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20 ; migrated to Lincoln 76, B.A. 78, M.A. and
B.C. L. 82, D.C.L. 90 (Honours :— 3 law 78,
2 civil law 80) ; bar.-at-law, Inner Temple, 79.

Purcell, Rev. Edward, born at Coventry, co. War-
wick, 4 Sept., 1848; 2s. John, arm. Lincoln,
matric. 14 April, 66, aged 19 (from Coventry school),
B.A. 70, M.A. and B.C.L. 72 (Honours : — 1 law
and history 70), lecturer Queen's 80-1, curate of
St. Paul's, Oxford, 71-3.

Tuckwell, Henry Matthews, born in Oxford 24 Nov.,
1834; 2s. William, gent. Lincoln, matric. 17
March, 52, aged 17 (from Bromsgrove school),
exhibitioner 52-7, B.A. 56, M.A. 59, B Med. 60,
D.Med. 63; Honours: — 1 natural science 56,
Radclifle travelling fellowship 59.




part of Lincoln college.— From Chalmers.



247



LINCOLN COMMONERS.



248



^djolat^ €?\)ibitiouzx& 3 ann Commoners



Of whom biographical notices appear in the Matriculations 1880-92.



1880.

•Nash, Edward J.
*P,intin, William E. P.
*Evans, George H. H.
•Kennedy, Mervyn L. B.
•Farrar, Charles F.
•Baker, Slade R.
Turner, John E.
Brown, William G.
Hobson, John A.
Hobart-Hampden, A. B.
Parry, Edmund W.
Du-Pre, Arthur M. D.
Stuart-Edwards, John M.
Cragg, William A.
Worrall, Thomas P.
Jenkins, Howell
Fox, Edward V.
Smith, George H.
Lambert, Percival
Austin, Stanley
Bannister, Arthur T.
Walsh, Henry W.
Kendrick, Walter E.
Walters, Reginald E.
Le-Maistre, Alexander P.
Jones, William S.
Auden, John E.
Hind, Henry N.
Gonner, Edward C.
Luxton, Ernest W.
Robertson, William T. M.



•Ledlie, James C.
•Leggatt, Edward O. E.
•Taylor, Percy W.
•Hockliffe, Ernest
•Wallace, Percy M.
•MacColl, Dugald S.
Orme, William P.
Short, Percy
Kimber, Henry D.
Huggett, Edgar V.
Lloyd, John E. (f 84)
Paitson, Leonard W.
Sugden, Albert H.
Scull, Walter



•Elliot, Gilbert J.
•Hudson, Arthur E. L.
•Baxter, Arthur W.
Alexander, William F.
Banks, Morris L.
Harrison, William F. L.
Nevill, Edmund R.
Hill, Hugh P.
Johnson, Harold W.
Mawdsley, Alfred A.
Powell, Frederick W.
Venn, Clement F.
Waitt, Thomas B.
Walker, Harry B.
Whitby, Hugh O.
Wood, Fergus H.

1884.

•Macdonald, Patrick O.
•Firth, Ernest C. C.
•Snowden, Herbert G.
fDavies, Gabriel L.
fWeymouth, George A.
Botwood, George B. H.
Dammann, John F. K.
Gales, Richard L.
Gosselin, Charles C.
James, John R.
Langsford, Sydney W.
Martin, Harold
Skilton, Edward W.
Collins, William E.
Langhorne, Alex. R.



•Lovell, Samuel W.
•Landon, Guy
•Birch, George T.
t Carlton, Harry W.
fHarry, Leslie W.
Beazeley, Michael W.
Grindrod, Francis L.
Pascoe, Wellington R.
McLaughlin, Vivian G\ O.
Tupper, Henry B. de Vic.
Proberti William G.
Bere, Montague A.
Bouth, Reginald M. D.
Holme, Robert W. M.



