tution; it has not been 2 years since its first establishment, and it has at pre-
sent 3 professors, besides the President of the college, â€” an excellent
preparatory school attached to it; and at the present session 87 students
in college, and 66 in the preparatory school ; it is considered to be principal-
ly under the direction and care of the Methodist church, but not entirely so,
as several of the Trustees do not belong to that church.
There is in Boydton a female Academy, which deservedly ranks high as
a boarding school for young ladies; and 2 other very respectable boarding
schools for young ladies in the county ; but the general plan of education
in this county, is the old fashioned mode of building a little log house in
each neighborhood, where there are as many scholars to be had as will em-
ploy a teacher, at about $100 or 150, and the price which is generally paid
fot tuition, is from $7 to 10 for each pupil, for the scholastic year of from 10
to 1 1 months. The number of common schools in the county is 62, and the
^ average number of pupils to each is 16, â€” making 990 pupils in tjje common
schools; â€” there are 64 in the young ladies boarding schools, 66 in the R.
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” MECKLENBURG. 233
M. preparatory school, and 87 in the college,â€” making the whole number
of students in the county 1,207.
The most numerous denomination of Christians in this county is the Me-
thodists: they have 26 meeting houses. The next most numerous sect is
the Baptists, which has 15 meeting houses: the next is the Presbyterians,
which has 3 meeting houses. The last denomination is the Episcopalians,
which has 2 churches in the county. There are in this county 23 mercan-
tile stores, which sell on an average $210,000 worth of dry goods, annually
only. This county purchases yearly about 360,000 weight of pork from the
western drovers. The principal mechanical pursuits of the county, are car-
penters, blacksmiths and wheelwrights: the first being the most numerous:
of the second, there are 47 shops in operation, and several of the latter.
There are 4 tanyards, several saddle and harness makers, 3 carriage and
gig manufactories, 3 cabinet makers, several boot and shoe factories, and 4
tailor's shops, â€” there are 26 licensed taverns, 9 manufacturing flour mills,
31 grist, and 8 sawmills, also 19 regular physicians and 9 practising attor-
neys, â€” 2 United States mail stages pass through this county 3 times a week,
1 from N. to S. and the other from E. to W. crossing each other at Boyd-
There are on the Dan and Staunton rivers 2 ferries, Nelson's ferry which
crosses the Staunton at Abbeville, and Skipwith's which crosses the Dan
and Staunton at the lowest point of Union, before their final junction, 1 mile
above Clarksville; and there are 7 which cross the Roanoke, Sommerville's
which crosses the river at Clarksville, â€” -Field's which crosses 6Â£ ms. be-
low Clarksville, â€” Taylor's 4^ ms. below Field's, and 3 ms. S. of Boydton, â€”
Haskins' 1\ ms. below Taylor's, â€” Alexander's 9 ms. below Haskins', â€”
Goode's 3 ms. below Alexander's, and St. Tammany or Blanton's ferry,
which crosses the river at St. Tammany's 4 ms. below. Population in 1820,
19,786â€” in 1830, 20,477. â€” This county belongs to the 9th judicial circuit
and 5th district. Taxes paid in 1833, $5,014 74â€” in 1834, on lots,
$153 93â€” land, $2,354 69â€”6,421 slaves, $1,605 25â€”4,219 horses,
$253 14â€”13 studs, $384 00â€”99 coaches, $243 50â€”35 carryalls,
$35 15 â€” 118 gigs, $75 30. Total, $5,104. Expended in educating poor
children in 1832, $625 62â€” in 1833, $764 02.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Abbeville, or Abbeyville, P. O. i female school, 1 tanyard, 1 saddler, 1
situated on the left bank of the Staun-
ton river, about 20 ms. above the in-
flux of Dan river, and 126 ms. S. W.
of R., and 227 S. S. W. of W.
