lation: many of which are free blacks and mulattoes. The free negroes in this
county are more numerous than in any other county in the state. Prince
Edward belongs to the 9th judicial circuit, and fifth district.
Tax paid in
1833, $3,844 73— in 1834, on lots, $118 28— land, 1,751 76—4831 slaves,
$1,207 75—2,685 horses, $161 10—6 studs, $102 00—122 coaches,
$336 60-^44 carryalls, $49 40—144 gigs, $88 00. Total, $3,814 89.
Expended in educating poor children in 1832, $126 45— in 1833, $207 33.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Burkesville, P. O. in the south-
ern part of the county, 66 ms. S. W.
by W. of R. and 188 from W.
Carter's Store, P. O. in the S.
W. part of the county, 81 ms. S. W.
by W. of R. and 172 ms. from W.
Farmville, P. V. 68 ms. S. W.
by W. of R. and 159 from W., situ-
ated on the N. border of the county,
near the head of batteaux navigation,
and on the S. side of Appomattox ri-
ver. This village was incorporated
in 1832, with 7 trustees, having pow-
er to tax, &c. It contains 2 tobacco
warehouses, at which are inspected
annually from 4,000 to 4,500 hogs-
heads; this inspection affords a larger
proportion of fine French tobacco,
than any other in the state. There
are 5 tobacco factories, giving em-
ployment to 250 hands, 10 mercantile
stores, 2 houses of public worship, ( 1
Presbyterian and 1 Methodist,) 2 ta-
verns, 1 printing office, 1 female
school, 1 cabinet maker, 2 smith shops,
1 tailor, 1 wheelwright, 1 boot and
shoe factory, 1 saddler, 1 tan yard, 2
confectioners, and 2 milliners and
mantua makers. The navigation of
the river from this place to Petersburg
is good at all seasons of the year, and
gives employment to about 40 bat-
teaux, with 3 men in each, carrying
from 5 to 7 tons. Farmville is orow-
ing in importance and trade. It is at
the present time one of the finest towns
in proportion to its size and commerce
in Virginia. Population 800 persons ;
of whom 2 are physicians.
Hermitage, P. O. 91 ms. S. W.
by W. of R. and 182 ms. from W.,
situated in the western part of the Co.
on a considerable eminence which
commands a beautiful view, at the in-
tersection of the roads leading from
I Charlottesville, to the S. and from
Petersburg to Lynchburg. It has
Vaughan's creek on the S., and a mill
creek on the N. side. It contains
several dwelling houses, and 1 mer-
cantile store, &-c. The lands in the
neighborhood, are of a light, gray,
sandy soil, producing wheat, corn,
oats and tobacco tolerable well.
Jamestown, P. V. 60 ms. S. W,
by W. of R. and 167 from W,, situ-
ated in the N. E. angle of the county
on the S. side of Appomattox river, 8
ms. below Farmville, 3 ms. below the
dividing line of Prince Edward and
EASTERN VIRGINIA— PRINCE GEORGE
Amelia, and 60 ras. from Petersburg
and Lynchburg. This village was
laid off in 1796 into 8 squares, each
containing 4^ acre lots. The mer-
cantile business of this place was at
one time very nourishing; the inspec-
tion of tobacco was carried on to a
limited extent for several years, but
has been discontinued; since which
time the village has ceased to flourish.
It contains at this time, several dwel-
ling houses, 1 house of public wor-
ship, free for all denominations, 2 mis-
cellaneous stores, and 1 house of en-
tertainment. The surrounding coun-
try, is healthy, — the land much bro-
ken, and the soil peculiarly adapted
to the growth of fine tobacco, which
with wheat constitutes the staple.
Marble Hill, P. O. 83 ms. S. W.
by W. of R. and 174 ms. from W.
Merrimax's Shop, P. O. 94
ms. from R. and 185 ms. from W.
Moor's Ordinary, 90 ms. S. W.
by W. of R. and 181 ms. from W.
PRINCE EDWARD C. H. P.
V. 75 ms. S. W. by W. of R. and 166
ms. from W. This village contains
21 dwelling houses, besides the usual
county buildings, and about the same
number of public and private offices;
a large and handsome Presbyterian
church built of brick, beautifully situ-
ated about a quarter of a mile from the
village, 1 tanyard, 1 coach manufac-
tory, and various other mechanics.
There are 2 flourishing academies ;
the female seminary, deserves the
high reputation which it enjoys, —
The present number of pupils is about
80. The course of studies, requires
3 years to complete it; in addition to
the instruction afforded by the 2 prin-
cipals and their 5 assistants, the pu-
pils have the advantage of instruction
in science, andthe,languages from the
Professors of Hampden Sydney Col-
lege, — the other institution alluded to
is for males, and prepares pupils to
enter the Colleges with credit : the
annual number is between 40 and 50.
