Joseph Lyon Miller.

The descendants of Capt. Thomas Carter of Barford, Lancaster County, Virginia : with genealogical notes of many of the allied families online

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Online LibraryJoseph Lyon MillerThe descendants of Capt. Thomas Carter of Barford, Lancaster County, Virginia : with genealogical notes of many of the allied families → online text (page 1 of 37)
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JcfCfhC U9

Seal of Capt. Thomas Carter, Sr.,

"Barford," Lancaster County, Virginia.

(Signature of his grandson Joseph Carter).

sft*0**c tfwiffc &?*&>")



Signature of Maj. Edward Dale, 1664.

Signature of Capt. Thomas Carter, Sr., 1700.

Seal showing Dale crest.

1652 — 1912



Capt. Thomas Carter


"Barford" Lancaster County, Virginia










How To Use This Book

In tracing your line of Carter ancestry back to Capt. Thomas
Carter, of Barford, Lancaster County, Va., first by means of the
index, find yourself or the parent, through whom you trace ; then
by means of the name numbers follow your line back till you come
to the son of Capt. Thomas, from whom you descend. The book
has been divided into sections, each of which is devoted to an ac-
count of a son of Captain Carter and his descendants.

VLo fflv Jfflotfjer

(Mrs, Henderson Miller),
From whom I derive my Carter blood, this history
of her people is affectionately dedicated.


Not many persons but at some time long to open the chronicles
of the past and read the records of their ancestors ; for, as Edward
Everett says, "There is no man of culture who does not take
an interest in what was done by his forefathers."

"Beneath the roots of tangled weeds,

Afar in country graveyards, lie
The men whose unrecorded deeds

Have stamped this nation's destiny. '

Genealogy has a wider field of usefulness than that of merely
promoting family pride. Among other things may be mentioned
the collection and preservation of much that is valuable in ancient
manners and customs, and the putting in easy reach of the
present day historians new and authentic ideas as to the source
of our colonial population and their social and political character-

This volume is the record of a family that for two hundred
and sixty years has played a part in the social, political and
military life of the Old Dominion and other States to the south
and west. While many have held high places of trust and honor,
the majority have not been men of great wealth and public
position, yet it is to their credit that they were good citizens,
leading honorable lives — acting well their part in the local affairs
of their neighborhoods, and always finding a place on the battle-
field for principle's sake. We should not love our kindred alone
for their genius and glory, but also for their homely virtues
and domestic affections that expanded and flourished unob-
served save by the little world in which they moved.

The first of the family in Virginia was Capt. Thomas Carter,
planter and tobacco trader, said to have been the son of a London
merchant, though it is pretty well established that "gentle blood
coursed through his veins." Among his descendants have been


vestrymen, justices, sheriffs, legislators, congressmen, circuit and
supreme court judges and candidates for Governor ; and in military
affairs they have ranged from private to brigadier-general. In
the hundreds of wills, deeds and other papers of the Carter
family examined, but one man made his mark ; and in the in-
ventories of their personal estates for two and a half centuries
the possession of books is recorded in all.

A noticeable fact is that many of the Carters of Virginia as well
as elsewhere, though they cannot give a connected account of their
ancestry beyond the Revolution, are by "tradition" descendants
famous old "King Carter of Corotoman," whose immense wealth
has enabled his descendants to hold on to the splendid old homes
of his sons, and the frequent appearance in print of accounts
of these has done much to spread and maintain this idea. These
"traditions" have been particularly hard to shake even in the
light of comprehensive data to the contrary from the original
public records, and in a few instances I fear the families, like
the proverbial woman, convinced against their will are of the
same opinion still — with them it is ant Ccesar aut nnllus. A
writer in The Times-Dispatch a few years ago said: "Almost
everybody by the name of Carter aspires to be descended from
that lordly old John of Corotoman, whose son Robert is the only
Virginian who rejoiced in the name of 'King.' He made the
high-water mark of Virginia Carters. So prominent were these
Corotoman Carters that one is apt to conclude that really no other
Carters are worth a moment's notice. Such however is far from
being the case." I believe that the following pages will show
that during the same period there was another Carter family
in Virginia to which no one need be ashamed to belong, though
it has never possessed as great wealth nor been allied with as
many of the really great families of the Old Dominion. However,
their marriages in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries con-
nected this Carter family with the Dales, Skipwiths, Balls, Thorn-
tons, Fitzhughs, Masons, Chews, Beverleys, Armisteads and other
well known families, and in the early nineteenth century with
the Washingtons, Lees, Pages, Pendletons, Blands, Bacons, Talia-
ferros, Marshalls and others.