BOYDTON, P. V. and County
Seat, 118 ms. S. W. of Richmond, and
224 ms. from Washington, a flou-
rishing and healthy village, situated
near the centre of the county, 6 ms.
boot and shoe maker, 2 tailors, 2 cab-
inet makers, 2 smith's shops, 1 watch
maker and silver smith, 1 coach and
gig manufactory, 1 confectionary, and
1 milliner and mantua maker. Ran-
dolph Macon College is situated 1
mile W. of the village; and a gram-
mer school 2Â£ ms. S. of the College.
The mail passes through this place 3
N. of Roanoke river. Besides the | times a week, from Petersburg to
usual county buildings, it contains 80 iWilliamsboro, N. C, and from Mil-
dwelling houses, 4 mercantile stores, ton, N. C. to Lawrenceville, Va. The
2 hotels, 2 houses of public worship, celebrated Buffalo Springs are situated
(1 Methodist and 1 Presbyterian,) 130 ms. W. of Boydton. Population
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” MECKLENBURG.
400 persons; of whom 4 are attor- 1 annually. About 15 boats constantly
neys and 3 practising physicians.
County Courts are held on the od
Monday, in every month: â€” Quar-
terly in March, June, August and
Judge Leigh holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chancery
on the 12th of May, and October.
Christiansville, P. V. Ill ms.
S. W. of Richmond, and 212 ms. from
W., situated in the upper end of the
county, about 12 ms. N. of the C. H.
The mail stage from Petersburg to
Williamsboro, N. C. passes this place
3 times a week. It contains 6 dwel-
ling houses, besides mechanic's shops,
&c, 2 mercantile stores, 1 tavern, and
a house of entertainment, 1 house of
public Avorship, (Episcopalian) 1 in-
corporated Academy â€” and 1 common
school, 1 tanyard, 1 saddler, 2 smith
shops, 1 tailor and 1 wheelwright
shop, &c. Population 48 whites, and
about 100 blacks. The soil in the
neighborhood is a stiff red clay, and
tolerably fertile, producing corn,
wheat, cotton, tobacco, &c. The
growth of timber is principally Span-
Clarksville, P. V. 138 ms. S.
W. of Richmond, and 236 ms. from
Washington City, situated on the S.
side of Roanoke river, directly oppo-
site the junction of Dan and Staunton
rivers, which form the Roanoke, in the
southern part of the county. It con-
tains 14 private dwelling houses 2
houses of public worship, (1 Baptist
and 1 Presbyterian,) 1 Academy, 1
well organized Sunday school, and
9 mercantile stores. The mechanics
are, 1 tanner, 2 saddlers, 2 black-
smiths, 1 wheelwright, 1 coach ma-
ker, 5 house carpenters, 1 cabinet ma-
ker, 1 brick maker, 1 bricklayer and
stone mason, 1 plough manufacturer,
and" 1 boot and shoe manufacturer.
There are 2 places for stemming
tobacco, 1 warehouse, and another
being erected. From 1,700 to 2,000
hogsheads of tobacco, are inspected
run from Clarksville to Weldon N.
C. Population 200 persons; of
whom 2 are regular physician.
Greensburg, P. V. or Greensboro
108 ms. S. S. W. of Richmond, and
219 ms. from Washington City, situ-
ated in the N. part of the county, on
the N. side of Cox's road, 8 ms. N.
of Boydton, the County Seat, and dis-
tant 18 ms. both from Clarksvile and
Lunenburg C. H. Greensboro has
been a place of condsiderable business,
but at present is occupied as a private
estalishment by a farmer with the ex-
ception of a house of private entertain-
ment for travellers and a post office.
Hailstone, P. O. 124 ms. S. S.
W. of R., and 230 ms. from W.
Lombardy Grove, P. O. 81 ms.
S. W. of R. and 237 from W. Lom-
bardy Grove is merely a country
seat; the P. O. is kept at a considera-
ble mercantile house, and is situated
immediately on the stage road leading
from Belfield, Ya. to Milton, N. C.
in a fertile and populous neigborhood,
237 ms. from W. and 115 from R.
Mill Grove, P. O. 217 ms. S. S.
W. of W. and 106 ms. S. W. of R.
Palmer's Springs, P. O. in the
western part of the county, 103 ms.