County Courts are held on the 3rd
Monday in every month; — Quarterly
ly in March, May, August and No-
Judge Leigh holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chance-
ry on the 26ik of April and Septem-
Prospect, P. O. 80 ms. S. S. W.
of R. and 171 ms. from W.
Sandy River Church, P. O. in
the S E. part of the county, 79 ms.
S. W. by W. of R. and 170 ms. from
W. This place takes its name from
a small tributary of the Appomattox.
It was built in the year 1768 by the
church of England. Since the revo-
lution, it has been kept up by the citi-
zens of the neighborhood of all de-
nominations. In the immediate vi-
cinity of the church, there is a house
of entertainment, a mercantile store,
several mechanics, and 1 physician.
The land of the surrounding country
is generally good ; the principal pro-
duct is tobacco ; and the neighborhood
Walker's Church, P. O. in the
southern part of the county, 88 ms.
S. W. by W. of R. and 177 from W.
Prince George was created by the Legislature in 1702, and formed
from a part of Charles City Co. It is bounded on the N. by the Appomattox
which separates it from Chesterfield, and James river which separates it
from Charles City, — E. by Surry, — S. by Sussex, — and W. by Dinwiddie.
Its length from E. to W. is 21 ms. breadth 12, and area 312 sq. miles. It
extends in lat. from 37° to 37° 13' N. and in long, from 0° 5' E. of W. C.
EASTERN VIRGINIA— PRINCE GEORGE.
to 0° 25' W. of W. C. Very little of this county slopes towards its
border near the Appomattox and James, by far the greater portion slopes
S. E. towards Blackwater river, the sources of which lie in this county.
Population in 1820, 8,030— in 1830, 8,367. This county belongs to the
2nd judicial circuit, and 1st district. Tax paid in 1833, $1,868 85 —
in 1834, on lots, $80 79— on land, $916 53—2,478 slaves, $619 50—
1,177 horses, $70 74—3 studs, $46 00—49 coaches, $133 80—20 carry-
alls, $20 00— 96 gigs, $54 15— Total, $1,941 49. Expended in educat-
ing poor children in 1832, $137 80— in 1833, $205 16.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
CITY POINT, Port and Postj reflect credit, on the enterprize of Vir-
Village, on the right shore of ginia capitalists and insure to the Old
James river, at the junction of the
James and Appomattox, in the N. W.
part of the county, 12 ms. below Pe-
tersburg, 34 ms. S. E. of R. and 156
ms. from W. City Point of itself, is
a very inconsiderable village, being a
place of no trade, except in a small
retail way. It is however a conside-
rable port, as an appendage of the
Dominion that commercial impor-
tance to which she is so justly entit-
led, and which will be so beneficial to
every class of the community; but
more especially to the farmers, whose
products, will meet a ready sale, at
such prices, as cannot fail to reward
their industry. City Point, contains
about 25 houses, 3 taverns, 3 groce-
towns of Petersburg and Richmond. 'ries, a school and hospital.
At City Point there are 4 or b
wharves, projecting a short distance
into the river, within 30 yards of
which is a sufficient depth of water
to swim the largest ship that ever
floated. "Not only is a large foreign
shipping business done here, but the
white sails of domestic commerce,
daily gladden the eye, as it passes
and repasses this port, freighted in its
progress upwards with the wealth
and productions, and exports of every
clime, while its return carries to eve-
ry port of our happy Union, the pro-
duce of our soil and of our mines."
Exclusive of the ordinary shipping,
there are steam, freight, tow and pas-
sage boats, which make this a stopping
place in their passage up and down
Prince George is famed for the
manufacture of her hollow ware, i. e.
flour barrels,&c , her marshes for soras
and wild ducks, &c. and her rivers,
creeks and mill ponds for fine chub,
perch, sturgeon, rock fish, shad, &c.
Population between 90 and 100 per-
sons; of whom 1 is a physician.
PRINCE GEORGE C. H. is sit-
uated near the centre of the county.
Count]/ Courts are held on the 2d
Tuesday in every month : — Quarter-
ly in March, May, August and No-
Judge May, holds his Circuit Su-
perior Court of Law and Chancery
on the 25 th of May and October.
