EASTERN VIRGINIA— FRANKLIN. 177
Ridge, separating it from Floyd on the W. and a small part of Montgomery
and part of Botetourt on the N. W. Length 30 miles, mean breadth 25,
and area 750 square miles. It contains in lat. from 36° 46' to 37° 13' N.
and in long, from 2° 41' to 3° 18' W. of W. C.
Black Water river and Pig river rise in the Blue Ridge on the west,
and run nearly parallel with each other through the county to the east.
Black Water emptying itself into the Staunton at the junction of the Bed-
ford, Pittsylvania and Franklin lines; and Pig river emptying itself in the
same stream in the county of Pittsylvania. — Neither river is navigable.
The streams called creeks are all small, though of sufficient size for the
usual purposes of machinery. The principal of these are S?iow creek, ris-
ing in the mountain and running east into Pig river — Maggotty, rising in
the Blue Ridge, running to the east into Black Water — Chesnut creek, run-
ning to the east into Pig river — GilVs creek, rising in the Blue Ridge and
running to the east into Black Water — Runncti Bag, rising in the Blue
Ridge and running to the S. E. into Smith's river, in the county of Patrick,
and Nicholas creek, running south into Smith's river.
There are some small mountains — Chesnut mountain south of the court
house about twelve miles, and the Grassy Hill, on the north, about a mile
from the court house, are the largest. The others are small and deserve no
particular notice. About half a mile east of this place an immense rock
rises very abruptly, particularly on the north, at least two hundred feet above
its base, from which the county town takes its name — it is known as the
Bald Knob, from its barren surface of rock — whose area is about eighty
feet in length, by a mean breadth of about fifteen.
The Staunton or Rjanoke river, from the point where it passes through
the Blue Ridge, forms a natural boundary of the county, separating it from
Bedford. — The Blue Ridge from the same point forms another natural
boundary on the north, separating Franklin from Botetourt, until it loses
itself in the AUearhany at the Bent mountain, which then forms the boun-
dary separating Franklin from Montgomery and Floyd, until it reaches the
The staples are principally tobacco, wheat, Indian corn and iron. The
Washington Iron Works, on Pig river, within half a mile of Rocky Mount,
yield annually about 150 tons of iron of a very superior quality. Iron ore
is found in various parts of the county.
The slope of the county is E. S. E. The elevation of the surface is
about equal to that of the adjoining county of Bedford, or about 650 feet
above the tide of the ocean. The general face of the country is rolling —
the soil of a medium quality, with a clay foundation, and generally well
adapted to farming. Population 1820, 12,017— in 1830, 14,911.— Frank-
lin belongs to the tenth judicial circuit, and fifth district. Taxes paid in
1832-3 $2182 19— in 1833-4, on lots, $19 35— land, $1131 12—2612
slaves, $553 00—3459 horses, $207 54— 14 studs, $146 00— 8 coaches,
$21 00—9 carryalls, $9 00—12 gigs, $7 35. Total, $2194 36. Ex-
pended in educating poor children in 1832, $518 50 — in 1833, $1188 55.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Boon's Mills, P. O. 184 ms. S.
W. of R. and 252 S, W. by W. of
Calloway's Mill, P. O. 193 ms.
S. W. by W. of R. and 271 from W.
EASTERN VIRGINIA— GLOUCESTER.
Cooper's P. O. 172 ms. S. W. byj/y in March, June, August and No-
W. of R. and 230 from W. \vember.
Dickenson, P. O. 201 ms. S. W
of R. and 279 from W.
Haleford, P. O. 163 ms. from R
and 242 from W.
Helm's, P. O. 203 ms. from R. and
281 S. W. of W.
Hunter's Hall, P. O. 195 ms.
S. W. by W. of R. and 274 from W.
Rocky Mount, P. V, and seat of
justice 185 ms. from R. and 253 S.
W. of W. — situated on a branch of
Pig river, a tributary of Roanoke, in
lat. 36° 57' N. and 'long. 2° 50' W
of W. C. It contains besides the
usual county buildings, about 30
dwelling houses, 3 general stores, and
2 taverns. — The mechanics are 2 tai-
lors, a saddler, cabinet maker, 2 black-
smiths, a boot and shoe manufacturer,
a printing office, which issues a week-
ly paper, and a tmyard. — In the vi-
cinity there is an iron furnace and
forge, which give employment to 100
operatives, and manufacture about 160
tons of bar iron and castings annually.
Population (exclusive of the persons
employed in the iron manufactory)
175 persons; of whom 3 are attor-
neys, and 1 a physician
Judge Saunders holds his Cir-
cuit Superior Court of Law and Chan-
cery on the 9th of May and October.
Shady Grove, P. O. 217 ms, from
R. and 305 S. W. of W.
Taylor's Store, P. O. 173 ms.
S. W. by W. of R. and 251 from W.
situated 12 ms. E. of Rocky Mount.
Union Hall, P. V. 201 ms. from
R. and 276 S. W. of W. — situated near
the Blue Ridge mountain, between
Pig and Black Water rivers, on the
main stage road leading from Henry
C. H. to Lynchburg, at the intersec-
tion, of the road from Pittsylvania C.
H. to Rocky Mount. It contains 15
dwelling houses, 1 Methodist house of
worship, at which an English school
is kept, and one well organised tem-
perance society. The mechanics are
a tanner, tailor, blacksmith, and to-
bacco manufacturer. In the vicinity
on Pig river is an extensive manufac-
turing flour mill, and a wool and cot-
ton manufactory. Population 25 per-
sons: of whom one is a physician.
Woodpecker's Level, P. O. 208
ms. from R. and 286 S. W. of W.—
isituated in. the western part of the
County Courts are held on the ls^icounty, 23 ms. east of Rocky Mount.
Monday in every month: — Quarter A
Gloucester was created by the Legislature in 1552, from a part of
York county. It is bounded N. by the Piankatank river, which separates
it from Middlesex.— E. by Mathews and an arm of the Chesapeake formed
by the mouth of York river, and Mob Jack bay,— S. by York river, which
separates it from York county,— 3. W. by the same river, separating it from
James City county and New Kent, and N. W. by King and Queen county.
Length 28 miles, mean width 10, and area 280 square miles. It extends
m lat. from 37° 15' to 37° 35\ and in long, from 0° 14' to 0° 42' E. of W.
C. The principal products of this county are corn, cotton, and wheat, —
much barley was formerly raised, but from some unknown cause the lands
have ceased to be adapted to its cultivation. Ponulation 1820, 9,678— in
1830, white males, 217— females, 2197— total, 4314— slaves, males, 2885
—females 2806— total, 5691— free colored persons, males, 275— females,
<J28— total, 603. Number of families, 911; average number in each family
EASTERN VIRGINIA— GOOCHLAND.
1 1 ; number of persons to the square mile, 35. Gloucester belongs to the
fourth judicial circuit, and second district. Taxes paid in 1832-3, 82180
91— in 1S33-4, on lots, $389 00— land, $790 6G— 3042 slaves, $760 50
— 1220 horses, $73 20 — 1 studs, $76 00— 64 coaches, $139 60—9 car-
ryalls, $10 00— 214 gigs, $113 65— total, $2172 50. Expended in edu-
cating poor children in 1832, $125 42— in 1833, $334 73.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, fcc.
Glenn's P. O. S9 ins. E. of R.
and 148 from W.
GLOUCESTER C. H. P. V. 82
ms. E. of R. and 166 from W. — situ-
ated near the centre of the county, 2
miles from the head of Ware river,
and 14 from Gloucester ferry. It
contains a court house, clerk's office,
s criminal and a debtors jail, 8 dwel-
ling houses, 1 incorporated Academy
for males, called l Newington? and
one female Academy, 4 mercantile
stores, and 1 tavern. The mechanics
are a wheelwright, 2 carriage makers,
3 blacksmiths, a boot and shoe facto-
ry, and 2 tailors. There are eight
houses of public worship, within the
circumference of 14 miles from the
court house, of which 2 are Episco-
palian, 2 Baptist, and 4 Methodist.
The mail between Washington City
and York Town passes this office
four times a week, and between Rich-
mond and Mathews twice a week.
County Courts are held on ihejirst
Monday in every month ; — Quarterly
in March, May, August and Novem-
Judge Brown holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chancery
on the 2ith of May and October,
Goochland was created by the Legislature in 1727, from a part of Hen-
rico. It is bounded, on the W. by Fluvanna, N. by Hanover and Louisa,
E. by Henrico, and S. by James river, which separates it from Powhatan
and Cumberland. It is 30 miles in length by about 10 in mean breadth,
containing 300 sq. miles. It extends in fat. from 37° 31' to 37° 51' N. and
in long, from °0 47' to 1° 20' W. of W. C.
The general surface of the county is undulating, in some places rather
broken. In diverging from the river it becomes more level and uniform,
particularly in the upper part of tho county There is great diversity of
soil, though much that is now exhausted and abandoned for all purposes of
cultivation, was naturally of good and improvable quality. By far the finest
portion of the county is that in the vicinity of James river. Perhaps there
io no other tract of similar extent in eastern Virginia, that combines equal
natural advantages with so much fertility of soil and beauty of scenery.
