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scholar 56-62, B.A. 60; fellow Trinity 62-8, M.A.
63 (Honours : — 1 classical mods. 58, 1 classics and
4 mathematics 60), librarian of Oxford union society
63 ; vicar of Navestock, Essex, 68.

Smith, Reginald Bosworth, born at West Stafford,
Dorset, 28 June, 1839; 2s. Reginald, rector of West
Stafford 36, and canon of Salisbury 75. Corpus
Christi, matric. 27 Dec, 58, aged 18 (from Marl-
borough), scholar 58-63, B.A. 62; fellow Trinity
63-5, M.A. 64 (Honours: — 1 classical mods. 59, 1
classics 62), president of Oxford union society 63 ;
assistant master Harrow school, author of ' ' Life of
Lord Lawrence," etc. See Foster's Baronetage.

Plummer, Alfred, born at Heworth, co. Durham, 17
Feb., 1841 ; 3s. Matthew, cler. Exeter, matric.
14 June, 59, aged 18 (from Lancing college), ex-
hibitioner 60-4, B.A. 63; fellow Trinity 65-75,
M.A. 66, tutor 67-74 ( Honours : — 1 classical mods.
6i, 2 classics 63); master of University college.
Durham, 74, junior 75, and senior proctor (Durham)
77, created D.D. , Durham, 82. For list of his
works see Crockford.

Sanday, William, fellow, 66-74, and of Exeter 83,
where see page 123.

Gent, John, born at Swinburne, Northumberland, 19
July, 1844; o.s. William, gent. Trinity, matric.
17 Oct., 63, aged 19 (from Durham school), scholar



62-7, B.A. 68, fellow 69-86, M.A. 70 (Honours:—
Hertford scholarship 65, 1 classical mods. 65,
Ireland scholarship 66, 1 classics 67, Craven scholar-
ship 68, Arnold essay 70, Eldon scholarship 72) ;
bar.-at-law, Lincoln's Inn, 74. See Foster's Men at
the Bar.

Eastwick, James, born at Collyweston, Northants,
14 Sept., 1850 ; is. James, cler. University
Coll., matric. 16 Oct., 69, aged 19 (from Rugby),
scholar 69-73 '< fellow Trinity 73-6, B.A. 73,
M.A. and B.C.L. 76 (Honours : — 1 classical mods.
71, 1 classics 73, 1 law 74, 1 civil law 75, Eldon law
scholarship 76), bar.-at-law, Lincoln's Inn, 77. See
Foster's Men at the Bar.

Smith, Arthur Lionel, fellow 74-9, and of Balliol 82,
where see page 63.

Robertson, rev. Archibald, born at Sy well, Northants,
29 June, 1853 ; is. George Samuel, cler. Trinity,
matric. 14 Oct. , 72, aged 19 (from Bradfield coll.),
scholar 72-6, B.A. 76, fellow 76-86, M.A. 79
(Honours : — 2 classical mods. 73, 1 classics 76) ;
principal of Hatfield Hall, Durham, 83.

Mann, James Saumarez, born in St. Peter's Port,
Guernsey, 11 Oct., 1851 ; o.s. James Saumarez,
capt. r.n. Exeter, matric. 15 Oct., 70, aged 19
(from Elizabeth college, Guernsey), scholar 70-5,
B.A. 74, M.A. 78 ; fellow Trinity 79-88, and 89
90 (Honours: — 2 classical mods. 72, 1 classics
74) ; journalist.




VIEW BY BEKSBLOCKj 1566. — Facsimile from Hearue,



455



TRINITY COLLEGE.



45^



OTHER RESIDENT MEMBERS OF CONGREGATION.



Amott, Arthur Philip, born in Edinburgh

1838; is. James, arm. Tkinity, matric. 15 Oct.,
56, aged 18 (from Bromsgrove school), B.A. 60,
M.A. 63 ; Honours : — 3 mathematics 60.

Balfour, Henry, born at Croydon, Surrey, 11 April,
1863 ; o.s. Lewis, gent. Tkinity, matric. 3 June,
81, aged 18 (from the Charterhouse), B.A. 85, M.A.
88 (Honours: — 2 natural science 85), curator of
the Pitt-Rivers Collection.

Christopher, Alfred Millard William, born at Enfield,
Middlesex, 1821 ; 6s. George, arm.

Scholar Jesus Coll., Cambridge, 41, B.A. and 19th
wrangler 43, M.A. 49, in Cambridge University
eleven 43 ; of Oxford University ad eundem 14 June
60, and incorporated 16 April 72, aged 51, from
Trinity ; rector of St. Aldates, Oxford, 59, and
hon. canon of Christ Church 86.

Cowley, Arthur Ernest, born at Forest Hill, Kent, 13
Dec , 1861 ; 3s. Frederick Thomas. Trinity,
matric. n Oct., 79, aged 17 (from St. Paul's school),
exhibitioner 79-83, B.A. 83, M.A. 87 (Honours :— 2
classical mods. 81, 4 classics 83, Aubrey Moore
theological studentship 93) ; assistant master at
Sherborne school 85-9, a master at Magdalen college
school.

Currie, rev. Hugh Penton, born at Ditton, Surrey, 31
May, 1854 ; 8s. Frederick, bart. Trinity, matric.



31 May, 73, aged 19 (from Eton), B.A. 77, M.A. 80 ;
principal of Dorchester mission coll., Oxon, 84.

Nicholson, Edward Williams Byron, born in St.
Helier, Jersey, 16 March, 1849 ; o.s. Edward, arm.
Trinity, matric. 12 Oct., 67, aged 18 (from Tun-
bridge school), scholar 67-72, B.A. 71, M.A. 74
(Honours: — 1 classical mods. 69, Greek verse
n, 3 law and history 71, Greek testament prize 72) ;
librarian Oxford union society 72, and of the Lon-
don institution 73-82, Bodley's librarian 82.

Smith, rev. Frederick John, born at Taunton, Somer-
set, 2 April, 1848 ; o.s. Frederick Jeremiah, preben-
dary of Wells, etc. Pembroke, matric. 20 April,
68, aged 20, B.A. 72; Millard lecturer in experimental
mechanics and engineering Trinity 85, M.A. 86,
University reader 90 ; curate 77-85, and vicar of
Bishop Hull St. John, Somerset, 85-7.



CHAPLAIN.

Price, rev. William Henry, born at Gloucester 21
April, 1859 ; is. William Farmer. Somerset exhibi-
tioner ST. John's Coll., Cambridge, B.A. 80,
M.A. 83 ; chaplain Trinity Coll., Oxford, 84,
incorporated 23 Feb., 88, curate of St. Mary Mag-
dalen with St. George Martyr, city of Oxford, 85.




the bodleian. — From Ingram.



457



TRINITY COMMONERS.



458



^cl)olat#/ Cjdjibtttoner^ ant> Commoner*,



Of whom biographical notices appear in the Matriculations 1880-92.



1880.



*Fowler(then Piggin)John H
♦Paton, Alfred V.
*Sadler, Michael E.
Rogers, Frederick E.
Turney, Horace G.
Lee, Henry
Peacock, Mark B.
Chitty, Joseph H. P.
Murray, John R.
Whiteside, Joseph
Guille, Hubert G. de C.
Home, William O.
La Motte, Digby H. R. H.
Bellot, Hugh H' L.
Lough, Edward I.
Bennett, Laurence H.
Whitehead, George H.
Briscoe, George
Collingwood, Walter G.
Ogle, Cyril
Curtis, Edward B. C.
Strachey, Theodore E.
Chance, Charles R.
Chance, Joseph S.
Bell, James R.
Pollock, Frank
Harford, Hugh W. L.
Nicholson, Hugh S.
Mackenzie, Kenneth J.
Bowden-Smith, Fredk H.
Wayte, John



♦Price, Langford L. F. R.
*Blakiston, Herbert E. D.
*Russell, Cecil H. St. L.
*Jones, Leifchild S.
Cash, Christopher C.
Barton, Henry A.
Smith, Gustafkjold S. L.
Curtler, William H. R.
Skipwith, Grey H.
Vivian, Herbert L.
Cookson, Hugh C.
Wilson, Thomas C.
Hart, Alfred J.
Snow, Arthur E.
Lucas, Arthur
Hartnoll, Henry S.
McNeil, Alexander
Lindsell, Henry B.
Freese, Frederick E.
Balfour, Henry
Clark, Erland A.
Bolitho, William E. T.
Fellowes, Evelyn N.
Whitehead, Stanley
Norris, Hugh L.
Cowdell, Frank L.
Heathcote, Wyndham S.
Williams, William S. G.
Williams, John E.
Dun, Finlay
Lawson, Wilfrid
Wilson, Walter F.



1882.
* Hoi land, Percy



*Bodev, Ralph T.
•Field, Alfred E.
. *Moses, Samuel
*Couch, Arthur T.
♦Shepherd, Richard A.
♦Nagel, David H.
Brown, Thomas T.
White, John J.
Wilson, Thomas N.
Briscoe, Francis P.
Moore, Francis B. G.
Maude, Eustace A.
Martin, Charles R. H.
Byrne, Lionel S. R.
Trethewy, Antony W.
Pinhey, Arthur F.
Baker, George
Ewing, Guy B.
Paterson, Gordon W.
Trier, Emil A.
Macdonald, Ronald
Rerridge, Frederick H.
Nanson, Arthur C.
Roney-Dougal, John R.

1883.

*Fowkes, Henry E
♦Wood, Michael H. M.
♦Rogers, Walter
♦Tuckey, James G. W.

.Ford student
Moger, George E.
Cranage, George E. W. (82)
Vassall, Harry G.
Lawford, Herbert B.
Skinner, Oswald A.
Salmon, Robert C.
Harvey, William G. L.
I'rwick, William E.
Evans, Martin L.
Farlow, Sidney C.
Ball, Herbert '
De-la-Bere, William St. John
Carr, Reginald C. C.
Barrow, Reginald P.
Stewart, Robert B.
Burke, John
Hewett, Herbert T.
Locock, Henry T.
Rooth, John
Watson, Arthur H.
Welsh, Hugh R.
Hardeman, Joseph T.
Firth, Edward H.
Ryan, William G.
Palgrave, Francis M. T.
Wait, Hamilton W. K.
Wilson, James E. B.
Gamon, John P.
Walton, Walter E. B.
Mackarness, Arthur J. C.
Walker, Frederick W.
Armitage, Frederick L.
Home, Edward H.
Broomfield, Reginald C.
Turner, Augustus
Gandell, Schomberg F.

1884.

♦Sharp, William H.
♦Simpson, James G.



Taylor, Thomas B.
fPellatt, Thomas
Legge, Thomas M. (82)
fHatch, Wilfrid S. (83)
Dyson, Francis J.
Holmes, Richard E.
fClark, Stephen H.
fWillson, Dallas A. W.
fMason, Alfred E. W.
Harris, Arthur B.
Ryves, Arthur E.
Kippen, William J.
Bond, Reginald C.
Newman, William A.
Munro, Hugh St. J. S.
Beeching, Walter C.
Windley, Francis
Flanagan, James W.
Young, George J.
James, Leonard
Dowling, Henry B.
Bradburne, Charles .
Grey, William E.
Tenner, Louis L.
Ferguson, Victor
Meade, Charles H.
Mayo, Charles J.
Greenway, John B.
Wright, William P.
Freer, Arthur S. B.
Gayer, Brett
Soames, Francis A.
Ritchie, Charles



♦Alexander, Sidney A.
♦Gillespie, Charles M.
♦Wilson, Herbert W.
Pollen, Arthur J. H.
Mathew, Theobald
Sharp, Charles J. (84)
Fisher, Harold F.
Darbishire, Bernard V.
Hopkins, Henry M. R.
Penney, Johnston
Francke, Paul M.
Carter, Evan E.
Grindley, Robert D.
Mayo, Edmund G.
Osborne, George E. C.
Sinclair, Charles A.
Miche'lmore, Philip
Wilbraham, Donald F.
Bateson, Alexander D.
Martin, Douglas E.
Bernays, Stewart F. L.
Newton, Charles W.
Muir, Kenneth
Annesley, Arthur D.
Kingsbury, William E.
Uniacke, Richard G. F.
Hind, Jesse W.
Trethewy, Thomas L.
Macphersbn, Arthur H.
Campbell-Colquhoun, W. E.
Argenti, Ambrose
Mavrojani, Spyridion A.
Brinton, John C.
West, Frederick M.(83)
♦Hope, Charles D.
fMill, James



Grey, Charles E.
Haig, Alfred E.
Stenhouse, Frank



♦St. Hill, Edward A.
♦Hall, Frederick W.
♦Christie, Octavius F.
♦Niblett, Harry E.
♦Rammell, Thomas E.

Ford student
♦Lewis, Arthur K.
♦Barlow, Herbert W. L.
fBell, Charles William
Brockman, Elliot G. D.
Ormiston, Thomas L.
Borwick, Frank
Read, Archibald (Exhib.)
fCampbell, Claud H.
Dewe, Wallace
Thurston, Edward de B.
Karslake, Job . 8. B.
Ryley, Geoffrey C. E.
Glossop, Arthur G. B.
Marriner, John S.
Marriott, Charles B.
Walker, Arthur T. J.
Wolseley-Lewis, A. B.
Ellis, Walter A.
Dawson-Miller, T. F.
Bushby, Dudley C.
Fletcher, Carteret E.
Hext, Edward F. A.
Peel, Robert
Slaughter, Edward M.
Scadding, Samuel W.
Drury, John W.
Clarke, Charles N.
Crookenden, George P.
Kealy, Charles G.
Burton, Charles H.
Smith-Bosanquet, G. R. B.
Lane, Richard O. B.
Baker, Percy T.
De-La-Fosse, Claude



♦Smith, George
♦du Pontet, Rene L. A.
♦Way, William A.
♦Delevingne, Malcolm
♦Hall, Cecil G.
♦Thornton, Henry S. R.
♦Dowdall, Harold C.
fMarshall, Horace
-j-Lowry, Arthur B.
fCalderon, George L.
f Thomas, Arthur E.
Lowndes, Frederic S. A.

Ford student
Escott, William S. R. S.
•(-Nix, John S.
Gibson, Bertram R.
Smith, Herbert M.
Cripps, Arthur S.
Davis, Edgar C.
Robins, William A.
Greenway, Lionel
Heywood, William R.
Langford-Sainsbury,Thos. H.



4*9



TRINITY COMMONERS.



460



1887 [continued]

Wilson, Archibald B. B.
Tuckett, Philip D.
Mossop, Leonard
Armour, Henry C.
Thackeray, Walter A.
Gordon, William A.
Pope, Samuel
Knaus, Charles T.
Ashton, Thomas K.
Leadam, Edward A.
Samson, Edward M.
Wakeling, George H.
Russell, Walter
Packard, Edward T.

Ford student
Hopkinson, Emilius
Twist, George C.
Logan, Balfour •
Ryley, Arthur B.
Merchant, George L.
Edwards, Charles H.
Hall, Mildmay F.
Wilson, Sidney E.
Ripley, Archibald E.
Page, Cyril J. N.



*Binyon, Robert L.
*Johnson, Charles
fThursfield, James H.
■j-Smith, James C.
Routh, Robert G.
Chorley, Henry S.
fMacVicar, Charles R.
Harrison, James K. M.
Underwood, Ormsby C. H.
Plumptre, Arthur H.
Atherton, Richard P.
Gosling, George B.
Young, John J. B.
-(■Bell, Thomas A.
tO'Neill, Frank B.
Reeve, William G.
Havers, William J.
Allfrey, Edward W.
Brooke, Henry
King-Church, Francis W.
Arnold, Robert A.
Thompson, William R.
Bowring, Henry I.
Bligh, Stanley P. M.
Dean, James E. T.
Goff, Park
Grotrian, Herbert B.
Turner, Charles M.
Phillips, Ernest S.
Hitchings, Gerard
Roxburgh, William J.
Bird, Arthur H.
King, Horace, S. F.
Lindesay, Robert T. M.
Mortimer, Harry P.
Pimbury, George C. W.
Percival, Lancelot J.
Hogg, Adam S.
Elger, Ronald H.
Rowlands, Harry F.



*T\videll, John C.
*Bate, Herbert N.
*Hirtzell, Frederic A.
*Bailey, Wilfred O.
*Zedlitz, George W. E. E.



*Phillips, Laurence A.
*Wellby, Stanley
Smith, Leonard W.

Ford student
Carter, Arthur C. (87)
Waddington, Evelyn de B.
Boas, Henry J.
Ryves, Robert H.
Slocock, Francis S. A.
Furse, Michael B.
Watson, Archibald R.
Latter, Algernon
Mant, Reginald A.
Hamilton, George F. C.
Plumptre, Henry P.
Milburn, Robert G.
Jaques, John H.
Braybrooke, Arthur P.
Legge, Hugh
Thomson, Clement R.
Meade, George H.
Jannings, George E.
Shepherd, William L.
Pennington, Hugh
Johnston, George A.
Weir, Clement B.
Leach, Godfrey
Wilson, Theophilus S. B.
Guinness, Richard N.
Hichens, John O.
Wheat, Henry
Page, Sidney H.
Turner, Arthur F.
Stokoe, Cecil G.
Izard, Herbert C.
Lyon, Hugh F.



*Bown, George H.
*Lofthouse, William F.
*Hills, Charles L.
*Holden, Joshua
fMackinnon, Frank D.
-(-Sutton, Edward W.
fBaker, Charles M.
Noble, Philip E.
Redmayne, Martin
Howard, Robert
Marriott, John R.
Stoehr, Friedrich O.
Field, George
Lubbock, Geoffrey
Radermacher, John E.
Mavrogordato, Anthony E.
Brown, John H.
Hutchinson, Francis E.
Daniels, Henry O.
Shepheard, Harold B.
Chevallier, Clement W. D.
Havers, Arthur C.
James, Hugh S.
Stratton, William R.
Sykes, Stephen F.
Jones, John R.
Weston, Frank
Muir, William E.
Montgomerie, Hastings S.
Thomson, Arthur R.
Francke, Victor E.
Matthew, Gerard W.
Parson, William C.
Little, John F. G.
+Mugliston, Francis U.
Chad wick, Samuel T.
Goulden, Herbert E.
Bonnin, Alfred
Day, Charles N.



Batchelor, Beetham A. L.
Harris, Alfred H.
Semsey de Semse, Laszld
Bathurst, Lawrence C. V.



*Waller, David G.
*Sergeant, Philip W.
*Alington, Cyril A.
*Lubbock, Cecil
*Fergusson, John C.
*Ingold, Edwin G.
fWeekes, Laurence C. H.
Hawes, Edward B.

Ford student
Taylor, John F. W.
Duignan, Carl
Dawson, Geoffrey W.
Bartlett, Frank
Bischoff, Charles E.
Oppenheim, Frederick S.
Allen, Bernard
Eyre, George F.
Hinshelwood, Alfred E.
Stephenson, John H. N.
Lees, Kenneth
Chalmers-Hunt, Donald R.
Macpherson, Ewen
Riddell, Oswald C.
Alexander, Edward B.
Mann, Gerard N. C.
Ellis, Arthur
Taylor, Stafford
Watson, Harry de V.
Comyns, John H.
Winterbotham, Reginald J.
Burton, John R.
Rogers, Arthur S.
Vlasto, Augustus A.
Gomes, Augusto J.
Wilson, Thomas D.
Lnwin, Frederic H.
Robson, John
Leslie, Archibald S.
Duckworth, Herbert S.
Field, Oliver
Carlton, Frederic W.
Reiss, Leopold
Laurence, Thomas E. de V.

(90)
Wright, Charles H. C.
Holland, Robert M.



1892.

♦Emanuel, Alfred E. L.
*St. Hill, Ralph W.
*Wallis, James A.
*Blakiston, Archibald C. H.
*Dowson, Percy E.
fDavidson, Robert P.
fButler, Frederick G. A.
■fGairdner, William H. T.
fAllen, George H.
Simpson, Edmund K.

Ford student
Whitehead, Wilfred J.
Keays, Edward H. (91)
Schwabe, Walter G. S.
Smith, Thomas O.
Badcock, Lawrence H.
Parker, Francis H. M.
Bell, Alexander D.
Brum well, George M.
Oldham, Joseph H.
Smith, James A.
Cowan, Alexander
Hewetson, James
Wilson, Daniel B.
Pearson, Edgar C.
Shipman, Robert
Pearson, Harry
Abbott, Wilfred H. (91)
Ridsdale, Charles H.
Hills, Charles R.
Cowan, Alexander G.
Fagan, James B.
Foster, Henry K.
Havers, Henry L.
Hadow, Frank B.
Wood, John B.
Balfour, Frederick R. S.
Chadwyck-Healy, G. E.
Howkins, John D.
Mather, Walter S.
Browne, Franklin D.
Hume, William W.
Martius, Alexander C. E. W.
Younghusband, Oswald
King-Church, Norman L.
Lawrie, Allan J.
Hodge, William R.
Lubbock, Geoffrey
Radermacher, John E.
Mavrogordato, Anthony E.





•s




XV.— ST. JOHN BAPTIST COLLEGE.




HE College of St. John Baptist occupies the site and some of the buildings of
a Bernardine House founded by Archbishop Chichele in 1437, for the
Cistercian scholars studying at Oxford. By Letters Patent of Henry VI.
the Archbishop received leave to " erect a College to the honour of the
most glorious Virgin Mary and St. Bernard, in the street commonly called
North Gate Street, in the parish of St. Mary Magdalene, without the
North Gate. " The buildings consisted only of a single block facing
westwards, with one wing behind. The hall was built about 1502, and
the chapel consecrated in 1530. All of these remain in use. The hall was
enlarged and ceiled in the seventeenth century. The chapel, after being
decorated in the Laudian period, was unhappily restored in the earliest
period of the Gothic revival of the present century. It has, however,
recently been improved under the skilful hand of Mr. C. E. Kempe. The
monks had also a garden, leased at first part from University College and
part from Durham College. This garden, with later additions, is one of
the most beautiful features of the Oxford of to-day.

At the dissolution in 1539, the lands, buildings, and revenues of St.
Bernard's College were given by Henry VIII. to his newly-founded College and Cathedral of Christ Church, in
whose possession they remained unused some sixteen years. In 1555, the deserted buildings were restored to
use, and the College re-founded under Letters Patent of Philip and Mary granted at the request of a rich and
munificent London trader, Sir Thomas White, who had been Sheriff of London in 1547, and Lord Mayor in
the year of Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion.

The College thus founded in 1555, was to be set apart for the study of the sciences of Sacred Theology,
Philosophy, and good Arts, it was dedicated to the praise and honour of God, of the Blessed Virgin Mary
His Mother, and St. John Baptist ; and the Society was to consist of a President and thirty graduate or non-
graduate scholars. In 1557, both the scope and numbers of the original foundation were enlarged; Theology,
Philosophy, Civil and Canon Law were now declared to be the subjects of study, and the number of Fellows
and scholars was raised to fifty, of whom six were to be Founder's kin, two from Coventry, Bristol, and Reading
schools, one from Tunbridge, and the rest from the Merchant Taylors' school in London.

During the present century its numbers have greatly increased and all its fellowships have been thrown open,
but its connection with the schools designated by the Founder still remains.

During its earlier years Sir Thomas White watched over the institution which he had founded. The statutes
which he gave were substantially those of New College, and this return to the scheme of William of Wykeham,
which had been so largely adopted at Cambridge, shows that the alterations made by the founders of Magdalen,
Corpus Christi, and Trinity, were not felt to be improvements. He nominated the first President, his own
kinsman John James as Vice-President for life, and the earlier Fellows. He died on Feb. nth, 1566, and was buried
with solemn ceremonial in the College chapel, where his coffin was found intact when that of Laud was laid
beside it nearly a century later. A funeral oration was preached by one of the most brilliant of the junior
Fellows, Edmund Campion, soon to win wider notoriety, and eventually to die a shameful death.

The most distinguished President of the sixteenth century was Toby Matthew, who rose to be Archbishop of
York, a man of learning and wit and a skilful administrator. So long as the founder had lived, his tact had
smoothed the difficulties of the transition from the Marian to the Elizabethan rule. Two at least of the earlier
Presidents were deprived for asserting the Pope's supremacy, yet the change was managed without disturbance.
But when the wise counsels of the founder could no longer be heard, and when the Papal Court had declared
itself the bitter foe of Elizabeth, Fellow after Fellow retired, or was deprived, and joined the Roman party.
For this cause no less than six members of the foundation are recorded within a few years to have been imprisoned.
But before long the University was greatly influenced by Calvinist doctrines. It was from St. John's that the



[ 465—466 ]



2 H



467



ST. JOHN BAPTIST COLLEGE.



468



first opposition to the prevalent opinions came,
and it was thus that William Laud first became
famous.

His work belongs to the history of England. ' He,
with Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, forms the
triad of persons who have had the largest share in
giving to the momentous changes of the sixteenth
century so much of their form as is strictly and specifi-
cally British. ' Again, to quote Mr. Gladstone, ' He
was the patron not only of the saintly and heroic
Bedell, but on the one hand of Chillingworth and
Hales, on the other of Usher, Hall, and Davenant,
of names sharply severed in opinion but unitedly
known in the history of ability and of learning. It
is again directly to the present purpose to compare
the Calvinistic Oxford, to which Laud came as a
youth, with the Anglican Oxford which he quitted to
pass out into the government of affairs. The change
in this place almost equals what was said of Augustus,
that he found Rome brick and left it marble.' He
was President from 1611 to 1621 ; and his bene-
factions to the College did not cease even with his life.

The new quadrangle, which was begun in July,
163 1, when the King gave two hundred tons of wood
from the royal forests of Stow and Shotover to aid in
the building, was a magnificent expression of the
donor's generosity and love for the College. It was
completed in 1636, and Laud, now Archbishop of
Canterbury, having assigned by special direction the
new rooms to the library, to the President, and for
the use of commoners, made elaborate preparations to




CROZIER. — From Lascelles,



receive the King and Queen when they "invited
themselves " to him. They brought with them the
King's nephews, the Elector Palatine and Prince
Rupert, who were entered on the books of St. John's.
Laud's College and his new library were the centre of
the entertainments that marked their stay in Oxford.
By this time Laud had not only given to his own
College a notable position in the University, but had
reformed and legislated for the University itself. The
statutes had long been in confusion. Convocation in
any case of difficulty passed new rules which
frequently conflicted with the old statutes, and the
government of the undergraduates seems to have been
very lax. The University submitted its laws to the
Chancellor, who, with the aid of a learned lawyer of
Merton College, revised and codified them. How he
desired that the students should be ruled may be seen
by his careful direction to the heads of Colleges, that
" the youths should conform themselves to the public
discipline of the University. . . . And particu-
larly see that none, youth or other, be suffered to
go in boots or spurs, or to wear their hair undecently
long, or with a lock in the present fashion, or with
slashed doublets, or in any light or garish colours ;
and that noblemen's sons may conform in everything,
as others do, during the time of their abode there,
which will teach them to know the difference of
places and order betimes ; and when they grow up to
be men it will make them look back upon that place
with honour to it and reputation to you." So suc-
cessful was he in impressing the spirit of discipline
and self-restraint, that Sir John Coke was able to
congratulate the University in 1636 that "scholars
are no more found in taverns, nor seen loitering in the
streets or other places of idleness or ill-example, but
all contain themselves within the walls of their
Colleges, and in the schools or public libraries,
wherein I confess you have at length gotten the start,
and by your virtue and merit have made this
University, which before had no paragon in any
foreign country, now to go beyond itself and give
a glorious example to others not to go behind."

By his example of conscientious perseverance, by
his devotion to learning, and by his munificent build-
ing and endowment, Laud had brought both his
College and the University to a high standard of
culture and research. These were indeed the halycon
days of St. John's, when Laud, its "second founder,"
was Chancellor of the University and Primate of all
England ; Juxon, his pious and sagacious successor as
President, was Bishop of London and Lord Treasurer ;
and Dr. Richard Baylie governed the College, whose
annalist says that never was there more diligent
Scholar, more learned Fellow, or more prudent Head.
But the University soon fell on evil days ; discipline
was dissolved, teaching and learning were alike sus-
pended, and the streets rang with the summons to



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