•Robinson, Frederick S.
•Thomson, Adam S.
•Reid, James S.
•Maddock, Phillip H.
•O'Connor, Edward
Robinson, Ernest K.
Homer, John K.
Doulton, Hubert V.
Poulter, Donald F. O. (f 83)
Ward, Lionel
Sharpe, George H. (-f-84)
James, Montague V.
Hamilton, Edmund H.
Hopkinson, John H.
Cruikshank, John W.
Gardner, Ernest
Tuting, William C.



•Roberts, David H. B.
•Stevenson, John S.
•Gmelin, Frederick E.
fMoreland, Christ. H. *%-j
fBadcock, Charles
Birchall, Reginald
Todd, David B.
Barrett, Alexander G.
Greaves, Edmund
Eales, Sidney C. W.
Sharp, Ernest H.
Forbes, Edward
Bouth, Osmonde N. D.
Giblin, William L.
Follit, John L.



Voysey, Ellison A.
Creak, Ettrick H.
Ritchie, James W.
Summers, Herbert W.
Chorley, Charles F.



•Maurice, Robert B.
•Tollit, Arthur H.
•Porter, William H.
fPease, Cyril A;
fFox, William A.
McPherson, William H.
Britten, George E.
Demahs, Robert G. S.
Rundle, Wilfrid
Ensor, Henry H.
Harding, George J. P.
Atkinson, James
Cruddas, George



•Strange, William P. H.
•Balstoh, Stan worth
•Currie, James
•Smarti Roger
•Lipsett, Henry C.
fMarston, William J. E ;
fRavenshaw, Thomas
fStubbs, Launcelot H. A.
Kirkman, Frederick B. B.
Bickford, Edward H.
DeLisle, Hirzel F.
Negus, Albert E.
Sneath, Donald A.
Brodrick, Reginald S.
Allison, Francis H.
Benbow, Mountford
Firmstone, Joseph A. L.
Paton, Frederick H. V.
Allen, Arthur J.
Vaux, Richard A.
Sealy, Edward W.-
Smith, Ernest F.
Jennings, James G.
May, Thomas E.
Jackson, Thomas C.



•Allison, Thomas
•Christiah, Robert B. K.
•Odgers, Charles E.
•Lloyd, Erriest S.
fRoss, Hugh M.
•{-Chambers, Charles G;
fWales, John A. G. (*oo)
fDempster, Robert H.
Allen, William E. foo
Birley, Percival A. H.
Darlington, John
Phillips, Leonard R. B.
Walker, Thomas A. D.
Williams, Walter D.
Hinchliff, Henry M. W.
Martin, Reginald H.
Pennyfather, William de M.
Roderick, Edward T.
Williams, John B. L.
Wicksteed, Joseph H.



Dore, Walter J.
Shepherd, James F.

1890.

•Henderson, Bernard W.
•Sich, Alexander E.
•Currie, John R.
•Macmillan, Alexander
•Duff, Robert H. A. G.
fAllen, Edward C.
fCookson, George H. F.
fDouglas, Arthur J.
■(■Montgomery, Charles J.
Mercer, Charles A.
Cater, Herbert E.
Goodger, Henry W.
Odgers, Arthur W.
Willey, Frederick
Firth j Herbert B.
White, Wallis H. B.
Sutton, Field F.
Jones, Thomas B.
Ridgeway, Charles L.
Jones, Arthur J.
Sarjeant-Raylis, Moseley
Watling, Henry J. W.
Cave-Moyles-, Thomas H.
Fletcher, Lancelot K.
Eglington, Arthur
Sealy, George E.

1891.

•Clark, Robert M.
•Tollit, Charles R.
•Barlow, Hugh C. H.
-t-HiH, William H.
fLake, Kirsopp
fUhngworth, Aithur C.
•I Sully, Arthur B.
Henley, Edward C.
Zwezdakoff, Victor
Hirsch, Ernest L.
Barkley, Macdonald
Moyle, Vyvyan H. C.
Garnett, James H.
Pearce, Wilson B. M.
Ellis, Thomas P.
Davey, Ernest W. W.
Richards, Morley J. B.

1892.