While there were a number of Carter emigrants to Virginia
during the seventeenth century, but five of them seem to have
been of any prominence, judging from their possessions, political
preferment, etc. They were :

i st. William Carter, who patented more than two thousand
acres in the county of James City between 1635 and 1640; and
doubtless was the emigrant ancestor of the Carter families found
in James City county and Surry and adjacent Southside counties
in the next century, among whom were Dr. James Carter, of
Williamsburg, about the middle of the 18th century, and Dr.
Thomas Carter of the Revolution. The loss of the James City
records precludes the writing of a history of this family.

2d. Col. Edward Carter, who settled in Nansemond County
prior to 1650, was a member of the House of Burgesses, Coun-
cil, colonel of militia, etc. He purchased large plantations on
the Rappahannock in Lancaster County, but probably never
lived on them ; returned to England, where his will probated in
1682 styles him as "Edward Carter, Esq. of Edmonton, Middle-
sex." So far as known he has no descendants in Virginia.

3d. Col. John Carter, who settled in Nansemond County
prior to 1650, was a colonel of militia, justice, Burgess, member
of the Councill, etc. About 1650 purchased several thousand
acres of land on Corotoman River, Lancaster, to which he re-
moved and founded the famous "Corotoman" estate of this Car-
ter family. He died comparatively young in 1669, but in the
meantime had had five wives, one of whom was a daughter of
Cleve Carter of England. In this connection the following notes
may be of interest: Thomas Carter of Somerset, descended
from Thomas Carter, Gent, of Crumdale, County Kent, died in
1603 leaving issue — George, eldest son; Thomas of Winchauck,
yeoman (born in 1592), Christopher, Jonas, Richard, and Cleve.
This Cleve Carter may have been the Gyve Carter, aged 25
years, of St. Alphage, Canterbury, Woolendraper, who obtained
a license April 17, 1624, to marry Elizabeth Boys, aged 19 years,
daughter of Edward Boys of Boneington, parish of Goodnestone.
They might have had a daughter who married Col. John Carter


of Va. Col. John Carter of "Corotoman" left three sons — John,
the eldest, died without male issue ; Charles, the youngest, died
unmarried, and Robert, the second son, was the famous Robert
Carter of "Corotoman" and ancestor of all of this family of Car-
ters. Numerous accounts of this family have been published,
and the late Mr. Robert Carter of "Shirley" and his daughter
some years ago prepared an extensive chart of the family in both
male and female branches.

4th. Capt. Thomas Carter, who came to Virginia prior to
1652 — it is thought to Nansemond County — was a captain of
militia, justice, deputy clerk of his county, Burgess ( ?), etc.
Purchased a large plantation on Corotoman River from Col.
John Carter and was settled there in 1652. Of his descendants
this volume is the first published account, except some preliminary
notes in the William and Mary Quarterly.

5th. Giles Carter, who came to Virginia several years later
than the others, and died in Henrico County in 1701 at the age
of 67 years, leaving sons Giles and Theodorick, and daughters
Mrs. Davis and Mrs. Williamson. So far as known he never
held any military or political position, and is supposed to have
belonged to the Gloucestershire Carters. His descendants were
chiefly settled in Henrico, Goochland, Prince Edward, and Hali-
fax counties. An interesting account of them has been published
by Gen. W. H. G. Carter, U. S. A.

In some counties in Virginia the untangling of the Carter
lines has been very trying, as in addition to two or three branches
of the Thomas Carter family there was also one or more branches
of the descendants of Col. John Carter and Giles Carter. As for
example in the small section of Southwest Virginia, now in the
county of Scott, there settled between the years 1772 and 1795
the following Carters : Thomas, Joseph, and Norris Carter, sons
of Peter Carter of Fauquier; Dale, John, and Charles Carter,
sons of Charles Carter of Amherst, a brother of Peter of Fau-
quier ; John Carter, Sr., and sans John and Landon, supposed
to have been of the Corotoman Carters — later removed to Ten-
nessee ; Joseph and John Carter, who came direct from England ;


and in the next decade William Carter, supposed to have be-
longed to the Giles Carter family, and Richard Carter from
North Carolina. Most of them were opposed to race suicide,
left large families and few records, many of their descendants
intermarrying until some of the present generation are descended
from at least four of the original emigrants.

Unfortunately many invaluable public records, as well as fam-
ily papers, have been lost through the ravages of time, fire, and
war. Much, however, remains, and it has been my endeavor to
collect and perpetuate this in the present form for future genera-
tions of the family. In the following pages I have tried to give
more than a mere genealogical skeleton of names and dates by
giving little peculiarities, description of personal belongings, ex-
tracts from old letters, diaries, and other interesting data relative
to the family. At this point may say that I have shown no in-
tentional partiality to one branch over another, the difference in
the accounts being in the amount of material available. The
criticism may be advanced that I have included too many of
these unimportant details, rendering the work cumbersome to
the genealogical worker ; and that many of the accounts of the
allied families, being only extracts from printed works, might
well have been omitted. In reply will say that this book is in-
tended primarily for the members of the Carter family, and it is
thought that no detail of the lives of their ancestors will be
without interest to them. The notes of the allied families are
included to give them in accessible form some data of their an-
cestors other than Carter. It is hoped that the index will make
the book useful to genealogical workers as well. Since my pre-
liminary account in the William and Mary Quarterly, the dis-
covery of the old Carter Prayer Book and other family records
have made necessary some changes in the branches as formerly
traced. After 1800 the accounts are given on the authority of
one or more members of the branch in question; previous to
that year they are based on original public or private records.

But few of the earlier female branches of the family have
been traced, and many of the male branches were lost during
the "scattering time" near the close of the eighteenth century,


when there was such an exodus from the older counties of Vir-
ginia to newer sections of that State or other States to the south
and west — the emigrants forgetting to leave behind in the public
records their new address.

Delightful have been the weeks spent in the clerks' offices
among the quaint and interesting records of past generations,
and in the great libraries in Richmond, Baltimore, Washington,
and Lexington, Ky. Of meeting and corresponding with many
interesting members of the family, and gathering from all these
sources extracts from the faded records, traditions, old letters,
papers, pictures, etc., and then fitting them to each other like
putting together the fragments of a piece of broken china.

The following pages have been written at spare moments
caught from professional duties, and the few who read them will
not realize more fully, or regret more sincerely, their faults than
the author.

Joseph Lyon Miller.

Thomas, West Virginia, March 19, 1912.

Authorites Consulted


Wills, deeds, marriage bonds, guardians' bonds, court orders,
etc., recorded in the Virginia counties of:

Lancaster, Albemarle,

Northumberland, Amherst,

Westmoreland, Henrico,

Old Rappahannock, Goochland,

Essex, Cumberland,

Richmond, Pittsylvania,

Stafford, Halifax,

King George, Amelia,

Caroline, Nottoway,

Prince William, Mecklenburg,

Spotsylvania, Bedford,

Fairfax, Washington,

Culpeper, Russell,

Fauquier, Lee,

Orange, Scott.

The existing records of the parishes of — Christ Church and
White Chapel, Lancaster ; St. Stephen's, Northumberland ; Farn-
ham, Richmond ; Overwharton, Stafford ; Stratton Major, King
and Queen ; Kingston, Gloucester ; and Dettingen, Prince Wil-

Land Grant and Revolutionary War records in Richmond.

Carter family records in — The Thomas Carter Prayer Book,
1670-1782; Joseph Carter (Spotsylvania) records 1720-1812 in
Davis Bible; Jeremiah Carter (Stafford) Bible, 1720-1778;
Thomas Carter (Pittsylvania) Bible, 1734-1847; John Carter
(Spotsylvania) Bible, 1757-1843; William Carter (Nottoway)
Bible, 1771-1851 ; several other Carter Bibles beginning between
1775 and 1800.


Norbourne Sutton MSS. account of the Spotsylvania Carters,
1845; and the John Carter MSS. account of the Carter Family,
1858; original letters, deeds, commissions, etc. Records of Wood-
ford and Fayette Counties, Ky., etc.

Virginia Historical Magazine, 19 volumes; William and Mary
Quarterly, 19 volumes; West Virginia Historical Magazine, 5
volumes ; Meade's Old Churches and Families ; Crozier's Virginia
Heraldica, Early Virginia Marriages, Colonial Militia, and Wil-
liamsburg Wills ; Stanard's Colonial Virginia Register ; Hayden's
Virginia Genealogies ; Hardy's Colonial Families of the South-
ern States ; Neale's Old King William Homes and Families ;
Summer's History of Southwest Virginia ; Cartmell's Pioneers
of the Shenandoah Valley; Boogher's Gleanings from Virginia
History ; Bagby's History of King & Queen County ; Scott's
Hist, of Orange County ; Greene's History of Culpeper County ;
Wood's History of Albemarle County; Waddell's and Peyton's
Histories of Augusta County ; The Thomas Book ; The Carter
Chart; The History of the Giles Carter Family; the printed
registers and histories of the parishes of St. Mark, Culpeper ;
Truro, Fairfax ; Christ Church, Middlesex ; St. Peter's, New
Kent ; Bruton, James City ; Henrico Parish, Henrico ; Overwhar-
ton, Stafford ; Bristol, Prince George ; Woods-McAfee Memorial,


The Carters in the Revolution

Unfortunately Virginia has never had a comprehensive roster of
her soldiers and sailors in the Revolution, though various special
lists have appeared from time to time in the past hundred years.
However, the Virginia State Library has now taken the matter up
and is preparing a comprehensive alphabetical roster of all the
Virginia soldiers, in the Revolution, based upon all the known
sources, both printed and manuscript ; and doubtless will have it
printed when completed. Anyone wishing to obtain the record
of Revolutionary War service of some Virginia ancestor, no doubt
can obtain it for a reasonable fee from the librarian of the Vir-
ginia State Library, Richmond, Va.

In October, 191 1, the Virginia Historical Magazine began the
publication of a comprehensive Bibliography of printed and manu-
script sources relative to the service of Virginians in the Revolu-
tion. To the present time this covers nearly forty pages in the
magazine, and is not yet complete.

Since it has been impossible for me to examine all these sources,
I shall make no attempt to print here a list of the Carters who saw
service in the Revolution, though from the few lists accessible to
me I have found the names of thirty-six Carters.


[Note. — The sepatate names in the notes (in small type) of the allied families are not indexed; but all names
appearing in the body of the book will be found in the following pages. The notes are indexed under the name of
the chief family mentioned in them. Owing to the great number of Carter names, they are placed in a sepatate
index at the end of the General Index.]

Abbott, Noel Hughes 63, Robert Pace
63, Robert Thornton 63.

Aberdeen, Jennie 73.

Adair, Emily 143.

Adae, Emily 233.

Aiken, Judge A. M. 115, 116, 118, Arch
ibald, Jr., 118, Benj. Wilson 118,
Martha H. 118.

Alley, Ethel Katharine 260, Janie Eliz.
260, John Palmer 260, Margaret Se-
vier 260, Rufus Carter 260.

Alsop, Maj- Benj. 277, 286.

Alexander, Margaret Carter 213.

Alston, Joshua 307.

Allen, Agnes 238, 244, Alice 17s, 176,
Rev. Beverley 1O0, 173, 174, 175, 176,
179, 184, Benjamin 176, Charles 144,
Charles Carnes 143, Clemency 174.
176, Chanotte 175, David 353, David
Jackson 175, Emeline 175, 176, Emma
Lee 176, Elizabeth 174, 175, 176, 177,
Ernest C. 144, Frances 174, George
i'75, 176, Hayden 175, 176, Joseph 144,

176, 204, James 144, 174, James P.
175, 17b, Lucy 144, 174, 175, 176, Lucas
P. 144, Lewis 174, 175, 176, Louisa 174,

177, Martha 144, 175, 177, Mary Anne
175, Mary Jane 174, Olive 144, Reuben
175. 179. Sarah 115, 353, Susannah 174,
177. William 144, 174, 175, Winifred

Allied Families, Notes on :

Ball, 357, 359; Bacon, 76; Beale, 337,
343 ; Beverley, 282 ; Bickley, 228 ; Bibb,
128; Bland, 74; Blackwell, 351;
Brown, 109 ; Bronaugh, 335 ; Camp-
bell, 90; Catlett, 104; Chiles, 141;
Chew, 281 ; Chilton, 354, 161 ; Clement,
142; Chinn, 357; Conway, 361; Couch,
347; Colher, 274; Curtis, 199, 285;
Dale, 12-22 ; Downman, 362 ; Dupuy,
70; Dymoke, 26-35; Ellis, 229; Field-
ing, 163-166; Fitzhugh, 349; Hampton,
194-199; Henderson, 191; Hereford,

329 ; Herndon, 284 ; Hobson, 135 ;
Hopkins, 125; Hutchings, 138; Ireland,
196; Jelf, 184; Lawson, 135; Lanier,
139; Lancaster (including Brooke,
Calvert, Darnell, Digges), 232; Lee,
84; Lewis, 342; Lyon, 186-189; Love-
lace, 273 ; Marshall, 286 ; Mason, 252,
332; McAfee, 188; Miller, 190; Muir,
197 ; Neale, 345 ; Payne, 109 ; Pendle-
ton, 287; Peyton, 350; Pope, 224;
Preston, 91; Primm, 365; Rosier, 102;
Rutledge, 141; Shortledge, 197; Skip-
with, 22-26 ; Spencer, 45 ; Stokes, 86 ;
Stuart, 248; Thornton, 38; Thomas,
70; Todd, 272; Upton, 101 ; Under-
wood, 100; Washington, 288; Wade,
198; Ward, 141; Williamson, 100;
Worth, 119; Yates.

Am pert, Dr., 296.

Anderson, Charles 65, Charles W. 65,
Elizabeth 65, George 164, George A.
65, John 60, Martha J. 257, Mary
Wylds 65, Nicholas 60.

Ancell, Thomas 2, Mary 2.

Annadale, Anne Carter 219, Jane Carter
220, Joseph 220.

Arbuckle, Capt. William 190.

Armstrong, Edward 80, John P. 358,
Sallie Irby 80, Susie 80.

Archer, Margaret Bailes 369.

Armistead Family, note of 280, Eliza-
beth 71, 279, 280, Francis 279, General
140, Sarah 279.

Aslin, William 260.

Atkins, Mary 174.

Aylett, Col. W. R. 79, Sallie Brocken-
brough 79.

Ayers, Gen. Romayn 128.

Ball Family, note on, 357, 359, Arabella
100, Burgess 67, Elizabeth Romney
271, Frances 100, 271, Capt. George 47,
Grace 47, Grace Waddy 47, Harriet
358, 359, Hillkiah 359, James 67, 100,



Col. James 43, Col. Joseph 9, 271, 272,
330, 359. Lucy Hardin 100, Lewis 100,
Lavenia 100. Mary Matilda 100, Maria
100, Mary 272, Margaret 9, 100, Patsy
100. Robert 100, Thomas 100, Capt.
William o, 9, 47, 98. 100, 272, 303.

Balfour, Charles 92, 386, John 92, Milh-
cent 92, Rosebud 386.

Bacon Family, note of 76, Drury Allen

76, 77, 78, Edmund Cummings 77. 78,
Frances 78, Francis Nathaniel 78,
James Lawrence 77, 78, Josephus Car-
ter 77. 78, Kate E. 77, Lydall 76, 77-
78, Lottie L. 78, Mary Eloise 78. Mary
Elizabeth 87, Mary Jane 77, 78, May
78, Mildred Haynie 77, Nancy Aris 77,
Nancy Goode 78, Nathaniel 77, 78,
Robert Carter 77, 78. Richard Parkes

77, Roberta B. 78. Thomas Alex. 78.
Virginia 77, 78, Virginia M. 77, Wil-
liam 78, Wm. Allen 77.

Baird, Charles N. 208.

Bartee, Margaret 250.

Bassett, Jesse 338.

Bang, Frances 130.

Baker, A. V. 178, Dr. VV. A. 258, Eliza-
beth 178, 291, Dr. James 178, James
177, 178, John 178, Jennie 178, Molly
A. 130, Polly Anne 178, Sarah 178.

Batte, James 161.

Barnwell, Maria Walker 133, William


Barlow, Ephraim 312.

Barrow, Artemisia 206.

Bass, Ambler 207, Edwin Lucas 207.
Mary Ellen 207, Russell Morton 207,
Winnie Louise 207.

Banres, Clinton 252, Dorothy 344, Mary
Taylor 252, Sallie 252, Dr. W. L. 344.

Bacot, Anne Cuthbert 296, David Tay-
lor 296, Dr. D. D. 296, Florence 296,
George 296; Jacquine Mercier 296,
Laura 296, Mary DeS- 297, Mary Lou-
ise 297, Norborne 296, Pierre 296, Ra-
chel 296, Richard Hutson 297, Talia-
ferro 296, Zachariah 296.

Bailes, Beryl 369, Jenkins 369, John
369, Dr. John 50, Margaret 369, Na-
than 369, Sarah 369, Tabitha 369.

Beale Family, note on 337, 343, Atlanta
338, Dr. Andrew Jackson 336, 338,
Anna Maria 338, Charles Moore 338,
David 338, Ella Augusta 338. Emma
343, George 338, James W. 54,
James Monroe 338, John 338, 343,

John Morgan 338, Dr. John Hereford
341, 343, Maj. John W. 343. Lalla 338.
Mary 339, Mary Margaret 343. Mar-
garet 338, 343. Robert Wilson 338,
Richard Tavernor 337, 338, Richard
Eustace 337, 343. Sarah 338, Thomas
165, William 338, Wm. Clinton, 338.

Bethel, Dr. Pinckney ill.

Beverley Family, note on, 282, Clara
Vass 80, Harry Stanard 80, Margaret
281, Robert 311, Robert B. 80, Virginia
Eppes 80.

Bernard, Lutie 120.

Bell, Carter 203, Charles 203, Clarisso
203, Elizabeth 203, Henry 203, 204,
Joseph 203, 204, Lucy 203, Thornton
203, Willis 203.

Benson, Price M. 296.

Berry, George 360, Jane 360, Letitia 383,
/William 260.

Belcher, Edward R. 297. Robert 297.

Berkeley, Catharine Elizabeth 221,
Charles 221, John 221, Martha Nelson
80, Mr. 165, William R. 80.

Biddle, Joseph 51-

Bibb Family, note on, 128, Eliza P. 128,
129, Gov. Thomas 128, Gov. William
W. 128.

Bickley Family, note on, 228, John 228,
Mary Anne 228.

Bird, Mattie 254, William Beverley 250,
W. W. 250.

Bland Family, note on. 74, Cornelia
Alice 73, John Archer 73, Mary Anne

Blake, Benson 385, H. L. 385.

Blair, Florence 93, Nannie Carter 143.

Blankinship, Polly, 308.

Blevins, Arthur 131, Arthur Hopkins
131, Elizabeth 131, George Phillips
131, Joseph 131, John Walker 131.
Louisa 131, Llewellen 131, Robert 131.

Blankenbager, Eva 352.

Bledsoe, Susan 256.

Blackwell Family, note on, 351, Cath-
arine 351, Charles 351, Edward 351,
Elizabeth 351, George H. 351, Lucy
351, John Wm. 351, Gen. John 351,
Marie 351, William 351.

Boone, Linnie 51.

Bouldin, Alice 175, Briscoe 82, Isabella
Carter 82, James 176, Thomas Van-
derford 82.



Borum, Asa 85. Charles E. 85, Charles
Haynie 85, Elbert Carter 85, Florence
85, Bessie 65. Jeffres 85, Louise 85,
Robert 85, Walker 85, William Ber-
nard 85.

Bowen, Arthur F. 121.

Boatright, Ellen 243.

Bolanz, Horace 140.

Boyd, Dr. Arthur 206, Malange 296.

Bruce, Armistead 85, Philip Alexander
3, Rebecca Carter 85.

Brent, Catharine 43, Charles 43, Eleanor
43, Hugh 391, Capt. Hugh 263, James
43, Mary 320, Robert 334-

Brewer, Sarah 221.

Briscoe, Susannah 220.

Brown Family, note on, 109, Chastaine
Wm. Scott 114, Ellis 234, John 183,
John H. no. Col. John E. no, 123,
Dr. John Edmonds 123, Gen. John Car-
ter 213, J. P. 183, James Williamson
no, in, Jessie Carter 123, Lelia ill,

Online LibraryJoseph Lyon MillerThe descendants of Capt. Thomas Carter of Barford, Lancaster County, Virginia : with genealogical notes of many of the allied families → online text (page 1 of 37)