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see page 126.

Fine Art (Slade Professor), Hubert Her-
komer, M.A, hon. fellow All Souls', where see
page 276.

Drawing (Ruskin Master), Alexander Mac-
donald, 1866, and keeper of university galleries
90, hon. M.A., 24 April, 83 ; born 18 Feb., 1839.

university seal.— From Ingram.



[Redua d facsimile. ]


Historical Notice of the Great Hall of the University. By Fred. C. Conybeare, M.A.,
late Scholar, Fellow and Praelector.

ESPITE claims raised in the 17th century to an earlier date, it is clear
that University College really owes its origin to the benefaction of
William of Durham, who died in the year 1249, and bequeathed by
will to the University of Oxford the sum of 310 marks, out of the
interest upon which he required that ten or eleven or twelve or more
masters should be maintained. About William of Durham, the true
founder of the college, we glean some scanty information from the
" History of his Times," written by Matthew Paris. We know there-
from that he was one of a number of famous English scholars
who in the year 1229 migrated from the University of Paris in
consequence of a conflict which took place in that year between the
Students and the townspeople. These Town and Gown Rows, as
they were in a later age called, were common in the middle ages
in cities to which scholars and teachers resorted, and inasmuch as
an University at that date was not located in large and sumptuous
buildings of its own, but had to conduct its disputations and lectures
in hired rooms or by permission in a neighbouring monastery or priory
or church, it was easy for the scholars, if discontented with the treat-
ment they met with in any city, to leave it and repair to another centre.
As his name implies, William of Durham must have been born and bred in that city, and was no doubt
educated in it or in the monastery of Weremouth close by. After leaving Paris we may infer, though
it is not positively stated, that he finished his studies in Oxford. In later life he was Rector of the Church
of Weremouth, but he certainly kept up his connection with Oxford, and a deed is preserved in which, "by
the name of Wilhelmus de Dunelm' dictus Mogster, he appointed an agent to collect for him the interest on
monies lent to a Nunnery only four miles from Oxford." *

The actual will of the founder is lost, and we only know its exact provisions from a report issued in 1280 or
1 28 1 by certain masters whom the University had appointed to enquire into the manner in which the Testament
of Master William of Durham had been carried out. However, there still exist the deeds by which the earliest
houses belonging to the College came into its possession. The first of these is dated 1253, and gives to the
Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of Oxford the possession of a house which stood on the ground now occupied
by the north-east corner of Brazenose College. This hou^e, along with four shillings quit rent from another
tenement, was bought by the University as trustees for William of Durham's scholars for 36 marks. In the next
year but one, 1255, a house opposite the present College Lodge was purchased for 48 marks. A third house,
then or shortly after known as Brazen-nose Hall, was bought in 1262 for £$$ 6s. 8Y. sterling. This house, along
with the one first purchased, completed what is now the frontage of Brazenose College upon Radcliffe Square.
The rest of William of Durham's Bequest was lent by the University to the peers of the Realm, to assist them
in their constitutional struggle with Henry the Third, or was used by the University for its own purposes.
Thus the Commission appointed to enquire report in 1280 that Rents had been bought for William of Durham's
scholars to the yearly value of only 18 marks. The "great men of the land " had at that time it seems repaid
their loan, but of the remaining one hundred Pounds and ten Marks nothing was as yet then restored.

Did William of Durham's scholars from the first live together, like the members of a College, as we

* See " The Annals of Universit3' College," by William Smith, Newcastle, 1718, to which work the writer of this notice
is throughout indebted.