•Frazer, Wilson R.
•Schrader, Louis W. C.
•Taylor, Frank
fTate, Ralph H.
fWilkes, Alphasus N. P.
fPenley, Horace O.
Whitelocke, Richard H. A.
Johnson, John F.
Anthony, Henry M.
Badcock, Henry
Bennett, George E. M.
Golding-Bird, Cyril H.
James, Charles W.
Petit, Oliver S.
Packer, James
Pratt, Henry S.




THE virgin's chapel OR LADY chapel, CAT STREET, now a dwelling.— From an engraving by Skdton.




IX.— ALL SOULS'.




IOUS Henry Chichele, the son of a merchant of Higham Ferrars, was
one of the first roll of scholars whom William of Wykeham
nominated at the opening of his great foundation of New College.
He left Oxford with the degree of Doctor of Laws, and soon found
both ecclesiastical preferment and a lucrative legal practice. He
attached himself to the House of Lancaster, and served Henry IV.
so well that he was made Bishop of St. David's, and sent to represent
England at the Council of Pisa. In such favour did he stand at
Court, that when Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, died in
the first year of Henry V., the young king appointed Chichele to
succeed him.

For the long term of thirty years Henry Chichele held the
Primacy of all England, and played no small part in the governance of
the realm. The two main characteristics of his policy, whatever may
be urged in his defence, were most unfortunate ; he was a stout
supporter of the unhappy war with France, and he was a weak
defender of the liberties of the Church of England against Papal
aggression. History remembers him as the ambassador who urged
so hotly the preposterous claims of Henry V. on the French throne,
and as the first Primate who refused to accept the Archbishopric from the King and the Chapter, till he had
obtained a dispensation and a Bull of Provision from the Pope.

However great may have been his faults as a statesman, Chichele (like his successor Laud) was throughout
his life a liberal and consistent patron of the University. He presented it with money and books, and, mindful
of what he owed to his training at New College, resolved to copy his old master Wykeham in erecting one more
well-ordered and well-endowed house of learning, among the obscure and ill-managed halls which still harboured
the majority of the members of the University. He first began to build a small College in St. Giles' ; but this
institution — St. Bernard's as it was called— he handed over unfinished to the Cistercian monks, in whose posses-
sion it remained till the Reformation, when it became the nucleus round which Sir Thomas White built up his
new foundation of St. John's.

Chichele's later and more serious scheme for establishing a College was not taken up till 1437, when he had
occupied the Archiepiscopal See for twenty-three years, and was already passed the age of seventy. It was one
of the darkest moments of the wretched French war ; the great Duke of Bedford had died two years before, and
Paris had been for twelve months in the hands of the P'rench. The old Archbishop, all whose heart had been in
the struggle, and who knew that he himself was more responsible for its commencement than any other subject
of the Crown, must have spent his last years in unceasing regrets. Perhaps he may have felt some personal
remorse when he reflected on his own part in the furthering of the war, but certainly — whether he felt his respon-
sibility or not -the waste of English lives during the last twenty years lay heavy on his soul. Hence it came
that his new college became a chantry as well as a place of education— the inmates were to be devoted as well
ad orandum as ad studendum — hence also, we can hardly doubt, came its name. For, as its Charter drawn by
Henry VI. proceeds to recite : the prayers of the community were to be devoted, " not only for our welfare and
that of our godfather the Archbishop, while alive, and for our souls when we shall have gone from this light,
but also for the souls of the most illustrious Prince Henry, late King of England, of Thomas late Duke of
Clarence our uncle, of the Dukes, Earls, Barons, Knights, Esquires, and other noble subjects of our father and
ourself who fell in the wars for the Crown of France, as also for the souls of all the faithful departed. Not
unwisely, therefore, has the piety of the present generation filled the niches of Chichele's magnificent reredos
with the statues of Clarence and York, Salisbury and Talbot, Suffolk and Bedford, and others who struck their
last stroke on the fatal plains of France. Nor can we doubt that the Archbishop's meaning was well expressed in

[ 253 — 254 ]



255



ALL SOULS' COLLEGE.



