolubly associated.
Archbishop Warham, the patron of Erasmus (to
whom the College owes the panelling of its Hall) also
deserves mention among New College Humanists.

But if New College welcomed and fanned the first
faint breath of the Rennaissance air in Oxford
wherever religion and politics were concerned, she
retained that character of rigid and immobile Con-
servatism which the founder had sought to give it.

It produced the disreputable John London (warden
1526-1542), who was foremost in the prosecution of
Protestant heretics in Oxford, though afterwards
employed in the dirty work of collecting evidence
against the Monasteries. But the most disinterested
and most learned opponents of the Reformation were
also bred in Wykeham's Colleges— the men who were
ejected or fled under Edward VI. rose to high prefer-
ment under Mary, and became victims again under
Elizabeth— men like Harpesfield the ecclesiastical
historian, Pits the bibliographer, and Nicholas
Saunders, the Papal Legate, who organized the Irish
Insurrection of 1579.

Ecclesiastically and politically the Great Rebellion
found the College again on the Conservative side.
In 1642 the then Warden, Dr. Robert Pincke, as
Pro-Vice-Chancellor, took the lead in preparing
Oxford to resist the Parliamentary forces. The Uni-
versity train-bands were wont to drill " under his
eyes " in the front Quadrangle. The Cloisters were
converted into a magazine ; and the New College
school-boys, being then turned out of their usual
school, were removed "to the choristers' chamber at
the east end of the common hall of the said College :
it was then a dark, nasty room, and very unfit for
such a purpose, which made the scholars often com-
plaine, but in vaine. " These are the words of
Anthony Wood, then a little boy of eleven, and
a pupil in the school.

On the arrival of the Puritan Visitors in 1647, no
College gave so much trouble as New College. All
but unanimously the members of the foundation
declared that it was contrary to their oaths to submit to
any Visitor who was an actual {i.e. resident) member




REREDOS, NEW COLLEGE CHAPEL.

From a Photograph by Hills 6- Saunders.



197



NEW COLLEGE.



[98



of the University, which was the case with the most
active Visitors. Only two unconditional and one
qualified submission was recorded. Forty-nine out
of the fifty-three members of the foundation (choir in-
cluded) then in residence were sentenced to expulsion
on March 15, 1647-8. But it was not till June 6th
that four of the worst offenders were ordered to move ;
on July 7th the order was extended to seventeen
more. On August 1st, 1648, Ur. Stringer, the
Warden whom the Fellows had elected in defiance of
the Visitors, was removed by Parliament, and in 1649
nineteen more foundationers were " outed."

Two of "the Seven Bishops " were New College
men, the saintly Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, and
Turner, Bishop of Ely. One of their Judges, Richard
Holloway, the only one who charged boldly in their
favour, had been Fellow of the College till ejected by
the Parliamentary Visitors. ....

Among the eminent New College men of later
times may be mentioned Robert Lowth, Bishop of
London, and author of the celebrated Lectures on
the poetry of the Hebrews, died 1787 ; Sydney
.Smith, died 1845, anc ^ Augustus Hare, died 1834.

The era of reform may be said to begin with the
voluntary renunciation by New College, in 1834, of
its exemption from University examinations. The
College still retains, indeed, the right to obtain for
its Fellows degrees without "supplication" in con-
gregation ; and when a Fellow of New College takes
his M.A., the Proctor still says, " Postulat A.B., e
Collegio Novo," instead of the ordinary " Supplicat,
etc," or (more correctly) omits the name altogether.
In spite of the vehement opposition of the College, a
more extensive reform was carried out on truly Con-
servative lines by an Ordinance of the University
Commissioners in 1857. The Fellowships were re-
duced to forty (in 1870 to thirty) ; but the mystic
seventy of the original foundation is maintained by
the addition in 1866 of ten open scholarships to the
thirty which were still reserved for Winchester men.
Further, commoners were made eligible for Fellow-
ships as well as Scholars. Half the Fellowships are



still reserved for Wykehamists, that is, men educated
either at Winchester or at New College. The chap-
laincies are now reduced to three, and the number of
lay choir-men increased.