[ 17-18 J




understand it to-day ? Of this there is no evidence,
and perhaps we should infer the opposite from the
report of the Commission of 1280, which enacts that
four Masters of Arts, chosen in the first instance by
the Chancellor and certain Masters in Divinity, but
themselves afterwards having a voice in the filling up
of vacancies in their number, "shall, living together,
study Divinity." This, perhaps, implies that prior
to 1280 they were not gathered together under one
roof, but lived in halls and houses of their own
choosing, as the Hertford and Ireland University
Scholars do at the present day. It is likely enough,
however, that they lived in one of the houses bought
for them ; the more so, as two of these houses faced
upon school-street, in which, or close to which, the
chief university disputations and lectures were held.
School-street, the Vitus scholarum, coincided with the
space now called Radcliffe Square, and has ever
since been the focus of University life. In close
proximity to it was situated the first University Library
with the room beneath for the congregation of Regent
Masters to meet in, which in 1320 Thomas Cobham,
Bishop of Worcester, built as an annexe of the
University Church of St. Mary the Virgin.*

The monies bequeathed by William of Durham
were kept in a special coffer, called the chest of
William of Durham, which was probably kept in
the Priory of St. Frideswyde, since the University
until 1320 had no buildings of its own. This is
perhaps more likely than that it should have been
kept in one of the houses or halls purchased in 1253
and 1255. Sir Maxwell Lyte, the historian of the
University, suggests that the bulk of the bequest lay
idle in the chest, and that no scholars were really
appointed out of the interest on it until 1280.
"Unprofitable loans," he says, "were occasionally
granted to clerks," and " the University did not
scruple to help itself in times of need . . . and
it was not until more than thirty years after the death
of William of Durham that any of the rents purchased
with his money began to be applied in accordance
with the terms of his will." (Hist, of the University,
p. 71). This is to suppose that no interest was paid
upon the loans made and no notice taken of the will
of William of Durham further than was involved in
the purchase of the three houses mentioned. It may
with equal likelihood be supposed that the bequests
of the will were so far as possible at once carried into
effect, and that the purpose of the further regulations
of 1280 was to bring the scholars in future under one
roof, to provide from among them a Bursar or respon-
sible person to keep the chest, and look after the
houses purchased, to arrange for their discipline and
payment and future method of - election. This is the
more likely because 12 years later, in 1292, we find
that William of Durham's executors were still alive
and exerting themselves to induce the University to
enact statutes more in accordance with the will than
were those of 1280.

The payment made to each of the four masters
appointed in 1280 was fifty shillings yearly, the same
amount as was paid to the scholars of the New
Foundation of Walter de Merton. The Bursar
received five shillings more. All were to be Masters
of Arts and were to study Divinity. One of them at
least was to be a priest. No local restrictions were
imposed, but they were to be poor men, who would
not otherwise be able to " live handsomely in the
State of Masters of Arts. "

* See Maxwell Lyte " History of the University of Oxford,
P- 99 •"

In 1292, at the procurement of the Executors of
the Venerable Mr. William of Durham, the Univer-
sity made new statutes for his scholars. In these
statutes several novelties occur. Firstly, the senior
socius or fellow is to rule the juniors. Here we
have the germ of the future master of the College,
and until a late period the master was officially known
as senior socius. Secondly, we have mention of a
College library or collection of books, and the con-
ditions are laid down under which the fellows might
use them or take them out. " Let there be put one
book of every sort that the House has in some com-
mon and secure place." Thirdly, the fellows shall
say mass at the beginning of each term for the Bene-
factors. Fourthly, no fellow shall undervalue another
fellow under certain penalties, which are to be
doubled if he do it publicly. Fifthly, provision is
made for the admission of commoners, and, as par-
ticular interest attaches to this, the first mention of
them, we give in full the clause regulating their ad-
mission : — " Since the aforesaid Scholars have not
sufficiently to live handsomely alone by themselves,
but that it is expedient that other honest persons
dwell with them ; it is ordained, That every Fellow
shall secretly enquire concerning the Manners of
everyone that desires to sojourn with them ; and then
if they please, by common consent, let him be re-
ceived under this condition, That before them he
shall promise, whilst he lives with them, that he will
honestly observe the customs of the Fellows of the
House, pay his Dues, not hurt any of the Things
belonging to the House, either by himself or those
that belong to him." Sixthly, it was ordained that
Latin be spoken within the College according to the
Custom of the time.

Other points which deserve notice with regard to the
early Foundation are these. The will of William of
Durham enacted that his scholars should be born in
the diocese of Durham, but the first statutes made
by the University in 1280 disregarded this restriction.
The Executors of the will objected, and in 1292 it
was laid down that the College was to be recruited
from the parts nearest to Durham. The 'I hird body
of Statutes made in 131 1 enacted that the Fellows
should be indigent persons of good morals, who shall
be ceteris paribus born nearest to the parts of Durham.
This restriction continued down to the middle of this
century, and similar restrictions were imposed on the
Fellowships created by later Foundations : e.g. in 1403
three Fellowships were created by king Henry IV. at
the request of Walter Skirlaw, for which were to be
preferred persons born in the dioceses of York or
Durham. In 1442 three more Fellowships were
founded by Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland,
for persons born in the dioceses of Durham, Carlisle,
or York, with a preference, other things being equal,
to natives of Northumberland. The College was
thus for many centuries distinctly a Northern College,
and it was not till 163 1 that there was any change in
this respect. In that year Sir Simon Bennett founded
four Scholarships and four Fellowships, to be held by
natives of the See of Canterbury or of the South of
England. In recent years, owing to the recommend-
ations of the Oxford University Commission appointed
1850, and of new statutes made in 1872, all local
restrictions on the choice of Fellows and Scholars
have been practically abandoned. Likewise all clerical
restrictions. The will of William of Durham and the
earliest codes of statutes distinctly contemplated lay
Fellowships, or else they would not have enacted that
the senior Fellow or Master was to be in Priest's




orders. It is true that they were to study divinity,
but that did not imply the clerical restrictions after-
wards imposed and only shaken off in the last half of
this century.

Another point noticeable is that the power of visi-
tation, that is of deciding disputed points about the
interpretation or observance of the statutes, was at
first vested in the University itself, and this continued
to be until the reign of George the Second, when in
the year 1726, owing to a disputed election to the
headship, the right of visitation was brought before
the King's Bench, which decided, in the teeth of all
history and precedent, that the college was a royal
foundation and that the Sovereign was the rightM
visitor. This absurd decision was founded on the
tradition first mentioned in the days of Richard II.,
that King Alfred founded the College. Since 1726
the Crown has acted as visitor, and in 1736 King
George II. issued a new set of statutes by which the
College was governed until the time of the Royal
Commission of 1850. The decision of 1726 was in
all ways regrettable. The College is anyhow the
oldest foundation in the University, although it was
organized as a College — in the sense in which we
understand that word— later than Balliol and Merton
Colleges. There was therefore no excuse for claiming
for it a bastard antiquity.

The present arms of the College are — Azure, a cross
patonce between four martlets or — and were only sub-
stituted for the shield of William of Durham after
1726. The latter — or, a fleur-de-lis azure each leaf
charged with a mullet of the field — may still be seen in
the Library. The earliest college buildings were
located as we have said upon School-street at
the N.E. corner of what is now Brazenose College.
In or soon after the year 1343 the College was
removed to its present situation in the High-street.
In that year White Hall and Rose Hall in Kibald-
street (now Grove Place) were bought by the College.
As to the names by which the College has been
known, its members were by the statutes of 1311 to
cause themselves to be known as the Scholars of
William of Durham, but their old hall in the Vicus
Scholarum was simply called the Aula Universitatis,

the Hall of the University ; and the same name con-
tinued to be attached to their residence after their
removal in or about the year 1343 to the Alius Vicus
or High-street. In 1361 the College is in deeds known
as "The Master and Fellows of the Hall of William
of Durham, commonly called Aula Universitatis."
In the year 1381 we meet with the appellation Magna
Aula b'niversitatis, the Mickle or Great Hall of the
University, and this was confirmed in a later charter
granted to the College by Queen Elizabeth.