Templeton, P. O. 36 ms. S. W.
of R. and 158 ms. from W., situated
the river. In short City Point, ' immediately, on the post road, which
though small in itself is a considera-j leads from Petersburg, to Jerusalem,
ble out port to the City of Richmond ,| in Southampton Co. 15 ms. from the
and the town of Petersburg, and when | former, and 35 ms. from the latter,
the Petersburg Rail road, and the j There is an ordinary kept here which
James and Kanawha improvement 'has been in existence for 30 years.
The situation is high and salubrious,
shall be in full operation, it is more
than probable that this little village,
will present an appearance that will! marshy land
remote from any water course, or
EASTERN VIRGINIA— PRINCESS ANNE.
Princess Anne was created by the legislature in 1691, and formed from
a portion of lower Norfolk county. It is bounded on the N. by the Ches-
apeak, E. by the Atlantic, S. by Currituck Co. N. Carolina, and W. by
Norfolk county. Its length from S. to N. is 30 ms. ; mean breadth 12, and
area 360 square miles. The parallel of N. lat. 36° 45' and long. 1° E. o
W. C. intersect near the centre of the county. The northern part of thh
county, slopes N. and pours its waters into Lyn Haven bay, — the western
part, into the eastern branch of Elizabeth river, — the southern part into
Back Bay, and Currituck Sound.
Population in 1810, 9,498,-1820, 8,730— in 1830,9,102. This coun-
ty belongs to the first judicial circuit and first district. Tax paid in 1833,
$1846 85— in 1834 on lots, $16 63— on land, $1 1 15 45—1744 slaves,
$436 00— 1757 horses, $105 42— 6 studs, $83 00— 17 coaches, $38 25—
16 carryalls, $17 25—154 gigs, $95 50. Total, $1907 50. Expended
in educating poor children in 1832, $267 94— in 1833, $115 63.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Kempsville, P. V. 10 ms. S. E.
by E. of Norfolk, 124 from R. and
227 from W. situated on the eastern
branch of Elizabeth river, at the head
of tide water. It contains 27 dwel-
ling houses, 1 miscellaneous store,
and several groceries, 1 Baptist house
of worship, and 1 common school.
The mechanics are a tanner and cur-
rier, several carpenters, wheelwrights,
blacksmiths, &c. Large quantities
of lumber are sent in rafts and light-
ers, from this place to Norfolk ; also
much navy-timber, staves, wood, &c.
Population 200 persons; of whom 3
London Bridge, P. O. in the
northeastern part of the county, 15
ms, N. E. of Norfolk, 8 S. W. of
Cape Henry, 130 from R. and 233
PRINCESS ANNE C. H. P. V.
137 ms. from R. and 240 from W. in
lat. 36° 44, N. and long 0° 57' E. of
W. C. It contains, besides the usual
county buildings, 17 dwelling houses,
2 Methodist houses of public wor-
ship, 2 elementary schools, 1 miscel-
laneous store, several carpenters, and
various other mechanics. The prin-
cipal pursuit of the inhabitants is
farming. Population 150 persons;
of whom 1 is an attorney, and 2 are
County Courts are held on the
1st Monday in every month. Quar-
terly in March, June, August and
Judge Baker holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chance-
ry on the 25 ih May and 22d Sep-
Prince William was established by the Legislature in 1730, and
formed from a portion of Stafford and King George counties. It is bound-
ed N. and N. E. by Bull Run, and Occoquan river, which separate it from
Loudoun and Fairfax,— E. by the Potomac, separating it from Charles
county Maryland, — S. by Stafford, — S. W. and W. by Fauquier. Its mean
length is 30f miles, mean breadth 12; and its area 370 square miles. It
272 EASTERN VIRGINIA— PRINCE WILLIAM.
extends in la t. from 38° 30' to 38° 55' N. and in long, from 0° 15' to 0°
45' W. of W. C.
Occoquan river rises in Loudoun, Fairfax, and Fauquier counties,
traverses and drains the upper part of Prince William. It is an impor-
tant tributary of the Potomac, and falls into that river 25 ms. below W. C.
and nearly opposite to Indian Point. Its principal branches are Bull Run,
Broad Run and Cedar Run. Bull Run from its source to its mouth, is
the dividing line between the counties of Fairfax and Prince William. It
joins the Occoquan about 7 miles above the town of Occoquan, and 14
miles from the Potomac river. Broad Run has its source in Fauquier
county, and after passing through the chain of the Bull Run mountain, at
the pass of Thoroughfare, and by the town of Buckland, joins the Cedar
Run about a mile below Brentsville, the county town of Prince W T illiam.
