about the commencement of the revo-
lution, refused to take the oath of alle-
giance, broke up their establishments,
and left the country. These circum-
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” CAROLINE.
stances combining- with the establish-
ment of Lynchburg so near it on
James river* have given a shock to
the prosperity of the town from which
it cannot recover.
Under the old district system the
Superior Court was held at New
RED HILL, situated in the S. E.
part of the county, on the borders ofl
this county and Charlotte, about three
miles below Brookneal, on the Staun-
ton river â€” The residence of PAT-
RICK HENRY, and the burial
place of himself and his lady.
Reedy Spring, P. O. 110 ms.
from R. and 196 S. W. of W.
Yellow Branch, P. O. 135 ms.
S. W. of R. and 213 from W.
Caroline was created by the House of Burgesses, in February, 1727 r
(in the language of the act) "on the heads of Essex, King and Queen, and
King William." â€” The first court was held under a commission from Go-
vernor Gooch, in May 1728. â€” It is bounded N. by the Rappahannock
which separates it from King George, N. W. by same river separating it
from Stafford, â€” N. E. by Essex, â€” E. and S. E.'by King and Queen, and
King William, â€” S. S. W. by the Pamunkey, which separates it from Han-
over, â€” and W. by Spottsylvania. â€” Its shape is nearly a parallelogram, in.
length 30 miles from N. E. to S. W. and in breadth 20; â€” area 600 sq. ms.
â€” lat. 37Â° 4' to 38Â° 16' N. and long. 0Â° 2' to 0Â° 43' W. of W. Câ€” The
surface is much broken, and the soil presents great variety.
The Rappahannock and Pamunkey are on the borders of this county,
and the Mattapony runs a little south of its centre, the low grounds of these
rivers are admirably adapted to the culture of Indian corn, wheat, and to-
bacco, â€” indeed for the first they are said to be the best lands in the state. â€”
Its principal villages are Bowling Green and Port Ro3 r al, and its Academies
Rappahannock and Concord. Caroline was formerly divided into three
parishes, Drysdale and St. Mary's, created in 1727, and St. Margarett's, in
1744, in each of which a church was placed, only St. Margaretts remains:
â€” but there are many other churches and meeting houses in the county,
which belong principally to the prevailing denomination â€” the Baptist. The
people are religious, and remarkable for their wealth, hospitality and intel-
ligence; â€” it was the birth place of the republican John Taylor, â€” the
highly gifted Edmund Pendleton, and the chivalric General Wood-
ford. Population, 1820, 18,008â€” in 1830, 17,744.â€” Caroline belongs to
the fifth judicial circuit, and third district. Taxes paid in 1833, $4440 82
â€”1834, on lots, $62 71â€” lands, $2355 22â€” on 5581 slaves, $1395 25 â€”
3015 horses, $180 90â€”11 studs, $133 00â€” on 71 coaches, $180 56 â€”
4 stages, $6 50â€”93 carryalls, $97 25â€”218 gigs, $121 94â€” Total, $45 33
33. Amount expended in educating poor children in 1832, $519 88 â€” in
1833, $539 84.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
BOWLING GREEN, P. V. and
county seat, 44 ms. N. N. E. of R.
and 78 from W. on the main road
leading from Fredericksburg to Rich-
mond, 22 miles from the former. â€”
The public buildings are new, han d-
Eastern Virginiaâ€” Caroline.
Some, and spacious, consisting of a
court house, clerk's office, and jail,
recently erected; one Episcopalian
house of worship, and in the vicinity
one church belonging to the (reform-
ed) Baptists. There are 29 dwelling
houses, 3 mercantile stores, 1 grist
and saw mill, 1 coach and wagon
manufactory, 2 blacksmiths, 1 tan-
yard, 2 tailors, 2 bricklayers, 1 house-
joiner, and 2 boot and shoe factories;