Since that beneficent reform, ever since loyally
accepted and vigorously carried forward by the Warden
and Fellows, the history of the College has been one
of continuous material expansion, numerical growth,
and academic progress. In 1854 the society volun-
tarily opened its doors to non-Wykehamist com-
moners, whose increasing numbers soon called for the
new buildings, the first block of which was opened in

1873-

We take our leave of the College with a glance
at one or two of the quaint customs which have un-
fortunately, if inevitably, disappeared in the course of
the process of modernization.

Down to 1830, or a little later, the College was
summoned to dinner by two choir-boys who, at a
stated minute, started from the College gateway,
shouting in' unison and in lengthened syllables —
" Tem-pus est vo-candi- a-manger, O Seigneurs."
It was their business to make this sentence last out
till they reached with their final note the College
kitchen.

On Ascension Day the College and choir used to
go in procession to St. Bartholomew's Hospital (the
remains of which may still be seen on the Cowley
road, a little beyond the new church), where a short
service was held, after which they proceeded to the
adjoining well (Stowell), heard an Epistle and
Gospel, and sang certain songs.

At the beginning of the present century the College
was still waked by the porter striking the door at the
bottom of each staircase with a " wakening mallet."
Fellows are still summoned to the Quarterly College-
meetings in this antique fashion. //. Rashdall, M.A.

This notice is abridged from a chapter by the same
writer in " The Colleges of Oxford," edited by Rev.
A. Clark, London, 1831, by kind permission of
Methuen and Co.




WOODEN OKNAMENT, NEW COLLEGE CHAPEL. — Pugitl.



i 9 9



WARDENS OF NEW COLLEGE.



200



VISITOR :-THE BISHOP OF WINCHESTER.



WARDENS.



1. Tonworthe, Richard de, M.A., " deputed
warden " during the building of the college ; fellow
of Merton 1352, proctor 1358 and 1360; (B.D. ),
first principal of Hart Hall 1360, also principal of
Black Hall, having charge of the Wykehamist
scholars while New College was being erected,
whence he is reckoned its first warden ; preb. of
Colwich in Lichfield 1374 ; died 1379.

2. Wykeham, Nicholas de, M.A. , warden 26 Nov.,
1379, resigned 26 April, 1389 ; of kin to the founder, a
licentiate of the laws ; prebendary of Maple Durham
in the collegiate church of Boseham, diocese of
Chichester, 1370, archdeacon of Winchester 1372-82,
and of Wilts 1388, warden of St. Nicholas hospital,
Portsmouth, and rector of Witney, Oxon (then
LL. D. ) 1378, master of the hospital of St. Cross,
Southampton, resigned 1382, chancellor of Salisbury
1380; died before 17 March, 1406-7.

3. Cranley , Thomas de, D. D. , warden 1389, resigned
15 Feb., 1395-6; fellow Merton 1366, principal of
Hart Hall 1384, first warden of Winchester college
1382-5, chancellor of the University 1390, preb. of
Knaresborough in the church of York (? archbishop
of Dublin 1397), chancellor of Ireland 1398 and
1413, justiciary or viceroy of Ireland 1414-17 ; died
at Faringdon, Berks, 31 March, 1417, buried in the
College chapel.

4. Mall'ord, Richard, M.A. , and a student in
divinity, warden 1396 ; rector of Clatford, which
he exchanged for Hinton, resigned 1396, for West
Wycombe, rector of Radclive, Bucks, 1402 ; died 20
Oct., 1403, buried in the chapel.

5. Bowke, John, M.A. and student in divinity, warden
11 Dec, 1403, resigned 28 Oct., 1429; fellow New
Coll. 1386-1403, from Southants ; rector of St.
Leonards-juxta-Hastings 1400, died at Winchester,
2 March, 1442, buried in the chapel belonging to
Wykeham college there.

6. EstCOTirt, William, M.A. and student of divinity,
warden 23 Nov., 1429, resigned 10 Oct., 1435, being
then canon of Salisbury ; fellow New Coll. 1400-
18, from Skipton, co. Gloucester ; vicar of Writtle,
Essex, 1417.

7. Ossulbury, Nicholas, M.A. and B. D. , warden
31 Oct., 1435; rector of Tingwyke, Bucks, 1440;
died 6 Feb. , 1453, buried in the college chapel.

8. Chaundler, Thomas, M.A. and B. D. , warden
22 Feb. , 1453-4, resigned 12 Aug. , 1475 ; fellow NEW
Coll. 1435-50, from S. Cuthbert, city of Wells,
proctor 1444, chancellor of the University 1457-61,
1472-9, vice-chancellor 1463-7 ; warden of Win-
chester college 1450, master of the hospital of St.
Cross, Winchester (D.D. ), canon of St. Paul's 1471,
and of Southwell 1476-85, rector of Hardwick, Bucks,
1461, chancellor of Wells 1454, and of York 1467,
dean of the king's chapels, preb. 1486, and dean of
the cathedral of Hereford 1482 ; died 2 Nov., 1490,
buried in the cathedral.

9. Hyll, Walter, M.A., warden 5 Sept. , 1475 ; proctor
1463 ; rector of Hardwicke, Bucks, preb. of Pratum
Minus in Hereford cathedral 1487 ; died 30 March,
1494, buried in the college chapel.

10. Porter, William, M.A. , warden 12 April, 1494,
resigned Aug., 1520; fellow New Coll., from
Newent, co, Gloucester, proctor 1487; B.D., D.D.
supld. 31 May, 1511, canon of Lincoln 1485, chan-
cellor of Chichester 1507, rector of SahamToney 1482,
and of Colerne, Wilts, 1508, canon residentiary and
precentor of Hereford cathedral 1515 ; died 5 Nov.,
1523, buried in the cathedral. See Foster's Alumni
Oxonienses 1183.



11. Rede, John, B.D., warden, Sept., 1520; fellow
New Coll. 1472-84, from Kingsley, Hants, D.D.
supld. 31 May, 1511, ' informator ' 1484, and warden
ofWykeham's college, Winchester 1501; chaplain to
prince Arthur 1491, prebendary of Lincoln 1503,
canon of Chichester, and master of the hospital of
St. Cross, Winchester ; died 1 April, 1521. See
Al. Ox. 1240.

12. Young, John, D.D., warden 13 April, 1521 ; born
at Newnton Longvill, Bucks ; educated at Wyke-
ham school, Winchester; fellow New Coll. 1480-
1502, D.D. disp. 13 June, 1510; rector of Codford
St. Peter 1502, and of Easton Grey, (both) Wilts,
1506, rector of All Hallows, Honey Lane, 1510, of
St. Christopher le Stocks 1513, and of St. Magnus
the Martyr, London, 15 14 ; dean of Chichester,
bishop of Calipolis (Gallipoli) 15 13, and archdeacon
of London 1514-26, rector of Colerne, Wilts, 1524,
until his death 28 March, 1526; buried in the college
chapel. See Al. Ox. 1704.

13. London, John, D.C.L., warden 16 April, 1526,
resigned Sept., 1542; fellow New Coll. 1503-18;
from Hambleden, Bucks; B.C.L. 29 July, 1512,
D.C.L. 28 Feb., 1518-9 ; an advocate of Doctors'
Commons 1519 ; vicar of Abberbury, Salop, and
canon of Sarum, rector of Ewelme, Oxon, 1502,
canon of York 1519, of Lincoln 1522, and of Windsor
1540, treasurer of Lincoln cathedral 1522, dean of
the cathedral church of Osney, near Oxford, and of
the collegiate church of Wallingford, Berks, 1536,
and master of the hospital of St. John's 1541, im-
prisoned for perjury in the Fleet, where he died
1543. See A I. Ox. 935.