256




the name that he gave to his foundation, which,
copying the last words in the above cited foundation-
charter, became known as the " Collegium Omnium
Animarum Fidelium Defunctorum in Oxonia." .
. . When all was complete he went through the
form of handing over the foundation to his young
godson Henry VI., and of receiving it back from the
King's hands as co - founder. Hence comes the con-
stant juxtaposition of their names in the prayers of
the College.



STALL FINIAL, ALL SOULS' CHAPEL. — Pugin.



For the first century of the College's existence the
succession of Wardens and Fellows was very rapid.
The shortness of their tenure of office is easily ex-
plained ; a Fellowship was not a very valuable posses-
sion, for beyond food and lodging it only supplied its
holder with the " livery " decreed by the founder, an
actual provision of cloth for his raiment. A Fellow's
commons were fixed on the modest scale of "one
shilling a week when wheat is cheap, and sixteen-
pence when it is dear. " The annual surplus from the
estates was not divided up, but placed in the College
strong-box within the entrance tower, against the day
of need. Moreover, as the Fellows were lodged two,
or even in some cases three, in each room, the accom-
modation can hardly have been such as to tempt to
long residence. The acceptance of preferment outside
Oxford, or even an absence of more than six months
without the express leave of the College, sufficed to
vacate the Fellowship ; and since every member of
the foundation was in orders, it naturally resulted that
the "jurists " drifted up to London to practice, while
the " artists " accepted country livings. Only those
Fellows who were actually studying or teaching in
the University held their places for any length of time.

In the reign of Henry VII,, when the Renaissance
began to make itself felt in Oxford, All Souls' had the
good fortune to produce two of the first English
Greek scholars, Linacre and Latimer. The name of
the latter is forgotten— the present age remembers no
Latimer save the martyr-bishop ; but Linacre's memory
is yet green. With Grocyn and Colet he stands at
the head of the roll of Oxford scholars, but in his
medical fame he is unrivalled. His contemporaries
" questioned whether he was a better Latinist or
Grecian, a better grammarian or physician ; " but it
is in the last capacity that he is now remembered.
He was elected to his Fellowship at All Souls' in
1484, resided four or five years, and then went to
Italy, where he tarried long, taught medicine at Padua,
and then returned to England to found and preside
over the College of Physicians. The two Linacre
professorships were both endowed by him. . . .

The first touches of information as to the life of the
fellows which are found in the College archives come
from a letter of Archbishop Cranmer. The visitor
complains that 'Fellows have been seen ( 1541) clad
not in the plain livery which the pious founder devised,
but in gowns gathered round the collar and arms, and
quilted with silk ; they have been keeping dogs in
College ; some of them have hired private servants ;
others of them have engaged in " compotationibus,
ingurgitationibus, crapulis et ebrietatibus. " All these
customs are to cease at once. It is to be feared
that the good Archbishop was as unsuccessful in sup-
pressing these smaller sins and vanities, as he most
certainly was in dealing with the evil of corrupt
resignations.

It was in the reign of Warden Warner, under




STALL FINIAL, ALL SOULS' CHAPEL. — Pugin.



259



ALL SOULS' COLLEGE.



260



whom Cranmer's visitation took place, that All
Souls' was robbed of its greatest ornament— the
decorations of its chapel. In 1449, by order of
the Royal Commissioners appointed by Protector
Somerset, havoc was made with the whole interior of
the building. The organ was removed, the windows
broken, the high-altar and seven side-altars taken
down, and, worst of all, the whole reredos gutted ;
its fifty statutes and eighty-five statuettes were de-
stroyed, and so it remained, vacant but graceful,
though much chipped about in the course of ages, till
in the reign of Charles II. the Fellows in their
wisdom concluded to plane down its projections, stuff
its niches with plaster, and paint a sprawling fresco
upon it ! .