The present buildings were erected between 1634
and 1674, largely out of money contributed by the
great physician Radcliffe, who was a member of the
College. In 1845 the northern annexe called the
New Buildings was added. On the east side and
separated by l.ogic-lane is another annexe or hall.
In all over a hundred students can be accommodated
with rooms, and it is the hope of the College to some
day extend itself in the direction of the New Schools.
To provide for such a possible future extension the
College a few years ago acquired all the land inter-
vening between Logic-lane and the New Schools.
The present Master's house was erected about twelve
years ago under the headship of Dr. Bradley. A
house for a married tutor within the College precincts
was added behind the Library six years ago, and has
a frontage upon Grove-place. The library itself was
built in 1860-61, when the old library over the kitchen
was turned into small-sized students' rooms. There
are thus provided for students, who have not too much
money to spend, an unusually large number of rooms
let at a very small rent. The latest architectural
addition to the College is a monument to the Poet
Shelley. It is still in course of erection, and will
consist of a domed apartment visible from the High-
street covering a recumbent statue of the poet. It is
built in the vacant space separating the old buildings
of the seventeenth century from the new block erected
in 1845.

A fuller account of the constitution and history
of the College by the same author will be found
in The Colleges of Oxford, by A. Clark, M.A. ;
Methuen, 1891.

oxford crown piece. — From Ingram.

HALL AND chapel. — From Ingram's Memorials.




1. Aswardby, Roger de, master 1332.
2 Pocklington, John, master 1362; formerly prin-
cipal of Balliol Hall.

3. Kexfay, William, B.D. (master 1378), archdeacon
of Cleveland, Sept., 1379, which he exchanged lor
the chantorship of York cathedral Nov. following.

4. Foston, Thomas, master March, 1392, bursar
1391 ; will proved 8 March, 1409.

5. Duffield, Thomas, master 20 R. II. 1396.

6. Lacey, Edmund, master circa 22 R. II. 1398,
canon of Windsor 1401, of Hereford 1412, and of
Lincoln 1414, bishop of Hereford 1417, and Exeter
1420; died Sept., 1455, will proved 8 Oct., 1455.

7. Appleton, John, M.A., master circa 1403.

8. Castle, John, M.A. , master circa 1413, chancellor
of the university 17 April, 1422, canon 1414, and
chancellor of Hereford 1425, canon of Lincoln 1424,
archdeacon of Berks 1431, prebendaiy 1436, and
chantor of York cathedral 1447, made his will 30
Oct. , 1456, proved 25 Feb. following.

9. Burton, Robert, B.D., confirmed master 7 May,
1420, archdeacon of Northumberland, precentor of
Lincoln 1427.

10. Wytton, Richard, B.D. , master circa 1426, dean
of the church of Derlyngton, diocese of Durham.

11. Benwell, Thomas, or Benyngwell, M.A., master

12. Marton, John, B. D. , master circa 1441, possibly
dean of Bangor 1445.

13. Gregford, William, M.A., master 1474; died
March, 1487-8, buried in St. Mary's church.

[ 23 ]

14. Rokysburg, John (or Rokesborough), M.A.,
master 1488; died 23 Sept., 1509, buried in St.
Mary's church.

15. Hamsterley, Ralf, M.A., master 3 Oct., 1509,
fellow of Merton 1476, proctor 1481, M.A. (disp.
13 March), 1507-8, principal of St. Alban Hall,
rector of Gt. Birch, Essex, 1512 ; died 4 Aug., 1518,
buried in Merton chapel. See Foster's Alumni
Oxonienses, 642.

16. Hutchinson, Leonard, M.A., master 16 Sept.,
1518; of Balliol, B.A., 17 Dec, 1506, M.A.
(supl. 28 April), 1509, northern proctor, 15 14,
rector of Croughton, Northants, 1530-54, and of
Northwold, Norfolk, 1543; died October, icc 4 .
See Al. Ox. 778.