Cedar Run rises in Fauquier county, and passing near Warrenton,
joins Broad Run near Brentsville. These streams, and indeed many of
their branches, afford fine seats for manufacturing establishments. At the
junction of Broad and Cedar, the river receives the name of Occoquan.
Its general direction towards the Potomac is S. E. — and its length about
25 ms. At 18 ms. from the junction it meets the tides at the town of Oc-
coquan. Here it reaches the hills, which are the boundary of the Poto-
mac valley, and down them the river is precipitated about 72 feet, in the
distance of on 3 and a half miles. In these hills is the chain of rocks
which crosses all the rivers of Lower Virginia at the head of tide water.
The action of the water in the course of ages, has washed the earth from
the channel, and the rocks lie in its bed in every rude variety of position.
The banks of the river here present every where jutting rocks, and some-
times great precipices. The pine finds sustenance among the crevices
and gives a relief and a grace to scenery that would otherwise be savage.
Immediately below the town of Occoquan the banks subside into a plain ;
and at two miles, the ancient town of Colchester is passed. Five miles
below Colchester a junction is effected with the Potomac, between High
and Freestone Points. At its mouth the Occoquan is five miles wide; at
the head of the tide, it is about 75 yards; here however it is hemmed in
by the hills, and as the volume of its waters is very great, in floods it is
very deep, (viz. from 12 to 20 feet.) Below the town of Colchester it
suddenly widens to two or three miles. The earth and rubbish brought
down by the floods are deposited, and at such times the navigation is ob-
structed for vessels drawing more than 5 feet water. There is however
nothing which opposes serious obstacles to clearing the bar, whenever the
wants of the people inhabiting the country drained by its waters shall re-
quire it. The subject has already attracted some attention, and the navi-
gation of the river and its important branch Cedar run, which it has been
proposed to effect, above the tide by the lock and dam system, has been
the occasion of some proceedings in the legislature.
Population in 1810, 11,311—1820,9,419—1830, 9,320. Prince Wil-
liam belongs to the sixth judicial circuit and third district. Tax paid in
1833, $2697 07— in 1834 on lots, $183 15— on land, 1772 65— 1737
slaves, $434 25—2383 horses, $142 98—5 studs, $48 00—27 coaches,
$59 50—15 carryalls, $15 00—16 gigs, $12 95. Total, $2668 48.
Expended in educating poor children in 1832, $500 18— in 1833, $565 32.
EASTERN VIRGINIA— PRINCE WILLIAM.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
BRENTSVILLE, P. V. and seat
of justice, 104 ms. from R. and 48
S. W. of W.— The Court House,
clerk's office and jail are handsomely
situated on the main street, in a pub-
lic square of three acres. Besides
them, the village contains 19 dwel-
ling houses, 3 miscellaneous stores 2
handsome taverns, built of brick and
stuccoed, 1 house of entertainment, 1
house of public worship, free for all
denominations, — a bible society, a
Sunday school, a temperance and a
tract society, which have been of con-
siderable utility for the last 5 or 6
years. There is in the vicinity a
common school in which the rudi-
ments of English education are taught.
Brentsville is of recent establish-
ment, having been located around the
site of the new court house in 1822,
at which time it was completed, and
the courts removed from Dumfries.
It has progressed with its improve-
ments perhaps more rapidly than has
been observable with other county
towns within the same period after
their establishment, though it may be
considered nearly stationary for the
present. The wasteful tenure of the
Bristoe estate, the property of the
commonwealth, in the midst of which
it is located, has in a manner cut it
off from the benefits of a thriving
neighborhood. This tract, contain-
ing near 7000 acres and naturally
the best land in this section, has been
ravaged of all its timber, and for the
most part "ploughed down to be bar-
ren," by an unmerciful course of
cultivation, under a numerous tenan-
try, for upwards of 70 years. Most
of the lots around the place have be-
come freed from their lease, by the
direliction of the tenants, who have
left them an immense common: but
by an act of Assembly of 1833-4,
authorising the sale of this estate on
such terms as the president and di-
rectors of the Literary Fund may di-
rect, there is no doubt but the desert
will soon be made to blossom under
the labors of individual enterprise,
and Brentsville will take a new start
towards prosperity. Situated at the
head of Occoquan river, which could
easily be made navigable for boats at
a cheap rate, and laying near two
large runs, (Broad and Cedar,) which
here form the Occoquan. Brents-
ville is 14 miles from Dumfries, 18
from Occoquan mills, and equidistant
33 ms. from Fredericksburg: and
Alexandria, 12 from Hay Market,
and 20 from Warrenton. It is within
9 or 10 ms. of the Warrenton and
Alexandria turnpike. Population
130 persons, of whom 3 are attorneys
and 3 regular physicians. The
place is healthy and has a beautiful
prospect of the Bull Run and Watery
range of mountains, and the more
distant Blue Ridge.