The width of the low grounds which form the ravine of the river, and the
bold features of the adjacent highland?, present a pleasing and striking con-
trast. Added to this, an improved system of husbandry has been generally
adopted throughout this section within a few years, the good effects of which
are decidedly manifest. But though the lands in the vicinity of the river
are undoubtedly much finer than in other parts of the county, yet they are
in many places of excellent quality, and easily susceptible of improvement.
The chief products are corn, wheat, tobacco and oats Wheat and tobacco
180 EASTERN VIRGINIA— GOOCHLAND.
are the staple commodities for market, though the extent to which the latter
is cultivated has been much circumscribed of late years.
Goochland is well watered, particularly in the lower part by good streams,
which mostly empty into James river. On many of these, there is water
power to a considerable extent, but none of it is employed for domestic: manu-
factures. Saw and gristmills are numerous.
Roads and Canals. — The most important local improvement in the county
is the Tuckahoe canal, which was excavated about the year 1828. It was
projected for the purpose of conveying the coal on Tuckahoe creek to
Richmond, and is exclusively within the county. It communicates with
the James river canal by means of a lock. Being constructed upon eco-
nomical but efficient principles, the stock has proved to be exceedingly valu-
able. The only good road in the county, and one of the best between the
Blue Ridge and Tide Water, is the main stage road leading by the court
house, from Richmond to Charlottesville. A laudable pride is felt, to keep
this highway in good repair. There are sections of other roads, preserved
in good order; but generally speaking, the road laws are executed with
very little attention to public convenience. The Three Chopped road is
almost as much famed for its often impassable condition as the well known
bog of the Choppawamsic.
Mineials. — The mineral wealth of Goochland is considerable. Bitumi-
nous coal is found in great abundance in the lower or eastern part of the
county, both on Tuckahoe creek and on James river. In the upper portion
of the county, gold has been discovered in many places, from which some
profit has been realised.
Churches. — There are from 15 to 20 houses of public worship in the
county, the greater part of which belong to the Baptists, who constitute the
prevailing sect. The other religious societies are the Methodists, Presby-
terians, Episcopalians and Friends.
Streams. — Tuckahoe creek, a stream of some size, forms in part the lower
boundary of the county. In its vicinity, a few miles from James river,
there is an extensive body of coal, of excellent quality. To facilitate the
transportation of this mineral to market, the Tuckahoe canal was opened
in 1828, to communicate with the James river improvement. The stock of
this canal is probably the most valuable canal stock in Virginia, the divi-
dend being 33 per cent, per annum. On Tuckahoe creek and its branches
there are many grist and saw mills, the latter of which furnish a great
quantity of lumber for the Richmond market. The stream is about 15 or
20 miles in length, pursuing generally a S. E. course to its junction with
James river. The country which it waters is of medium quality — some of
it very good.
Dover creek, about ten miles long, emptying into James river at Dover
mills. Its genera] course is southerly, The soil on either side, after leav-
ing the river for a mile or two, is of inferior quality, and not a little of it
an entire waste.
Genito cree& empties into James river at Jude's ferry. At about two miles
from the river it is divided into the eastern and western branches, on the
former of which there is a saw mill, and on the latter two grist mills. The
land along this stream is mostly of excellent quality. General course south,
and about eight miles in length.
Beaver dam creek, one of the principal streams in the county, empties in-
to James river about five miles below the court house, after pursuing a very
EASTERN VIRGINIA— GOOCHLAND, 181
devious course. The principal branches of this stream, are the eastern
and western forks, and Horsepen creek. It drains a considerable portion
of country, much of which is distinguished for its fertility, and the durable
qualities of the soil. The flats along the creek are generally wide, and
yield great crops of Indian corn. The higland is remarkably well adapted
to the growth of wheat. Though the land is rolling throughout the whole
length of Beaverdam creek, there is not much water power, and of course
very few mills on the stream. On the Horsepen, there is an excellent grist
mill, and a saw mill.
Little creek, a small stream entering into James river three miles above
the court house. It is five or six miles long: general course to the south.
Its passage is through a portion of beautiful country.
Lickinghole creek is a considerable stream which discharges itself into
James river four miles above the court house. It was formerly navigable
for batteaux for two or three miles to a manufacturing mill, but its bed has
now become so obstructed by hammocks, as to impede their progress, except
for a short distance. It is divided into two branches, the larger and smaller,
both of which pass through a country of tolerable fertility. There are but
few mills on this stream. Length about 15 miles, pursuing a somewhat
southeasterly direction to its entrance into the river.
Byrd creek, the largest stream in the county, empties into James river
about 7 miles below Columbia. It is divided into two branches, Big and
Little Byrd, which unite near the mouth. The Big Byrd rises in Fluvanna,
and flows a S. E. course, running through a hilly country, especially near
its termination. The lands on this stream as well as the Little Byrd are gene-
rally thin, but abound in fine timber. There are several grist and saw mills.
It is on the smaller branches of the Byrd that gold has been found.
Islands. — Sabot island contains 500 acres, and is situated opposite to
Dover mills. The soil is in a high degree fertile.
Pleasants islands, a short distance above Judes ferry, and three miles be-
low Maiden's Adventure falls. The land is extremely fertile, and some of
the original growth was Horse Chesnut, (^Esculus flava,) a very uncom-
mon forest tree in Eastern Virginia. The two islands contain nearly 200
Boiling 1 s island, in Rock Castle neck, about ten miles above the court
house, contains 500 acres, and possesses a soil of great fertility.
Elk island, a few miles above Cartersville, contains 1000 acres, and is
much celebrated for the strength and fertility of its soil : half of this island
sold a few years since for the enormous price of $75,000.
Ferries. — yianican town ferry, a few miles above Powell's.
Jwdes ferry, at the mouth of Genito creek.
Micha,uz > ferry, one mile below the court house.
Population in 1820, 10,007— in 1830, 10,360. Goochland belongs to the
7th judicial circuit, and 4th district. Tax paid in 1832-3, $3358 09 — in
1833-4, on land, $2228 36—3156 slaves, $789 00—2156 horses, $129
35— "5 studs, $76 00—44 coaches, $113 50—30 carryalls, $35 80—63
gigs, $35 85 — Total, $3407 87. Expended in educating poor children in
1833, $186 42.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Beaverdam, P. O. 24 ms. W. of
R. and 139 S. S. W. from Washing
ton, on the mail route leading to
Charlottesville, and one mile north of
EASTERN VIRGINIA— GOOCHLAND.
James river. There are here a tavern, a
store, and a blacksmith's shop. It is
situated in a populous neighborhood,
not far from Beaverdam creek, whence
its name. It is surrounded mostly by
a beautiful, undulating country, well
adapted to the production of Indian
corn, wheat, and clover. Tobacco
w T as formerly one of the staples, but
of late years its culture has been near-
Dover Mills, P. O. on Dover
creek, near the Charlottesville road,
21 miles west from Richmond, 135
from W. and 10 miles below the C.
H. A store is kept here, and recent-
ly a tavern has been built. The mill
possesses advantages greater perhaps
than any other in the county. Be-
ing situated at the bank of the James
river canal, it has every command of
water power, and facility for transpor-
tation to market. A large quantity of
wheat is yearly manufactured into
flour, and it is in many respects a
place of much activity in business. It
is in the midst of one of the finest
wheat growing portions of the coun-
ty, and also affords a market for some
of the produce of the contiguous parts
of Louisa and Hanover.
Fife's P. O. 39 ras. W. of R. and
116 S. S. W. ol W.— situated in the
western part of the county, on the
Charlottesville road, near its intersec-
tion with the mail route from Frede-
ricksburg to Cartersville on James
river, and Salisbury, N. C. A store
is kept here. The soil of the sur-
rounding country is of variable quali-
ty; some of it "well adapted to the
growth of tobacco.
GOOCHLAND C. H. 127 miles
from W. and 28 above R. on the
Charlottesville or river road, and one
mile north of James river. The place
has a village-like appearance, and
contains a tavern, store, tailor's shop,
&c The public buildings are built
in a neat and durable manner. A
portion of the adjacent country exhi-
bits rather a hilly and broken "suface,
tbutthe soil is mostly of good quality,
J and some of it exceedingly fertile.
County Courts are held on the. 3d
Monday in every month: — Quarter-
ly in March, May, August and No-
Judge Clopton holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chance-
ry on the 17/// of April and 1st of
Johnson's Spuing, P. O. on the
Three Chopped road, 28 miles from
R. and 150 from W. The land in
ihe vicinity is of inferior quality,
much exhausted by injudicious culti-
Mitchell's, P. O. on the Three
Chopped road, 50 ms. from R. and
153 S. S. W. of W. There is a store
at this place. The land in the vicini-
ty is of tolerable quality, well adapted
to the. growth of tobacco, of which a
considerable quantity is prepared for
Powell's, P. O. 1 5 ms. W. of R.,
137 from W. and 16 below the court
house, on the Charlottesville mail
road. At this well known place, a
tavern has been kept a number of
years by William Powell. The cood
order and excellent accommodations
which distinguish his house, deserve
a notice in any account which may
be given of this place. It is situated
in a thickly settled neighborhood, in
about two miles of James river. The
land in the vicinity is of medium
quality, adapted to the culture of oats,
of which a large quantity is consum-
ed at the adjacent coal pits.