S. W. of R. and 225 from W.
Randolph Macon College, sit-
uated about a mile from the village of
Boydton, in Mecklenburg county was
founded by the Virginia Conference
of the Methodist Episcopal church,
and is considered to be specially un-
der the superintendance and patron-
age of that denomination. It is how-
ever, strictly a literary institution,
there being no theological professor-
ship in it, nor is it contemplated to
have such at any future time. The
avowed object of its founders, is to af-
ford a liberal education at a very re-
duced expense; and for the me- ins to
enable them to do so, they rely solely
on private subscriptions anl dona-
tions, â€” the state having contributed
nothing towards it.
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” MIDDLESEX.
The buildings are of the best brick,
and are covered with tin, on an im-
proved plan. They are extensive and
elegant, furnishing- according to cal-
culation, accommodation for 200 stu-
dents. " The studies taught are di-
vided into 4 departments : 1st. That
of Languages : 2nd. That of Mathe-
matics : 3rd. That of Natural Philos-
ophy and Chemistry : and 4th. That
of Ethics;" and it is contemplated to
establish a " department of agricul-
ture," agreeably to a provision of the
charter ; in view of which the Trus-
tees have purchased 300 acres of ex-
cellent land adjoining the College.
There is also attached to the institu-
tion a preparatory school, the princi-
ple of which is a member of the Fa-
culty of the College; â€” the school of
course, being under the same imme-
diate government as the College.
This institution was chartered by
the legislature of Virginia, in 1830,
and was opened with a few students
in 1832. The members have been
rapidly increasing however, and it
now (April 1834) has 150, with a
flattering prospect of a still greater
number. Indeed its prosperity may
be regarded as certain; especially if
the Trustees shall be able to endow it
liberally, as it is proposed to do. The
College edifice stands on a beautiful
eminence, from the summit of which
a commanding view of the surround-
ing country may be seen ; while from
its base, springs of pure and living
water constantly gush. The situa-
tion is as healthy as it is beautiful â€”
a fact which is of course essential to
Spanish Grove, P. O. 116 ms.
S. W. of R., and 217 from W.
Saint Tammany's P. O. 97 ms.
from R., and 219 from W.
South Hill, P. O. 232 ms. from
W, and 110 from R.
Tanner's Store, P. O. 93 ms.
from R., and 215 ms. S. S. W. of W.
White House, P. O. in the south
western part of Mecklenburg county,
137 ms. S. W. of R. and 243 from W.
Whittle's Mills, 105 ms. S. W.
of R, and 227 from W.
Middlesex was created by act of Assembly in 1675, and formed out of
a part of Lancaster county. It is bounded on the N. W. by Essex, â€” N.
E. by the Rappahannock, which separates it from the counties of Rich-
mond and Lancaster, â€” S. E. by the Chesapeake bay and S. W. by the
Dragon Run, and Piankitank river, which separates it from the counties
of King &l Queen, Gloucester, and Mathews. This county comprises a
long and narrow point between its two bounding rivers. Its greatest
length from N. W. to S. E. or from the Essex line to Stingray Point is
about 39 miles, its mean breadth 5; and area 175 sq. ms. It extends in
lat. from 37Â° 30* to 37Â° 48' W. and in long, from 0Â° 13' to 0Â° 40' E. of
W. C. Within ten miles of the Chesapeake bay the two rivers Pianki-
tank and Rappahannock gradually approach each other, and emptying into
the bay, form a point to which the name of Stingray has been given.
Many navigable branches of the Rappahannock river make up into the
county, affording convenience to the farmer in sending his produce to Bal-
timore and Norfolk, at which markets the produce of this county is most
generally sold. The lands lying immediately on the Dragon, Piankitank,
and Rappahannock are fertile. The Piankitank river is navigable about
14 miles from the bay. Thence to its source, a distance of about 60 or 70
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” NANSEMOND,
miles, it is called the Dragon Run; on either side of which, there is a space
varying from a quarter of a mile to half a mile in width, covered with
valuable cypress, and other timber, and of inexhaustable fertility. This
land is at present valueless to its proprietors from the frequent inundations,
caused by the obstructions to the flow of water in the bed of the Run.