County Courts are held on the 1st
Monday, in every month: — Quar-
terly in March, June, August and
Judge Scott holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chancery
on the 1st of May, and October.
Buckland, P. V. in the north-
western part of the county, 5 ms. S.
W. of Hay Market, 116 from R. and
42 from W. This village has an
elevated and romantic situation on
Broad Run, a never failing stream,
on which two extensive flour manu-
facturing mills are situated, — the one
in the town and the other on its edge.
A turnpike runs through the village
which extends 35 ms. below to Alex-
dria, and 8 ms. above to Warrenton.
This village and its suburbs contains
22 dwelling houses, 1 general store,
1 large and extensive distillery, 1
apothecary shop, 1 house of public
worship free for all denominations,
and 2 houses of entertainment. The
mechanics are, 1 tanner and cur-
rier, 1 wagon maker, 1 boot and shoe
EASTERN VIRGINIA— PRINCE WILLIAM
500 persons; of Avhom 1 is an attor-
ney and 2 are regular physicians.
Hay Market, P. O. situated in
the northern part of the county on
the head of Occoquan creek, 120 ms.
from R. and 43 from W.
Liberia, P. V. 112 ms. from R*
and 33 S. W. of W. C. It contains
a store, ware house and hlacksmith
shop, and a little distance from these
under the same name, 7 other build-
ings. This place was established in
of W. and 89 from R., situated on 1 1825, and the post-office in 1829. It
Q,uantico creek, near the Potomac j is 7 ms. distant from Brcntsville, in a
manufacturer, 1 cooper, 1 hatter, 1
millwright, 1 blacksmith, 1 tailor and
saddler. Buckland is an incorpora-
ted town, and for beauty of situation
and circumjacent scenery is perhaps
not to be surpassed by any other in
the county. There is one well or-
ganized sunday school, and 1 com-
mon school. Population 1 30 whites;
of whom 1 is a physician ; and 50
• Dumfries, P. V. 33 ms. S. S. W
river. It contains 80 dwelling houses,
3 mercantile stores, a Baptist and a
Methodist house of worship, 1 school
house, 2 taverns, 1 manufacturing
Hour mill, 1 woollen manufactory, 1
temperance society, a tanyard, 2 sad-
dlers, 5 house carpenters, and 2 black-
smith shops. During the freeze in
the winter when the steam boat be-
tween the city of Washington and
-Potomac creek is obstructed by ice,
the great northern and southern mail
from W. C. to New Orleans, is car-
ried through this town. The road in
its neighborhood between Fredericks-
burg and Alexandria, is in a worsejthe use of clover and gypsum, of
condition than perhaps any in thei which many farmers have commenced
middle States, so utterly impassable; the use.
at times that the mail cannot travel. Occoquan, P. V. 23 ms. S. W. of
This road being the principal source |W. and 99 from R., situated in the
N. E. part of the county on the south
side of Occoquan river. It was es-
N. E. direction. A mail goes once
a week from this place to Centreville
5 ms. N. of it, at which place it inter-
sects the S. W. mail from W. C
The trade of the place is in dry
goods and groceries, and the pur-
chase of country produce. The
country around is thickly settled, and
the inhabitants are distinguished for
their moral deportment. The land
of the surrounding country was of
universally good quality, but has been
much abused by a system of misera-
ble cultivation; it is yet susceptible of
a high degree of improvement, by
of the irregularities of the mail at
the south, a canal was undertaken,
and about three-eighths of a mile
completed, but the whole scheme
failed for the want of the proper di-
rection of the funds. The mouth of
Gluantico, 2| miles from Dumfries, is
the best winter harbor on the Poto-
mac. The river seldom freezes low-
er than that point.
Dumfries is one- of the oldest towns
in the United States, and once could
boast of much commerce, but owing
to a variety of circumstances, like
many old settlements, it is now in a
great measure abandoned, and many
of its excellent dwellings are in a
tablished by act of Assembly in the
year 1804. The site on which this
town is situated is extremely rugged
and ill-suited for building. The
town is regularly laid out, the streets
generally cross each other at right
angles. It contains about 50 dwel-
ling houses, several mercantile stores,
and various mechanics, — a cotton
manufactory in complete operation,
and one of the first established in the
State, now running 1000 spindles, 1
extensive manufacturing flour mill,
grinding in the ordinary season 150
barrels per day, — with the necessary
state of rapid decay. