Joseph Hergenröther.

Anti-Janus: an historico-theological criticism of the work entitled The pope and the Council, by Janus online

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A N T I - J A N U S.



PRINTED BY W. B. KELLY, 8 GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.



ANTI-JANUS:



AN HISTORICO-THEOLOGICAL CRITICISM OF THE WORK,



ENTITLED



THE POPE AND THE COUNCIL,"
By JANUS. •



BY

Dr UERGENRÖTHER, a/^-z^nS^ QvJl



PROFESSOR OF CANON LAW AND OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF WÜRZBURG.

Author of tJie '■''Life, Writings, and Times of the Patriarch PJiotius.



TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN



J. B. ROBERTSON, Esq.,

PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY AND ENGLISH LITERATURE AT THE
CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY, DUBLIN,

Author of ''' Lectures on Modern History and Secret Societies"

Life and Times of Edtnutid Burke," Translator of Mohier's ''^Symbolism,

and of Schlegel' s " Lectiires on the Philosophy of History."



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY HIM,

GIVING A HISTORY OF GALLICANISM FROM THE REIGN OF LOUIS XIV
DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME.



DUBLIN:
W. B. KELLY, 8 GRAFTON STREET.

LONDON : BURNS, DATES, & COMPANY ;

AND SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO.

NEW YORK: THE CATHOLIC PUBLISHING SOCIETY,

9 WARREN STREET.

' 1870.



To

The Very Rev. Dr Rzcssell,

President of Si Patrick^ s College, Maynooth,

%^\^ translation

Is inscribed^

Asa ?nark of personal regard.^

As a

Slight toke?i oj admiration for his virtues and talents^ and of

thankfulness for many acts of kind?iess received,

by his obliged Friend,

THE TRANSLATOR.



3)4 r



^^sf^y/



V.



CONTENTS,



CHAP. PAGE

translator's introduction, ... V

NOTES TO INTRODUCTION, . . . . xlv

I. THE FIVE ARTICLES IN THE "ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG," I
II. THE FIVE ARTICLES IN THE "AUGSBURG GAZETTE,"

AND THEIR NEW EDITION, . . . . I5

III. MAKING THE SYLLABUS DOGMATIC, . . . 27

IV. THE DOCTRINE OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY, . . 50
V. ALLEGED ERRORS AND CONTRADICTIONS OF THE POPES, 74

VI. THE PRIMACY AND THE PAPACY, . . .94

VII. THE PRIMACY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT, . . I08

VIII. ROMAN FORGERIES, ..... I44

IX. A GLANCE AT COUNCILS, . . . . 186

X. IHE POPEDOM IN HISTORY, . . . .217

XI. THE CHURCH, THE DOGMA, AND THE NEW COUNCIL, 24O

XII. THE RESULTS OF JANUS, .... 263

APPENDIX, . . . . . . 2S7




INTRODUCTION.

BY THE TRANSLATOR.



|HE German work, of which an English
translation is here offered to the public,
appeared about six months ago. Its
author is Professor of Ecclesiastical His-
tory and Canon Law at the University of Würz-
burg, in Bavaria, and has earned a great repu-
tation by a most learned and elaborate history
of the life, writings, and times of the founder of
the Greek schism, the Patriarch Photius. Dr
Hergenrother was one of the German divines who,
at the invitation of his Holiness Pope Pius IX.,
took part in the preparatory labours of one of the
theological Commissions, that preceded the assem-
bling of the present CEcumenical Council. The
work now presented to the British public, I leave
to the appreciation of the reader. But I think the
Catholics of these countries will agree that, with
the exception, perhaps, of some writings of Father
Bottalla, no treatise in our language contains such
a mass of patristic evidence for the prerogatives of
the Papacy. The doctrine of Papal Infallibility,
which, at the time the author wrote this Reply to
Janus, was not yet defined as a dogma, is here
rather defended against the captious objections of

a



ii Introditction.

that book, than put forward in its full objective
truth. It is, however, more or less implied through-
out his work. But his main concern, besides a de-
fence of the rights and prerogatives of the Holy
See, is the refutation of the many historical mis-
representations and calumnies, which his adversary
has poured forth against the Papacy. He tracks
him through his long labyrinth of falsehood and
sophistry, exposes his many inconsistencies, places
in a true light the facts he has misrepresented, and
shows how his fanatical attacks on Papal Infalli-
bility recoil on the doctrine of Papal Supremacy,
which he professes to believe, and even on the
authority of the Church herself.

In the Latin, French, German, and Italian lan-
guages, there are classical works in defence of the
dogma of Papal Infallibility. But such a mass of
historical objections, supported by such an array
of learning as Janus, however confusedly, has
brought to bear upon this doctrine, required a
special refutation. And such it has found in the
present work ; and as this is its peculiar feature,
so it will impart to this production, I think, a per-
manent interest. In the execution of his task, the
author has displayed a rare acuteness of mind, as
well as an extraordinary acquaintance with the
fathers, the schoolmen, the canon law, and the
records of civil and ecclesiastical history.

Of Janus it is needless to speak. Severely cen-
sured by all the German prelates assembled last
year at Fulda, and placed on the Roman Index, it
has called forth the reprobation, and excited the
disgust, of all true Catholics. It is not only a
schismatical, but an heretical, and, in some re-
spects, even an impious book. It has nothing, in-
deed, so shockingly outrageous as the declaration
of the old Protestant Book of Homihes, " That for



IntrodtLciion, iii

eight hundred years Christendom was plunged in
damnable idolatry." But is it much less impious
to say with Janus, that though Christ our Lord
founded a Church, and instituted a visible Head,
and promised, '' That the Holy Spirit should abide
with that Church for ever, and lead her into all
truth ;" yet that, in despite of that solemn promise,
" the action of the head had paralysed the body,
that that head had become a choking excrescence,"
and thus the designs of the Divine Founder of the
Church had been frustrated ? In despite of the
promise of the perpetual indwelhng of the Holy
Spirit, the old Jansenistic theory of an obscuration
prevalent in the Church for many centuries, has
been revived by this writer.

It would be too painful to believe that a cele-
brated scholar and divine, who has rendered such
eminent services to religion, should, in his old age,
have taken part in a work so scandalous and afflict-
ing to all Catholics. Strong as the circumstantial
evidence is said to be as to his share in the author-
ship of this odious book, and blamable as are
some of his acknowledged recent writings, savour-
ing too much of the spirit of Janus ; yet, as long as
it is possible, I would fain acquit him of the charge.
His culpable silence under the grave imputation
has been censured by one of the most eminent
prelates of Germany, Dr Ketteler, Bishop of May-
ence ; and the Archbishop of Cologne has declared
that not a single German bishop approves of his
late proceedings. How different a position did he
occupy in 1848, when, with the sanction of the
whole German prelacy, he defended, in the Parlia-
ment assembled at Frankfort, the interests of
religion and of social order !

During my abode in Germany I had the honour
of his acquaintance ; and, like others, I found him a



Iv Introduction,

most kind-hearted man and an excellent clergyman.
He was then one of an illustrious group of writers,
such as Gorres, Mohler (too soon, alas! carried
off), Phillips, Jarcke, Windischmann, Moy, Höfler,
Arndts, Hermann Müller, the younger Gorres, and
others, carrying on a great historical and political
periodical, the noblest in Germany, and which our
Protestant Quarterly Review once called '' a most
powerful journal " — I mean the Historisch-Poli-
tische Blatter of Munich. Most of its then contri-
butors are now no more ; but all their survivors,
except himself, have remained faithful to their
religious and political principles ; while the journal
itself, as I am informed, retains its pure Catholic
spirit, as well as high literary reputation. The
clergyman I speak of, is not, and never was, what
his flatterers call him, "the first theologian of the
age ;" for he has not the philosophic cast of mind
necessary to constitute a theologian of the highest
order. But he is, nevertheless, a writer of great
sagacity, wonderful critical acumen, and vast and
varied learning. Let us hope and pray that he
will remain true to the Church, and to the princi-
ples he for so many years professed, and that he
will not be of the number of those who, in the
evening of life, forfeit, alas ! the hard-earned wages
of their morning and their noonday toil !

It did not enter into the plan of the author of
the present work to treat the doctrine of Papal
Infallibility in its practical bearings. Nor in the
many letters and pamphlets which this question
has recently called forth, or which at least have
fallen under my notice, does this part of the sub-
ject seem to have been discussed. And as many
Protestants believe, that by the recent Definition
of the Vatican Council, the liberty of particular
Churches will be seriously restricted; and as some



Introduction. v

ill-informed Catholics have a vague apprehension
on that head ; it will be my object, in the first part
of this Introduction, to show the freedom which
what is called the Ultramontane system insures to
all Churches, and, on the contrary, the heav}^
servitude which the Galilean error imposes on
those ecclesiastical communities which have ac-
cepted it This fact I will illustrate by a rapid
sketch of the state oi the French Church in the
eighteenth century.

In the second part, I will endeavour to trace the
various causes that produced, in the early part of
this century, the anti-Gallican reaction, the gra-
dual renovation of opinion which then ensued in
the Church of France, and which, under the direction
of the Holy Spirit, has been so instrumental in
bringing about that Definition of Papal inerrancy,
that has carried consolation and gladness from
the centre to the remotest parts of the Church.

I. The Papacy is a central, but not a centralizing
institution. It tolerates a variety of customs,
usages, and privileges in local churches ; and even
where there is an imperious necessity, or there has
been a long prescription, it admits a diversity of
rites and languages in the celebration of the liturgy
itself. Its object is to give to national churches as
much freedom as is compatible with the preser-
vation of religious unity. Hence the Holy See
encourages the annual meeting of diocesan synods,
and the periodical celebration of provincial councils.
It is the vigilant guardian of all ecclesiastical rights,
whether of the bishops, or of the inferior clergy,
secular and regular. It ever strenuously resists
the encroachments of the civil power on the
spiritual rights and jurisdiction of the bishops, as
well as on their temporal privileges and property.
The religious liberties of the sovereign Pontiff, of



VI introduction.

the bishops, the inferior clergy, and of the laity,
are all indissolubly bound up together.

'' The Catholic Church," as Cardinal Bellarmine
observes, " is not an absolute monarchy, but one
tempered by aristocracy and democracy." " The
Papal power," says the eminent German canonist,
Professor Walter, whose work on ecclesiastical
jurisprudence is much approved of at Rome — ''the
Papal power is by no means absolute and arbitrary
in its exercise, but on all sides bound and attem-
pered by the spirit and the practice of the Church,
by the consciousness of the duties annexed to Pon-
tifical rights, by respect for CEcumenical Councils,
by regard for ancient observances and customs,
by the mild forms of the ecclesiastical government,
by the recognized rights of the Episcopate, by the
consequent distribution of functions, by the rela-
tions with the secular powers ; lastly, by the spirit
of nations.* " So the constitution of the Catholic
Church leaves no room for the exercise of arbi-
trary power. Where the canons are in force, and
except in cases of extreme emergency, the Pope
cannot deprive a bishop of his see, nor the bishop
a rector of his cure, without a regular canonical
trial. Thus not only does the Church in regard
to the State preserve her spiritual autonomy; but
all the orders of her hierarchy freely move in their
respective spheres, and guided by a central power,
act in harmonious co-operation. When heresy
strives to disturb that harmony, the Holy Spirit,
that watches over the Church, soon banishes dis-
cord from her bosom.

But let that great central authority, here spoken
of, be once weakened ; then immediately disorder
and perturbation arise in the Church. If the doc-
trinal Infallibility of the Holy See be once denied
* Manuel du Droit ecclesiastique, Trad. Frangaise, p. 1 70.



Introduction. vii

in any portion of the Church, there its action be-
comes enfeebled, and the whole framework of that
local church becomes more or less disjointed. If
the prelates and the clergy of the second order take
up an attitude of critical distrust towards the
bishop of bishops, then the laity gradually lose
much of their reverence for the Apostolic See, and
for the Episcopate itself; and civil governments
assail the spiritual rights of both. For there is a
close inter-communion between the mother and
the daughters — between the Roman and the sub-
ject churches.

The truth of the remarks here made received a
sad illustration in the history of the Galilean
Church during the eighteenth century. The French
Episcopate of that age displayed, on the whole, a
loyal devotion to the Holy See; and this is the
main reason, as the distinguished Archbishop of
Malines well observes, why the Galilean error was
so long tolerated, or at least remained without
express censure. The real representatives of Gal-
licanism were the magistrates, or the members of
the French Parliaments. These, imbued with the
despotic principles of the Roman jurisprudence,
and partially tainted with Jansenism, sought by
every means, whether by chicanery or by violence,
to domineer over the Church of France. In the
Articles of the Assembly of 1682, subscribed
by a minority of French bishops, they found a
weapon ready-made to their hands. Even in the
reign of Louis XIV,, who kept this corporation in
check, Bossuet had occasion to say, " That the
magistrates understood the maxims of the Church
of France in a sense very different from her
bishops." * Fleury, a still more ardent stickler for

* Vie de Bossuet par Cardinal Bausset, vol. iv. Lettre au Car-
dinal d'Estrees, Decembre 1681.



vIII Introduction,

those opinions, and who long survived the Bishop
of Meaux, lived to confess, ''That the liberties of
the Gallican Church had better be called its servi-
tudes." * And Fenelon, ever strongly opposed to
the Gallican system, ventured even to say, " That,
in his time, the King of France was nearly as much
master of the Church in that kingdom, as the King
of England of the Anglican communion." f And
though this expression is doubtless hyperbolical ;
yet it shows to what fearful lengths the civil power
had already carried its encroachments !

The recent work of M. Gerin \ has thrown great
light on all the transactions which preceded,
accompanied, and followed the Ecclesiastical As-
sembly of 1682. We there see what artifices and
intimidation the French Government resorted to in
order to bring about a declaration, designed to
humble the Sovereign Pontiff, and to insure to
the State a certain domination over the Church.
The great Bossuet, who took a prominent part in
this Assembly, was, in the course he pursued, in-
fluenced by motives of a twofold kind. On the
one hand, he feared to incur the displeasure of
Louis XIV. ; for this great man, with all his virtues
and genius, had (as the Abbe de la Mennais once
said), a certain courtly weakness, — '' une certaine
faiblesse de cour;"§ and, on the other hand, he
dreaded to see the Church of France, through the
violence of some prelates, like the Bishop of
Tournai, precipitated into a schism. Under the

* Les Opuscules de Fleury.

+ Lettre de Fenelon, cited by the Abbe de la Mennais in his work
entitled, '' De la Relio:ion consideree dans ses rapports avec I'ordre
civil et politique." Elsewhere he says, " In France the King is
practically more head of the Church than the Pope," CEuvres, t.
xxii., p. 586.

X L'Assembl^e de 1682. Par M. Charles Gerin. Paris, 1869.

^ See Note A.



Introdiiciion. ix

influence of these diverse motives, he steered a
middle course between the doctrine of Papal
inerrancy on the one hand, and the dangler of
a schismatical rupture with the Holy See on the
other.

Since the times of the Council of Constance,
the opinion as to the superiority of the Council
over the Pope had been occasionally ventilated in
the schools of the Sorbonne. This opinion was
not shared by the majority of the Episcopate,
and by the great body of the clergy. This is
proved by the numerous assemblies of the P>ench
clergy in 1626, 1653, and 1654, where the inerranc}-
of the dogmatic decisions of the Holy See was
solemnly proclaimed. Cardinal Duperron de-
fended Papal Infallibility against a doctor of the
Sorbonne, Edmund Richer, who went so far as to
say, that the Pope was a mere ministerial head
of the Church, and that to the whole Church,
and even to the laity, was committed, by the
ordinance of Christ, the power of the keys. When
Richer himself expressed his willingness to re-
tract his heterodox opinions, he was required b\'
Cardinal Richelieu to acknowledge not only the
supremacy, but the infallibility of the Holy See
in matters of faith.

The Declaration of 1682 was not passed unani-
mously by the twenty-six bishops assembled on
the occasion.* It was opposed, too, by many of
the bishops and of the dignified clergy throughout
the kingdom, as well as by the various theological
Faculties, including the far greater part of the
doctors of the Sorbonne, and the most pious and
learned divines. From all the bishops and priests,
who had taken part in this assembly, and who were

* The great Fenelon and the learned oratorian Thomassin, by
their writings, opposed the Declaration.



X Inircduciiofi.

afterwards nominated or promoted to episcopal
sees, Pope Innocent XL before he would give
them institution, required a retractation of their
acts. Pope Alexander VIII., in his last ill-
ness, summoned the cardinals around him, called
Heaven to witness that he protested against the
Declaration of 1682, and pronounced its articles
null and void. At the same time the Churches
of Spain and of Hungary put forth most energetic
protests against the same Declaration.

After the lapse often years, Louis XIV. made his
peace with the Holy See, and suspended the execu-
tion of the obnoxious edict, whereby he had made it
incumbent on all Professors of Theology in his king-
dom to subscribe the Four Articles. Bossuet, in the
meantime, was constantly engaged in retouching his
defence of the Declaration of 1682, entitled *' De-
fensio Declarationis Cleri Gallicani," and in making
the work approximate more to the Roman doc-
trines. In his last illness, he enjoined his executors
never to let the book be published. But this
injunction was violated by his Jansenist nephew,
the Abbe Bossuet, who, twenty-six years after his
uncle's death, brought out the work ; and, as Dr
Ddllinger thinks highly probable,* suppressed the
various emendations which his great relative had
from time to time made.

On the death of Louis XIV., however, the
above-named edict, whose execution had been
suspended by that monarch, was revived by the
Government of the Regent Philip, and strictly
enforced by the Parliaments. Henceforth the
Four Galilean Articles became a terrible engine
of oppression against the Church of France.
We have heard the complaints, which, even in the
reign of Louis XIV., Bossuet, and Fleury, and
* See Kirchen-Lexicon, art. Bossuet, Freiburg, 1850.



hitroduciion. xi

Fenelon had made of those articles, as most sub-
versive of the freedom of the GaUican Church.
If such had been the language of those great
men even at that time, what words would have
expressed their sorrow and indignation, could
they have beheld the workings of the Gallican
system, and the evils it entailed on the Church
of France during the eighteenth century ! What
a sense of grief and shame would have over-
powered them, could they have beheld Episcopal
charges and Papal bulls burned in the name of
the Gallican liberties by the hands of the public
executioner, and at the bidding of the Paris Par-
liament ! Nay, more, the orthodox clergy forced
by the mandates of that body to carry amid a
guard of soldiers the last Sacraments to the dying
Jansenists ! What, too, would have been their
feelings, could they have beheld the facility with
which, entrenched behind these Four Articles,
Jansenism so long eluded the censures of the
Holy See, and defied the authority of the bishops !
In the course of the last century, the Jansenists,
while they kept more out of view their peculiar
doctrines on Grace, were distinguished for the
craftiness, as well as violence, wherewith they
resisted the ecclesiastical authorities. And in
this warfare they found a weapon ready furnished
to their hands in the Gallican maxims. Hence
an eminent prelate, Mgr. Gerbet, in his early days,
once observed to me, *' That it is very diffi-
cult to know where Gallicanism ends, and
where Jansenism begins ;" and this was particu-
larly true of the more violent Gallicans, whose
hierarchical views were so akin to those of the
Jansenists. The sympathy, too, which the infidel
party of the last century, as well as of the present,
has ever evinced for the too famous maxims of



xii In trodiiction .

1682, is a circumstance calculated to make the
deepest impression on the mind of a reflecting
Catholic.

When the Revolution of 1789 broke out, the
Jansenists, who had so long hampered and dis-
tracted the Catholic clergy in their conflict with
unbelief, and thus had helped to prepare the way
for that catastrophe, became the authors of that
schismatical Constitution, called "■ The Civil Con-
stitution of the Clergy." And this schismatical
Constitution they attempted to uphold by an
appeal to the Four Articles. In that destructive
Assembly, mis-named the Constituent, which
was consigning to the tomb all ecclesiastical
liberty, as well as all civil order, freedom, and
prosperity, those words, '' liberties of the Gallican
Church" echoed from the Jansenist benches,
must have sounded like bitter irony.

But the dreadful conflagration which now
ensued, opened the eyes of many a sleeper. By
its lurid light many truths were discerned, which
had hitherto escaped observation, or had been
but dimly perceived. In the awful persecution
which nov/ desolated the Church of France from
1791 to 1800, the bishops, the priests, the religious
orders of both sexes, and the devout laity, dis-
played a patience, resignation, zeal, and courage,
worthy of the first ages of Christianity. Spolia-
tion, poverty, imprisonment, exile, and death
were the portion of the faithful children of the
Church, as well as of the devoted adherents of
their king and country. Since the days of the
Emperor Diocletian, a more fearful persecution
had never visited the Church. A thing unique
in the history of the world ! For ten years all
exercise of religion of whatever kind was pro-
scribed. Blood flowed in torrents, in all the cities



In trodiiction . x 1 1 i

of France ; but as of old, the blood of martyrs
became again the seed of Christians. Multitudes
of each sex, and of every age, rank, and
calling, flocked to the newly-opened churches ;
and faith revived in many a heart, where it had
been long a stranger.

I'o repair the ruins of the Sanctuary, the
newly-elected Pontiff, Pius VII., in the year 1800,
entered into a Concordat with the First Consul of
the French Republic, Napoleon Buonaparte. For
the organization of the Church of France, a new
circumscription of dioceses was under the circum-
stances needed. The sovereign Pontiff solicited
the French bishops, most of whom were living in
exile, to tender the resignation of their sees, giving
them withal to understand, that that resigna-
tion was a matter of absolute necessity. The
greater part of the French prelates immediately
complied with the Papal demands ; while a
minority presented a respectful remonstrance
against the very comprehensive measure proposed.
On the Pope's reiterating his demand, and point-
ing out its necessity, that minority, with one or two
exceptions, ultimately withdrew their remonstrance.



Online LibraryJoseph HergenrötherAnti-Janus: an historico-theological criticism of the work entitled The pope and the Council, by Janus → online text (page 1 of 27)