On the whole, save in the loss of its Reredos, All
Souls' did not suffer much from the Reformation. In
Elizabeth's reign we find it flourishing greatly under
Warden Hoveden. As a builder and an administra-
tor alike he left his mark on All Souls. '

By the end of Hoveden's time a new subject of
interest comes to the front in the management of the
College. The rise in wealth and in prices which cha-
racterized the Tudor epoch resulted in the develop-
ment of the annual surplus from the College estates
into unexpected proportions. When all outgoings
were paid there were often .£500 or £600 left to be
transferred to the strong-box in the gate-tower. It
naturally occurred to the Fellows that some of this



money might reasonably come their way. Arch-
bishop Whitgift allowed them to augment their daily
commons from it, and afterwards bade them com-
mute their " livery " in cloth for a reasonable equiva-
lent in cash. This was done, but still the annual
surplus cash grew. Archbishop Bancroft directed it
"to amendment of diet and other necessary uses of
common charge." He soon found that this merely
led to luxurious living. "It is astonishing," he
wrote, " this kind of beer which heretofore you have
had in your College, and I do strictly charge you,
that from henceforth there be no other received into
your buttery but small and middle beer, beer of
higher rates being fitter for tippling houses." Yet
the College strong ale still survives ! Nor was it only
in its drinking that the College offended : its eating
corresponded ; the gaudes, and the annual Bursar's
dinner, became huge banquets, costing some £40 ;
guests were invited in scores, and the festivities pro-
longed to the third day. Such things were only
natural when the Fellows had the disposal of a large
revenue, yet were not allowed to draw from it more
than food and clothing. At last, Archbishop Abbott,
in 1629, bethought him of a less demoralizing way of
disposing of the surplus : he boldly doubled the livery
money. Then for the first time a Fellowship became
worth some definite value in hard cash. The next
step was easy enough ; instead of a fixed double
livery, there was distributed annually so many times
the original livery as the surplus could safely furnish.





tripod. — From Lascelles.



SALT CELLAR. — From Lascelles.



26l



ALL SOULS' COLLEGE.



262



The seniors drew more than the juniors, and the
jurists more than the artists. This arrangement, after
working in practice for many years, was sanctioned
in theory also by Archbishop Sheldon in 1666.

The Civil Wars of the reign of Charles I. were an
evil time for All Souls' no less than for the other
Colleges of the University. All its magnificent stores
of plate went to replenish the Royal mint in New
Inn Hall, and to re-appear as ill-struck shillings.
No new fellows were elected, rents were unpaid, the
buildings began to fall into disrepair. When the
war ended, and the Parliamentary Visitors got
to work on the University, as much as two years
after the fall of Oxford, they found only eleven
members of the College in residence. Warden
Sheldon was summoned before them to ask whether
he acknowledged their authority, and replied with
frankness, " I cannot satisfy myself that I ought to
submit to this Visitation." Next day a notice of
ejectment was served upon him, and the day following
the Chancellor Pembroke went with the Visitors to
expel him. They found Sheldon walking in his little
garden, read their decree to him, and then sent for
the College buttery-book, out of which they struck
his name, inserting instead of it that of Dr. Palmer,
whom they had designated as his successor. Next
they bade him give over his keys, and when he
refused broke open his lodgings, installed Palmer in
them, and sent the rightful owner away under a
guard of musketeers, "followed as he went by a
great company of scholars, and blessed by the people
as he passed down the street. "

The old body of fellows being expelled, the Visitors
proceeded to fill up the empty places by nominating
masters of arts of Puritan tendencies. But in 1653
free elections re-commenced, and as the first fruits of
their labours the new Fellows co-opted Christopher
Wren. This greatest of all the Fellows of All Souls'
was in residence for eight years, working from the
very first year of his election at architecture, though
astronomy and mathematics were also taking up
part of his time. Ere he had been many months a
Fellow, he erected the large sun dial, with the motto
peretmt el imputantur, which now adorns the Library.
Palmer, the intruding Warden, died in
the very month of King Charles' return, and Sheldon
peaceably took possession of his old place. But
within two years he was called off to become Arch-
bishop of Canterbury, and John Meredith reigned in
his stead

Meredith's reign was short and uneventful. The
College was not destined to see any more vicissitudes
of importance till James II. imposed on it as head
his disreputable protege Leopold Finch, son of the
Earl of Winchilsea. Finch was an execrable warden,
but the College flourished in spite of him. To his
time belongs the munificent foundation of its library.