2 elementary schools, one for each
sex ; I well organized Sunday
school, and 1 temperance society; al-
so a female benevolent association,
which has a fair annually, the profits
of which are appropriated to benevo-
This village is located on a beauti-
ful level green, ornamented with fine
trees ; it derives its present name from
the nature of its location, its original
name was New Hope. â€” The seat of
county justice was removed to this
place in 1805. The railroad now
under contract between Fredericks-
burg and Richmond, is expected to
make this village a place of consider-
able trade. â€” A line of stages running
N. and S. pass here twice a day; and;
two cross mails from E. to W. â€” The
surrounding country is remarkable
for its healthiness and fertility, pro-
ducing abundantly all the staples of
the state. Population 317 persons,
of whom 6 are attorneys, and 2 phy-
County Courts are held on the 2d
Monday in every month: â€” Quarterly
in March, June, August, and No-
Judge Lomax holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chancery
on the 1st of May, and 10 th of Sep-
Chilesburg, P. O. 55 ms. from
R. and 83 from W.
Golansville, P. O. 43 ms. N. of
R. and 90 S. S. W. of Wâ€” It con-
tains several dwelling houses, a mer-|
cantile store, tanyard, blacksmith,
saddle and harness maker, tailor, to-
bacco factory, manufacturing mill,
and a grist and saw mill. Popula-
tion 21 whites and 53 blacks. The
scenery around is pretty and the
country healthy; the soil is good,
adapted to Indian corn, wheat, oats,
and tobacco of fine quality. There
are two mineral springs in the neigh-
borhood, supposed to contain iron and
Jemap, P. O. G9 ms. from R. and
68 from W. C.
Mill Farm, P. O. 44 ms. from
R. and 93 S. of W.
Oxford, P. O. 33 ms. from R. and
100 from W.
Port Royal, P. V. on Rappa-
hannock opposite Port Conway in
King George, 59 ms. from R. and 78
from W. â€” on the S. side of the river
22 ms. below Fredericksburg. It is
one of the oldest towns in Virginia,
and was rapidly declining until a few
years past, but is now improving. It
contains 236 houses, 2 houses of pub-
lic worship, 1 methodist and 1 Epis-
copalian, 6 mercantile stores, and 1
merchant mill. The mechanics are
a tanner, saddler, carriage maker,
and ship builder. Population in 1 830,
600; 2 of whom are attorneys, and 2
Port Royal was created a town by
the House of Burgesses in 1744. â€” It
possesses a fine harbor, which readily
admits vessels drawing eleven feet
water; it was formerly one of the
principal markets in the state for to-
bacco, but has now lost this important
trade; it yet however exports large
quantities of wheat and Indian corn.
â€” Two steamboats regularly stop four
times a week at this place on their
route between Fredericksburg and
Rappahannock Academy, P. O.
64 ms. N. N. E. of R. and 72 S. S. W.
of W., in the N. part of the county.
â€” This was a flourishing and useful
school a few years since, but we be-
lieve there has been no teacher there
for some time past. â€” We now how-
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” CHARLES CITY.
ever see an advertisement, which states
that the school will be opened on the
15th January, 1835, with teachers fully
competent to teach all the branches
of education usually taught in our
Sparta, P. 0. 48 ms. from R. and
89 from W.
Turner's Store, P. O. 86 ms.
from W. and 36 N. of R.
Veilleboro', P. O. in N. part of
the county, 8 ms. N. of Bowling
Green, the seat of justice, 70 ms. S.
S. W. of W. and 52 from R, on the
stage road leading from Fredericks-
burs; to Richmond, 14 miles from the
White Chimneys, P. O. 30 ms.
N. of R. and 92 from W.
Charles City was one of the eight original shires into which Vir-
ginia was divided by the House of Burgesses in 1734. It is bounded S.
by James river which separates it from Surry, Prince George, and Cries'-
terfield, â€” -E. by the Chickahominy, which separates it from James City^ â€”
N. by the same river separating it from New Kent, and W. by Henrico.
Length 26 miles, mean breadth 8; area 208 sq. miles: extending from lat,
37Â° 9' to 37Â° 28' N. and long. 0Â° 5' E. to 0Â° 22' W. of W. C.â€” The sur-
face of the county is rolling. â€” This county being so advantageously situ-
ated on tide water, transacts its mercantile business directly with the large
cities, and hence has not given growth to the number of little villages, with
which many of our counties are crowded. Population 1820, 5255 â€” in
1830, 5500. ^Six attorneys, five regular physicians, and sundry Thomso-
nians reside in the county. There are 2 Episcopal, 1 Quaker, 3 Baptist,
and 4 Methodist churches in the county; also 1 classical academy, and seve-
ral inferior schools : 7 mercantile stores, 1 asylum for the poor, 5 grist mills,
2 saw mills, and various mechanics. Taxes paid in 1833, $1397 84 â€” in
1834, on land, $798 88â€”1579 slaves, $394 75â€”836 horses, $50 16â€”3
studs, $52 00â€” 33 coaches, $81 50â€” 8 carryalls, $8 00â€” 45 gigs, $28 45.
Total $1413 74. â€” In the primary schools no operations.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
CHARLES CITY C. H., P. O.
near the centre of the county 30 ms.
S. S. E. of R. and 152 from W.â€”
The only buildings are the court
house, clerk's office, jail, a tavern,
and a private dwelling.
County Courts are held on the 3d
Thursday in every month; â€” Quar-
terly in March, May, August, and
Judge Upshur holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chance-
ry on the 1st of April and 12th of
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” CHARLOTTE, 145
Charlotte was created by the Legislature in 1764, from a part of
Lunenburg county. The Southwestern border of Charlotte is washed bv
Staunton river, which separates it from Halifax. On the west, the line
which separa-.es Charlotte from Campbell runs on a ridge of highlands
which give rise to waters flowing westwardly into Falling river, and east-
wardly into Turnip creek. On the N. and N. E. the line, which separates
Charlotte from Prince Edward, runs on a ridge of high lands, which give
rise to waters flowing north and northeastwardly into the Appomatox, and
south into the Staunton river. On the E. and S. E. the line, which sepa-
rates Charlotte from Lunenburg, runs on a ridge which gives rise to
waters flowing southeastwardly into the Meherrin, and westwardly into
tributary streams of Staunton. On the S. the line which separates Char-
lotte from Mecklenburg, runs on a ridge, which gives rise to waters flow-
ing south into the Meherrin and northwestwardly into Bluestone. Length
22 miles, mean breadth 18, and area 600 sq. miles: extending in lat. from
36Â° 41* to 37Â° 16' N. and in long, from 10Â° 33' to 2Â° 05' W. of W. Câ€”
Charlotte county contains by actual surveys as entered on the commission-
er's books, about 310,000 acres of land, valued, together with buildings,
under the equalizing laws, to something near 2,275,000 dollars ; the aver-
age price per acre under that calculation including buildings is $8 75.
The buildings being valued at nearly 356,000 dollars ; the average price
per acre wihout the buildings is about $7 60. â€” The census taken in the
year 1830, gives to the county, 15,252 souls â€” shewing about 20 acres to
each individual in the county.
The general surface of the county is greatly diversified with hills and
vales, embracing every variety of soil, and is watered by numerous creeks
and rivulets all tributary to Staunton river, except the head branches of the
Meherrin, on the E. and S. E. The principal streams of Charlotte flow-
ing into Staunton and its tributaries, are the following.
The first, beginning in the western part of Charlotte, is Turnip Creek,
the head waters of which rise in the neighborhood of the Red House, near
the Campbell line, it runs south and enters Staunton river just above Cole's
Ferry. 'This is not a large stream, yet it affords considerable bottom or
flat land, especially at and near its mouth. It is from 15 to 20 miles in
The next in order, proceeding southeastwardly is Cub Creek, the head
branches of which are in Campbell county; from the place which it enters
the county to its junction with Staunton, the distance is from 30 to 40
miles It has many tributary streams ; â€” those on the west are Bear Creek,
rising near the Red House. Turkey Cock and Louse Creek, â€” the two first
are inconsiderable streams, the last is from 10 to 12 miles in length and at
and near its junction with Cub creek, a little above Baldwin's mills,
affords much valuable bottom lands. Those on the E. are Little Cub,
Horsepen, Rough creak, and Terry's creek. Cub creek with its tributary
streams waters a large and valuable portion of the upper end of Charlotte,
affording a considerable quantity of rich bottomland and hill sides well suit-
ed to the growth of the various kinds of grain, and in many places, produc-
ing tobacco of the finest quality. It enters Staunton river 3 or 4 miles be-
low Cole's Ferry.
Next is Wallace's creek. Its head spring is near the road leading from
U6 EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” CHARLOTTE.
Charlotte court house to Cole's Ferry, it flows through a neighborhood of
very good land, and enters Staunton just above Morton's Ferry: it is from
9 to 10 miles in length.
Next in order is Little Roanoke; which rises in the northeastern part of
Charlotte, near the Prince Edward line, and runs southwest through the
county and empties into Staunton river about 4 miles below Clark's Ferry.
It is from 25 to 30 miles in length. This stream with its tributaries, waters
a great part of the lower end of Charlotte, as well as a valuable part of
the upper end. It is a low, flat and sluggish stream, affording very little
fall of water, and contains as much bottom land as any in the state of its
size and length ; particularly at its mouth ; where there is a body of rich
low grounds, including those on Staunton, of fully a thousand acres.
Randolph's Lower Quarter, situated below its mouth, itself contains be-
tween 7 and 800 acres in one body. The principal tributary stream, to
Little Roanoke, on the west, is Wardsfork ; which rises in the neighbor-
hood of Chickentown in the upper end, and with its tributaries, waters
the best tobacco land in the county; indeed the lands on this stream are
remarkable for their universal fertility. It flows into L. Roanoke on a
low bed at right angles â€” hence a large body of low grounds, the largest
in the interior of the county, was for a long time under water and con-
sidered irreclaimable. These grounds remained common until within a
few years past, and were so injurious to health as to be considered a public
nuisance. About the year 1817 James W. Bouldin purchased a tract of
land immediately in the fork, containing bottom lands on both streams, and
commenced reclaiming. About the year 1819 his brother Judge Bouldin
purchased a tract above on L. Roanoke, and commenced draining : the
plan of draining as it relates to the courses and location of the ditches on
both purchases was laid out and executed under the direction of James W,
Bouldin. By these means, certainly the largest, if not the finest body of
low grounds, in the neighborhood of the Courthouse, is, from a wilderness
of bogs, mire and stagnant waters, rendered arable and comparatively
The next tributary on the west is Dunnivant ; which rises in the neigh-
borhood of Edmond's Store, and flows through a neighborhood of good
land, into L. Roanoke, just above Dabbs' Bridge.
â€¢ On the E. the first tributary stream is HelV s ere eh, though a small
stream, it affords much good bottom land, particularly towards its mouth..
It enters Little Roanoke just below L. Roanoke bridge.
Next in order are Spencer's and Spring creeks, rising on the dividing
ridge, which separates Charlotte from Prince Edward and Lunenburg,
They unite just before they flow into Little Roanoke. Just below their
junction and at their mouth, r t here is a large body of valuable flat land.
That which lies above, immediately on L. Roanoke, is of the pipe clay
soil and was formerly liable to inundations. Much has been done for its
recovery from water and to improve its quality, still it is not equal to land
above and below it.
Next is Ash Camp, it rises in the neighborhood of Keysville, in a poor
country, but as you descend this creek, the quantity and quality of the bot-
tom lands increase.
Next is Twittiei Creek. It rises on the ridge, which separates the
waters of Meherrin from those of Staunton river. This is a longer and
larger stream than those just mentioned. It affords a considerable, quan-
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” CHARLOTTE. 147
tity of flat lands, yet with some few exceptions, the plantations on this
stream are not remarkable for their productions. It enters Little Roanoke
on a tract of land on which the late Judge Paul Carrington, Jr. resid-
ed ; it is considered very valuable. The first brick house in the county
was built on this tract.
The next streams are the Horsepens. They rise on the same ridge, the
branches of which water a great part of the southeast of Charlotte. The head
streams rise in and run through a body of as poor lands as any in the
state, but as you approach their mouths, the quantity and quality of good
lands increase, and after they unite the Horsepen affords much valuable
low grounds. It enters L. Roanoke just above John Randolph's Lower
Reynold's Creek is a tributary to this stream. It rises on the road that
leads from the Double Bridges in Lunenburg to Moseley's Ferry. It runs
through a neighborhood once of very fine lands, but much exhausted by
cultivation ; it enters the Horsepen just below Bedford's Bridge.
Next to L. Roanoke on the S. we come to Sandy Creek. In this portion
of the county the soil and quality of the lands are essentially different from
those in other parts. The soil is universally sandy or gravelly, and upon
a slight view, it would appear to those who lived on lands of a different
texture, to be very unproductive ; but it is known to be as productive for
all kinds of grain and grass as any in the county, similarly situated, and
of late years tobacco is produced of fine quality by judicious cultivators.
Those who live on these lands, say that they vegetate quickly, are soon
exhausted, but revive speedily, when proper measures are used. Several
valuable plantations lie on Sandy Creek, near its mouth. It is a short
stream, and enters Staunton a little above Moseley's Ferry.
After leaving Sandy Creek, the county becomes very narrow to its
southern extremity, a ridge running between Bluestone and Staunton to its
termination. The first tributary, to Staunton after leaving Sandy Creek, is
Buffaloe. This stream rises in the neighborhood of Jeffrey's Store and
runs into Staunton river, a few miles below Moseley's Ferry.
The next are CargiVs and Hogaii; s Creeks. Two small streams water-
ing the extreme south of the county. Hogan's Creek with its branches
water some very valuable land.
Bluestone affords to this county some very valuable land, originally very
fine, having a red clay foundation with mulatto soil.
Staunton river gives to this county as much valuable bottom lands, as
it does to any county on its waters. On the western extremity of the
county, at the mouth of Falling river, lived and died the distinguished
Patrick Henry. His residence was on the termination of the ridge,
which separates Charlotte from Campbell. It is called Red Hill, from
which there is a very handsome southern view of a very large body of
rich low grounds, estimated at 500 acres. It is now the property of his
two youngest sons. The remains of the orator and his lady repose on the
The next most conspicuous place on the river, proceeding southwardly,
is called Ward's Neck, situated just above the mouth of Cub Creek, be-
tween that and Cole's Ferry ; it is embraced by a large bend or curve of
the river, corresponding with the Cove in Halifax, which lies just below
it on the opposite side of the river. It affords several beautiful situations
148 EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” CHARLOTTE.
for buildings, on elevated, fertile and level table lands, skirted by the richest
and most fertile low grounds or river bottoms.
The next place just below Clark's Ferry, is the residence of the late
John Randolph of Roanoke. Proceeding southwest from the Court-
house, on the main southern stage road, when getting within a mile of
Clark's Ferry, a left hand road leads up a gentle assent to the summit of
the only hill in the county, dignified by the name of mountain. On this
summit stands the buildings, late the residence of this illustrious orator
They are situated literally in the woods : for there is not a vestige of land
cultivated in view â€” they consist of two plain wooden buildings, of one story
each, with two rooms on a floor, within a few steps of each other; the
back building, which he mostly occupied, is entered through a piazza, on
a pebble floor, the roof of which is supported by unhewn posts taken im-
mediately from the forest. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the out-
ward appearance of these buildings, within the furniture, plate, paintings
and library corresponded with the elevated characted of their owner, es-
sentially rich but plain. A few steps to the west of the front building
under a large pine tree, is interred the body of that Man, whose inimitable
eloquence once electrified the people of the United States, and whose fame
almost reached the remotest bounds of the civilized world.
Immediately below Mr Randolph's, near the junction of the L. Roanoke
with Staunton river, on an elevated and beautiful site, stands the residence
of the late Judge Paul Carrington, Sen. It is now the property of his
youngest son. Judge Carrington was a member of the bar of the county
of Charlotte, when the county court was organized in the year 1765, he had
been a practising lawyer and a member of the House of Burgesses, when
this county was a part of Lunenburg. After the British Governor, Lord
Dunmore, had abdicated the government of Virginia, a convention met
in Richmond in the year 1775, to organize a provincial form of govern-
ment and plan of defence for the colony. This plan of defence was sub-
mitted by them to a committee of public safety. Paul Carrington was one
of that committee. He subsequently became a Judge of the Court of Ap-
peals, in which office he remained until a few years previous to his death.
After leaving the lands at the mouth of the L. Roanoke, the quantity
and quality of the low grounds decrease, so far as the county of Charlotte
reaches on the river.
Upon a general view of the soil, it may be said, that it is generous and
free â€” that most of the wood, on the streams and hill sides has been cut
down, the hill sides much exhausted, yet the bottom lands are generally
productive, more especially where they are, in the hands of judicious cul-
tivators. Our ridges contain the only forests, and they are mostly poor and
barren â€” valuable only for their timbers. These remarks hold good gene-
rally, except those tracts in possession of large land holders, on some of
which, there are still some good bottom and high lands uncleared, particu-
larly on L. Roanoke, Cub creek and Wardsfork.
Agriculturalists say with confidence, that it is found by a proper course
of cultivation, that all exhausted lands, originally good, especially those
with red clay foundations are recoverable, and can be brought back to their
original fertility â€” if so, it is confidently hoped that a spirit of improvement
in agriculture may prevail, which will effect this object.
Minerals. â€” There is a singular vein of stone running through the coun-
ty nearly from N. to S. It is composed of a series of round stones of va-
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” CHARLOTTE. 149
rious sizes, sometimes very large; â€” the vein in some places is barely per-
ceptible, consisting of only a few round pebbles, in others it protrudes a
rugged mass of rocks. Gold and Silver have been diligently sought, but
Elections. â€” There are 3 precinct elections in the county â€” 1 at Harvey's
store in Chicken-totc?i, 1 at Fuqua's store, above Louse creek, both in the
upper end of the county: and 1 at M'Cargo's in the lower end, near Wil-
Poor. â€” The County Court has lately purchased land and erected builds
ings about 7 miles from the C. H. for the accommodation of the poor. The
present inmates are 6 males, and 9 females. This arrangement is expected
to lessen considerably the poor rates of the county.
Society. â€” The great men who have resided in Charlotte, and the many
pious and good men which she has produced, operating by their example
and exertions upon an intelligent community, have given to Charlotte so-
ciety a tone of dignified and lofty sentiment, not often met with, and not