Saunderson's, P. O. 160 ms. S.
8. W. of W. and 42 from R.
Shannon Hill, P. O. on the
Three Chopped road, 52 miles from
R. and 147 S. S. W. of W. The
adjoining land is of medium quality,
well adapted to the production of to-
bacco, in common with much of the
upper part of the county, in which it
is located. There are located here
besides the post office, a new and com-
modious tavern, a mercantile store,
EASTERN VIRGINIA— GREENSVILLE.
blacksmith shop, and a boot and shoe
factory. There are several Baptist
houses of worship in the vicinity.
Considerable quantities of gold have
lately been discovered in the neigh-
borhood, both on the surface and in
mines. One mine has recently sold
Watkinsville, P. O. situated on
the Three Chopped road, leading from
Richmond to Charlottesville, 36 miles
from R. 153 from W. and 7 N. of
Goochland C. H. near the head of
Beaverdam creek, about half a mile
from the northern boundary of the
county, on the ridge which separates
the waters of the James from South-
anna river. The land in the neigh-
borhood is naturally very fine, well
adapted to the growth of wheat and
clover. It contains 8 dwelling houses,
1 mercantile store, a tavern, tailor's
and blacksmith's shops. Population
Greensville was created by the Legislature in 1784, from a part of
Brunswick. It is bounded north by Nottoway river, which separates it
from the county of Dinwiddie and part of Essex, — E. by Sussex and South-
ampton counties, — S. by Northampton county, of North Carolina, — and
W. by Brunswick. Length 22 miles, mean breadth 14, and area 303 square
miles. It extends in lat. from 35° 30' to 33° 43' N. and in long, from 0°
20' to 0° 46' W. of W. C. — Meherrin river enters it on the west from
Brunswick, traverses it in a southeasterly direction, and cuts o(F about one-
third of the county to the north; and being bounded on the north by Not-
toway river, it has considerable commercial advantages. The county slopes
to the S. E. Population in. 132 3, 6,853 — in 1330, 7,117. Greensville be-
longs to the first judicial circuit and first district. Taxes paid in 1832-3,
$1983 73— in 1834, on lots, $21 51— land, $922 06—2420 slaves, $605
00—1425 horses, $35 50— 4 studs, $153 00—49 coaches, $133 75—8
carryalls, $8 10—84 gigs, $49 35— Total, $1987 27. No report from
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &,c.
HICKSFORD, P. V. and seat of
justice, 63 miles S. of Richmond and
185 from W. — situated on the right
or south bank of the Meherrin river,
in lat. 31° 37' N. and long. 0° 35'
W. of W. C. It contains 12 dwel-
ling houses, including 3 taverns, and
3 general stores; court house, clerk's
office, and jail. The Petersburg
Railroai passes within one hundred
yards of this village, on its east side.
The railroad bridge, across the Me-
herrin river, is one hundred yards
long, supported by two hundred stone
piers, and two abutments of the same
material. Population 35 whites, one
of whom is a physician, and 30
blacks — total 65.
County Courts are held on the 1st
Monday in every month; — Quarter-
ly in March, May, August and Oct'r.
Judge Baker holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chance-
ry on the loth of April and 23d of
Sandy Mount, P. O. in the south-
ern part of the county, 75 miles from
R. and 197 from Washington.
Poplar Mount, P. O. 56 miles
S. of R. and 178 from W.— situated
on the south side of Nottoway river,
on the road leading from Hicksford
EASTERN VIRGINIA— HALIFAX.
to Petersburg, 12 miles S. of the for-
mer, and 32 from the latter, and 8
miles east of the Petersburg rail
road. The surrounding country is
wealthy, and the soil fertile, producing
well all the staple commodities of the
state, tobacco, cotton, wheat, Indian
corn, &c. — which is sold in the Pe-
Halifax was created by the Legislature in 1752, from a part of Lunen-
burg county. It is bounded on the north by Staunton river, which sepa-
rates it from Campbell, — N. E. by the same river, separating it from Char-
lotte, — E. by Mecklenburg, — S. by Granville county, of North Carolina, —
and W. by Pittsylvania. Its length is 33 miles, mean breadth 23, and area
759 square miles. It extends in lat. from 36° 30' to 37° 02' N. and in long,
from 1° 38' to 2° 12' W. of W. C. Though the Roanoke curves semi-