It was to Christopher Codrington that
the College owes the magnificent library, which so
far surpasses all its rivals in the University, save the
Bodleian alone. Codrington was a kind of Admirable
Creighton, poet and soldier, bibliophile and statesman.
In the same year he gained military promotion for his
gallantry at the siege of Namur, welcomed William III.
to Oxford in a speech whose elegant Latinity softened
even Jacobite critics, and undertook the government
of the English West India Islands. He died at
Barbados in 1 7 10, and left to his well-loved College
21,000 books, valued at ^6000, with a legacy of
,£10,000 to build a fit edifice to hold them, and a
fund to maintain it. The Codrington Library,




niche over the entrance.— Mackenzie and Pugin.



263



ALL SOULS' COLLEGE.



264



commenced in 17 16, took many years to build, but at
last stood completed, a far more successful work than
the hall which faces it across the quadrangle. It is
200 feet long, and holds with ease the 70,000 books
to which the College Library has now swollen. A
public reading-room was added to it in 1867, and it is
for students of law and history as much of an institu-
tion as the Bodleian itself.

The eighteenth century gave All Souls' many
brilliant Fellows, but it destroyed the original purpose
of the foundation, and ended by making it an abuse
and a byword, owing to an unhappy misinterpretation
of its statutes which led to the idea that the founders'
kin had a preferential right to fellowships whenever
they chose to present themselves as candidates.

Archbishop Cornwallis in 1777 ruled
that it was not obligatory upon the College that more
than ten of the Fellows should be of Founder's kin,
and from this time forth the claim o" Founder's kin
had no direct influence upon the elections. But the
doctrine had done its work. It brought the Fellow-
ships within a charmed circle of country families,
outside of which the College rarely looked when the
morrow of All Souls' Day came round.

The effect of this was to create a society of an
abnormal sort in the midst of a group of Colleges
which, whatever their shortcomings may have been,
continued to make a. profession of study and teaching.
The Fellows were men of good birth, and usually of
good private means, but they were wholly unacademic
in their tastes.

. . . . Gradually the College drew more and
more apart from its neighbours, until the Fellows
made it a point to know nothing and to care nothing
about the teaching, the study, or the business that
was going on just outside their walls.

To the great advantage of the College the
University Commission of 1854 swept away the
rights of Founder's kin, together with many other



provisions of the Statutes of Chichele, appropriated ten
Fellowships to the endowment of chairs of Modern
History and International Law, and threw open the rest
to competition in the subjects of Law and Modern
History. The Commission of 1877 threatened graver
changes, and for a while it was doubtful whether All
Souls' might not become an undergraduate College
of the ordinary type. But in the end the College was
allowed to retain, by means of non-resident Fellow-
ships, its old connection with the world outside, while
in other ways its endowments were utilized for study
and teaching. On the whole it cannot be said to
have suffered more than others from the want of con-
structive genius in the Commissioners. It is and will
be a College of many Fellows and several Professors,
with liabilities to contribute annual sums to Bodley's
Library and to undergraduate education. The
Fellowships are terminable in seven years, but may
be renewed in limited numbers and on a reduced
emolument. Their regular distribution has done
much to encourage the studies of Law and History in
the University. For the former, All Souls' is certainly
the centre and focus of all academic instruction.

Under these new conditions All Souls'— though
still somewhat scantily inhabited — is no longer given
over during a great part of each year to the bats and
owls. It now plays a useful and important part in
the University. Its Hall and lecture-rooms are
crowded with undergraduates, its reading-room is full
of students of Law and History, and its Warden and
Fellows have produced in the last ten years about
twice as many books as any two other Colleges in
the University put together. Last, but not least, it
has continued most loyally to fulfil its obligation of
providing prize Fellowships ; no other foundation can
say, though several are far richer than All Souls', that
it has regularly offered Fellowships for competition
for twenty consecutive years. — The Colleges of Oxjord.




WOODEN ORNAMENT FROM STALL, NEW COLLEGE CHAPEL. — Pugitl.



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