The attention of the Legislature has been called to the removal of these
obstructions, and thereby bringing into market an immense quantity of
timber, and the produce of a large district of land which would thus be
made arable: â€” But the want of energy in the owners of the adjoining
farms has hitherto prevented, and it is feared, will continue to prevent the
execution of any plan for effecting these desirable objects. The prevail-
ing religion of this county is the Baptist.
Population in 1820, 4,057â€” in 1830, 4122. Middlesex belongs to the
fourth judicial circuit and second district. Taxes paid in 1833, $799 06
â€” inl834.â€” On lots, $14 70â€” on land,$364 23â€” on 1 140 slaves, $285 00
â€”451 horses, $26 06â€”2 studs, $30 00â€”11 coaches, $29 25â€”7 carry-
alls, $7 00â€”85 gi^s, $49 66 Total, $806 90. Expended in educating
poor children in 1832, $539 91â€” in 1833, $416 42.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Churchville, P. O. 76 ms. from
R. and 135 from W. situated 6 ms.
from the Essex line and 7 from Ur-
Healy's, P. O. situated on the
Piankatank river, 12 ms. below Ur-
URBANNA, P. V. and county
seat, 83 ms. a little N. of E. from
Richmond, and 142 a little E. of S.
from W. C. â€” situated on the northern
shore, and near the mouth of one of the
branches of the Rappahannock called
Urbanna creek. It is a sea port, lo-
cated 1 8 ms. above the mouth of the
river, â€” a small but healthy village.
It contains besides the ordinary coun-
ty buildings, 9 private dwelling
houses, 4 mercantile stores, 2 taverns,
1 cabinet maker, 1 tailor, and I car-
riage maker. Population 175 per-
sons, of whom 2 are resident attor-
neys, 4 regular physicians, and 7
officiating ministers of the Baptist
church. Urbanna for many years
seemed rapidly going to decay, but of
late has much improved in popula-
tion, the number of its stores, &c. â€”
There is much travelling through
this place, to and from the adjoining
counties, by persons who take the
steamboats here for Fredericksburg
and Baltimore. The northern mail
(via Tappahannock,)and the southern
mail (via York,) are each transmit-
ted twice a week through this coun-
ty, stopping at Churchville, Urban-
na, and Healy's post offices.
County Courts are held on the Ath
Monday in every month. Quarterly
in March, May, August and Novem-
Judge Semple holds his Superior
Court of Law and Chancery on the
Tuesday after the 3d Monday m April
Nansemond was created by act of Assembly in the year 1645, and
formed from a part of the county of Upper Norfolk. It is bounded on the
N, by Hampton Roads,â€” E. by Norfolk county,â€” S. by Pasquotank county
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” NANSEMOND. 237
of North Carolina, â€” W. by Blackwater river which separates it from
Southampton, â€” and N. W. by the county of Isle of Wight. Its length
diagonally from S. W. to N. E. is 40 miles, mean breadth 16, and area
640 square miles: â€” and it extends in lat. from 36Â° 30' to 36Â° 54' N. and in
long, from 0Â° 6' to 0Â° 41' E. of W. C.
Rivers. â€” The Nansemond is the largest river in the county, about 31
miles in length from its mouth to Cohoon's mill, where it heads â€” it empties
into Hampton Roads, and is 7 miles wide at its mouth. Its course is N.
N. E. and runs nearly in the middle of the county as far as it goes. It
is navigable to Suffolk for vessels of from 75 to 100 tons, and for small
craft and lighters to Cohoon's mill. Nansemond river affords the finest
oysters, crabs, and fish.
Western Branch Creek is a branch of Nansemond river, about 10 miles
in length; â€” it heads at Urquhart's mill, and empties into the Nansemond
about 7 miles below Suffolk. Vessels of 75 to 100 tons burthen can be
navigated as far as Milner's five miles above its mouth. Just below Mil-
ner's, this creek forks, sending a branch to Scott's mill: it is navigable for
vessels from 35 to 40 tons as far as Scott's mill, which is distant about 5
miles from its mouth. The course of the Western Branch is nearly E.
Chuckatuck Creek rises at Chuckatuck mill â€” is about 10 mileslong, and
empties into James river. It is navigable for vessels of 35 to 40 tons
for 6 miles. It courses E.
Black Water river is the dividing line between Nansemond and South-
ampton for the distance of about 12 miles: course S. E. â€” any vessel
which can come in at Ocracoke Inlet, can be navigated to South Quay.
Somerton Creek is formed by the junction of Knuckle and Bear Swamps,
in the county of Nansemond, it then runs about 8 miles in this county:
course S. W. â€” and empties into Chowan river, about 2 miles from the
Lake Drummond is supposed to be from 15 to 18 miles in circumfer-
ence: it differs but little in its diameter from N. to S. or E. to W. The
water has perhaps gained more celebrity than it merits: it is slighty
diuretic : in some seasons of the year it will affect the bowells also a little,
like any other water if confined, and impregnated with so much vegetable
matter. It contains a quantity and variety of fish. The brown perch and
chub are large and very fine: there are other varieties of perch, not so
highly prized; â€” also pike, gars, catfish, eels, &c. Few wild fowl are
found on this beautiful lake, which is somewhat remarkable, and the few
which frequent it are principally ducks. Nearly the whole of the lake is
within this county ; â€” perhaps a mile of the eastern extremity may be in
Norfolk county : the depth of water is from 12 to 14 feet a few hundred
yards from the margin. The bottom of the lake is hard and firm.
The Dismal Swamp Land Company'' s Canal, from the basin (which is
on the bank of Cedar Creek,* a branch of the Nansemond,) to the lake is
10 miles; â€” running for 6 miles nearly S. E. and then S. â€” width from 10
to 12 feet; â€” depth from 3 to 4 feet. The water of the canal flows into the
lake: it is connected with the Dismal Swamp Canal Company through
the waters of the lake. From tide water to the lake the distance is 10
The Dismal Swamp Land Company's land (with the exception of a small
â™¦Craney Creek is the ancient name.
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” NANSEMOND.
part which is in the county of Norfolk,) is situated in the county of Nan-
semond â€” quantity of acres forty thousand. The growth consists of juni-
per, cypress, gum, ash, maple, pine. The quantity of shingles usually
exported by the Company is from 2| to 3 millions per annum, amounting
to $40 or $50,000 â€” governed by fluctuation in prices.
Agriculture is at a low ebb, although certainly improving within a few
years. More attention has been paid to making and using manure from
farm pens. The benefit of marl has been fully tested, yet although abun-
dant on the river and creek banks, is still used in a limited way. The
principal crops are corn, oats, peas, some wheat and cotton. The staple is
Tar, turpentine and staves are not so abundant as formerly ; â€” they still
form the principal and leading articles of trade in the county.
Population in 1810, 10,324â€”1820, 10,494â€” in 1830, 11,784. Nanse-
mond belongs to the first judicial circuit and first district. Taxes paid in
1833, $2067 73â€” in 1834 on lots, $175 20â€” on land, 920 12â€”2320
slaves, $580 00â€”1411 horses, $84 06â€” 6 studs, $66 00â€”45 coaches,
$97 07â€” 1 stage, $1 00â€” 4 carryalls, $4 00â€” 231 gigs, $136 15. Total,
$2064 18. Expended in educating poor children in 1832, $238 51â€” in
1833, $438 97,
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, ike.
Chuckatuck, P. V. 110 ms. from
R. and 214 from W. Chuckatuck
can scarcely be termed a village, but
is more properly a thickly populated
neighborhood, embracing about one
square mile ; the central part of which
is at the head waters of a creek bear-
ing the same name, and which makes
into James river about 8 ms. from this
place. It is situated on the stage road
leading from Smithfield, Isle of Wight
county, to Suffolk, the county seat, 10
miles distant from both places, and
about 20 from Norfolk by the nearest
land route. It contains 20 dwelling
houses, 3 mercantile stores, 1 tavern,
and 1 house of public worship, (Me-
thodist.) There are about 125 inhab-
itants, including the operatives em-
ployed in the Smithfield and Chucka-
tuck Cotton Manufactory, erected by
a company. This establishment runs
1000 spindles propelled by water
power. It is in successful operation,
and largely contributes to the business
appearance and support of this place.
Within this square mile is an old
venerable Episcopalian brick church,
around which there are some hand
some and valuable farms. The popu-
lation is about 300 persons ; of whom
1 is a physician. The neighborhood
possesses great advantages, having a
level and fertile soil, fish and oysters
of the finest kind in abundance, and
navigation at the doors of its inhabi-
Somerton, P. V.near the southern
side of the county, and within 1 mile
of the North Carolina line; 120 ms.
S. E. of Richmond and 242 from W.
C. This little village has 6 dwelling
houses, Avith 1 mercantile store, 1
house of public worship, (Methodist,)
1 common school, 1 tavern, 1 cabinet
maker, 1 tailor, 1 blacksmith, and 1
milliner and mantua maker. Somer-
ton is situated on the stage road lead-
ing from Norfolk, Va. to Fayetteville,
N. C, 45 ms. from the former; also
on a road making indirectly from
Murfreesboro', N. C. to Smithfield,
Va. Population 40 whites and 60
blacks. The country around is fer-
tile and thickly settled, having with-
in the circumference of a few miles
40 farm houses.
SUFFOLK, P. V. and seat of pis-
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” NELSON.
tice, situated on the right bank of South Quay is situated on Black
Nansemond river, 28 ms. N. W. by
W. of Norfolkâ€” 102 ms. S. E. by E.
of Richmond, and 224 a little E. of
S. from W .; in lat. 36Â°
0Â° 27Â° E. of W. C.
is a flourishing and wealthy little vil
lao-e, containing, besides the usual
county buildings, about 300 houses,
20 general stores, 4 houses of public
worship, (1 Episcopalian, 1 Baptist,
and 2 Methodist,) 1 Dorcas society, 2
well organized temperance societies,
and 5 common schools. The me-
chanics are, I tanner, 2 saddlers, 3
boot and shoe manufacturers^ tailors,
3 cabinet makers, 2 house carpenters,
3 blacksmiths, 2 wheelwrights, &,c.
Population 1200 persons, of whom 2
are attorneys, and 2 regular physi-
cians. The Portsmouth and Roan-
oke rail road passes through the
centre of this town â€” distance from
Portsmouth 17 miles â€” from Ports-
mouth to the termination at the Roan-
oke 77 miles.
Count?/ Courts are held on the 2d
Monday in every month. Quarterly
in March, June, August, and Novem-
Judge Baker holds his Superior
Court of Law and Chancery on the
15th May and oOtk September.
South Quay, P. O. 95 ms. S. S.
E. of Richmond and 217 from W...C.
Water river, which is a branch of the
Chowan river of N. Carolina, and
makes the dividing line between Nan-
N. and semond and Southampton counties,
Suffolk It contains about half a dozen houses,
and its principal pursuits are agricul-
ture. There is a post office and also
a surveyor's office for the collection
of the revenue. The latter having
been established in consequence of
the importance attached to the place
during the Revolutionary and late
war as a Quay, or depot for goods â€”
its inland advantages recommending
it as such. There are only two fami-
lies residing here, consisting of 40
or 50 persons; 2 of whom are attor-
neys. In the immediate vicinity are
several physicians, both scientific
and Thompsonians, meeting houses,
schools, mercantile stores, and mills;
and the neighborhood is somewhat
densely settled. Should the contem-
plated rail road between Portsmouth
and the Roanoke be completed, of
which there is every probability, the
value of this place will doubtless be
greatly enhanced, as it will pass im-
mediately by South Quay. This,
together with the Dismal Swamp
canal, which connects the Carolina
and Virginia waters, already having
a very sensible influence on this part
of the country.
Nelson was created by act of Assembly in 1807, and formed out of a
part of Amherst county. It is situated immediately between the Blue
Rid^e and James river. Bounded by Albemarle N. E. and E. â€” by James