17. Crayford, John, D. D. , master 13 Sept. , 1546; fellow
Queens' Coll., Cambridge, 1514, and M.A. ;
(supl. 24 June, 1521, for incorporation at Oxford,
proctor 1522, an original canon of Cardinal Coll. ,
1525), B.D. Cambridge, (supl. 4 April, 1530,
for incorporation at Oxford), master of Clare
Hall, 1530, and vice-chancellor, 1534-5, ^SS" 6 .
D-D. 1535 ; supl. in July, 1536, and July, 1546, for
incorporation ; fellow University Coll. 1519 or
1539, and master 1546-7, rector of Stanford Rivers,
Essex, 1532. preb. of Llanfair in St. Asaph, 1534;
of St. Paul 1540, of Westminster 1541, and of
Winchester 1541, custos or chaplain of hospital of
St. Nicholas Sarum 1542, with prebend, rector of
Terrington, Norfolk, 1543, chancellor Sarum
Cathedral 1544 with prebend, archdeacon of Berks
1545, and rector of Newton Toney, Wilts, 1545-7 •
died Aug., 1547. See Al. Ox. 347.

[ -4 ]




18. Salveyn, B.D., Richard, master Sept. ,1547; B.A.
23 May, 1527, M.A. 30 March, 1530, B.D. supl.
July, 1539, master 1547-51. See Al. Ox. 1305.

19. Ellison, George, M. A., master3oNov. , 1551 ; B.A.
22 March, 1542-3, M.A. 1545, master 1551, until his
death 30 May, 1557. See Al. Ox. 459.

20. Salveyn, Antony, B. D. , master 1 June 1557.
B.A. supld. 19 Jan. , 1527-8, M.A. 10 July, 1531, B.D.
supl. July, 1546, master 1557-8 (2s. Gerard of
Croxdale, co. Durham) ; rector of High Ham,
Somerset, 1552, rector of Winston 1545, canon of
Durham 1556, rector of Sedgefield and of Ryton
1558, master of Sherburn hospital, and vicar-general
to bishop of Durham, deprived 1559. See Al. Ox.

21. Dugdale, James, M.A. master 10 Dec, 1558,
deprived 1561 by Queen Elizabeth's visitors B.A.;
1545, archdeacon of St. Albans 1557, deprived
1560, rector of Higham, co. Leicester, 1586, and
perhaps vicar of Almsford, Somerset, 1590, until his
death in 1594. See Al. Ox. 430.

22. Key, Thomas, M.A. (or Kay), master 17 Nov.,
1 561 ; fellow All Souls', 1525, B.A. 2 July, 1526,
M.A. 12 Dec, 1530, registrar of the university 1535
until turned out for negligence, etc. 1552 ; preben-
dary of Sarum 1559, rector of Tredington, co.
Worcester, 1563, until his death ; buried 20 May,
1572, in the church of St. Peter's-in-the-East ; will
at Oxford 8 May, 1572. See Al. Ox. 837.

23. James, William, B. D., master 12 June, 1572,
resigned 14 Sept. , 1584 ; born at Sandbach, Cheshire
(s. John of Littleton, co. Stafford), student of
Christ Church 1561, B.A. 1562, M.A. 1566,
B.D. (University Coll.), 1572, D. D. 1574, dean
of Christ Church 1584 96, vice-chancellor 1581
and 1590, reader of divinity in Magdalen Coll. ;
rector of Kingham, Oxford, 1575-1601, arch-
deacon of Coventry 1577, rector of Egglescliffe, co.
Durham, 1603-6, dean 1596, and bishop of Dm ham

1606, until his death 12 May 1617 ; buried in the
choir of his cathedral. See Al. Ox. 801.

24. Gate, Antony, M.A., master 15 Sept., 1584;
B.A. 14 Jan., 1568-9, M.A. 3 July, 1572, supl. for
B.Med. 19 July, 1580; died Aug., 1587. See
A I. Ox. 552.

25. Abbot, George, D.D. , master 6 Sept., 1597 (son of
Maurice of Guildford, Surrey, sherman); Balliol,
matric 2 May, 1581, aged 18 ; B.A. 1582, fellow,
M.A. 1585, supl. for licence to preach 2 March,
1593-4, B.D. 4 March, 1593-4; D.D. (University
Coll. ) 9 May, 1597, vice-chancellor 1600-3-5 ! by his
instrumentality Pembroke Coll. was formed out
of Broadgates Hall, 1624 ; was never beneficed,
one of the translators of the New Testament ;
dean of Winchester 1600, bishop of Lichfield and
Coventry 1609, and of London 1610 (a member
of the Inner Temple 161 1), archbishop of Canter-
bury 1611, until his death 4 Aug., 1633, aged 71.
See A I. Ox. 1.

26. Bancroft, John, D.D. , master 2 March. 1609,
resigned 23 Aug. , 1632. Christ Church, matric.
10 Feb., 1592-3, aged 18, student 1592 (from
Westminster school), B.A. 1596, M.A. 1599, B.D.

1607, D.D. (University Coll.) 1610 (son of
Christopher, eldest son of John Bancroft, of
Farnworth, co. Lancaster, and brother of Arch-
bishop Bancroft), canon of St. Paul's 1609, rector
of Finchley, Middlesex, 1601, of Stourmouth and
Orpington 1608, of Woodchurch 1609, and of
Biddenden (all) Kent 1610, vicar of Cuddesden,
Oxon, and of Bray, Berks, 1633, bishop of Oxford
1632, until his death 12 Feb. , 1640-1. See Al. Ox. 65.

27. "Walker, Thomas, D.D. , master 31 Aug., 1632,
ejected by the parliamentarian visitors 10 July, 1648,
restored 31 July, 1660; subscribed 15 Oct., 1613 ;
fellow St. John's, B.A. 1615, M.A. 1619, B.D.

1625, D.D. (University Coll.) 1633, canon
residentary of Wells, ejected, rector of Great
Rowlwright 1622-35, of Mixbury 1630-8, of
Somerton 1633-60, and of Handborough (all) Oxon
1638, until he died 5 Dec. 1665. See Al. Ox.

( — ) Hoyle, Joshua, put in master 10 July, 1648, by the
parliamentarian visitors, born at Sowerby, near
Halifax, Yorks, sometime of Magdalen Hall;
fellow Trinity Coll., Dublin, 1609, andD.D.,and
divinity professor there ; returned to England 1641,
vicar of Stepney, a noted puritan, and one of the
Westminster assembly of Divines, regius professor
of Divinity and master of this college 1648, until his
death 6 Dec, 1654. See Al. Ox. 758.

( — ) Johnson, Francis, M.A. , put in master 1655 by
Oliver Cromwell, ejected 1660 ; s. Francis, of Lilford,
Northants, pleb. Queen's, matric. 21 Nov.,
1628, aged 17, B.A. 1630, M.A. 1633 (incorporated
at Cambridge 1644), fellow All Souls', chaplain to
Oliver Cromwell, lord protector, intruded rector of
Hardwick, co. Cambridge, 1646, died 9 October,
1677, in Gray's Inn Lane. SeeAl. Ox. 814.

27. Walker, Thomas, D.D., restored 31 July, 1660,
see above.

28. Clayton, Richard, D.D. , master 19 Dec, 1665: of
Yorks, gent.; University Coll. , matric. 3 July,
1618, aged 15 ; B.A. from Broadgates Hall
1622, M.A. 1624; fellow University Coll., B.D.
and licenced to preach 4 July, 1639, D. D. 1666, rector
of Shawell, co. Leicester, 1623, vicar of Great Wil-
braham, co. Cambridge, 1628, rector of Shilling'
ford, Berks, 1639, canon residentiary of Salisbury,
where he died, 10 June, 1676 ; will proved at
Oxford 6 July, 1676. See Al. Ox. 287.

29. Walker, Obadiah, M.A. , master 22 June, 1676 ; s.
William, of Worsboroughdale, Yorks, pleb. UNI-
VERSITY Coll., matric. 5 April, 1633, aged 16, B.A.
1635, fellow 1635, until ejected 1648, restored 1660,
M.A. 1638, refused to be created B.D. 1646,
declared non-master 4 Feb., 1688-9, Ior being a
papist, imprisoned in the Tower for papistry 1688-9,
excepted out of the act of pardon of William and

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