14. Cole, Henry, D.C.L., warden 4 Oct., 1542,
resigned 16 April, 1551 ; fellow New Coll. 1521-
40 from Godshill i.w., and Winchester college;
B.C.L. 3 March, 1529-30, D.C.L. July, 1540,
B. and D.D. (dispd. 25 June) 1554; canon of
Sarum 1539, rector of Chelmsford 1540-8, canon
of St. Paul's 1540, rector of Newton Longueville,
Bucks, 1545-52, archdeacon of Ely 1554, canon
of Westminster 1554, fellow and provost of Eton
1554, dean of St. Paul's 1556, an advocate of
Doctors' Commons 1540, judge of prerogative court
circa 1548-58, dean of the arches 1557-8, vicar-
general to archbishop of Canterbury 1557-9, rector
of Wrothatn, Kent, lost all his preferments, com-
mitted to the Tower 20 May, 1560, and removed to
the fleet 10 June following ; buried 4 Feb., 1579-80.
See Al. Ox. 301.

15. Skinner, Ralph, M.A., "pro warden" 1 May,
1551, resigned 1553; fellow New Coll. 1531-8,
from Feltham, Middlesex; B.A. 11 July, 1536;
M.P. Leicester 1547-52, Penryn Oct. -Dec. , 1553,
Bossiney Oct. -Dec. , 1555, and Westbury 1559;
rector of Broughton Astley, co. Leicester, 1550-3,
dean of Durham 1561, and rector of Sedgefield, co.
Durham, 1562, until his death 1563. See Al. Ox.
1362.

16. Whyte, Thomas, D.C.L., warden 17 Sept., 1553,
resigned 1573 ; fellow New Coll. 1532-53, from
Leckford, Hants; B.C.L. 17 June, 1541, D.C.L.
17 July, 1553, vice-chancellor 1557 and 1562-4 ;
rector of Bishopstoke, Hants, 1545, and of Long-
worth, Berks, 1555, canon of Winchester 1554, arch
deacon of Berks 1557, Stanton St. John, Oxon,
1560-76, and of Colerne, Wilts, 1568-88 ; canon
1553, and chancellor of Salisbury cathedral 1571,
until he died 12 June, 1588 ; buried in his cathedral.
See Al. Ox. 1616.



201



WARDENS OF NEW COLLEGE.



202



17. Calepepper, Martin, D.Med., warden \j Oct.,
1573, resigned 1599 ; fellow of New Coll. 1559-67,
from Hunton, Kent; B.A. 26 June, 1562, M.A.

27 May, 1566, B.Med. 5 July, 1568, D.Med. 26
June, 1571, vice-chancellor 1578 ; rector of Stanton
St. John, Oxon, 1576, dean of Chichester 1577-1601,
rector of Colerne, Wilts, 1588, archdeacon of Berk-
shire, with rectory of North Moreton 1588 ; died in

1605. See Al. Ox. 303.

18. Ryves, George, D. D. , warden 21 or 22 Dec. , 1599.
New Coll., matric. entry dated 20 March, 1578-9,
aged 19 (from Dorset, arm.), fellow 1579-86, B.A.
12 Oct., 1582, M.A. 3 June, 1586, B.D. 7 Nov.,

1594, D.D. 2 July, 1599, vice-chancellor 1601; fellow
Winchester coll. 1586, chaplain to the bishop of
Winchester and canon 1598, licenced to preach

28 Jan., 1604-5, rector of Blandford St. Mary,
Dorset, 1589, of Alverstoke, Hants, 1591, of
Stanton St. John, Oxon, 1600, of Colerne, Wilts,

1606, and of Old Alresford, Hants, 1608 ; died 31
May, 1613, buried at Hornchurch, Essex. See Al.
Ox. 1295.

19. Lake, Arthur, D.D., warden 17 June, 1613,
resigned 1617; s. Almaric. New Coll., matric.
July, 1588, aged 20, from co. Southampton, pleb. ,
fellow 1587-1600, B.A. 4 June, 1591, M.A. 3 May,

1595, B. and D.D. 16 May, 1605, vice-chancellor
1616; rector of Havant 1599, of Hambleton 1601,
and of Chilcomb (all) Hants, 1603, fellow of Wyke-
ham's college, Winchester, 1600, master of the



Online LibraryJoseph FosterOxford men & their colleges → online text (page 18 of 143)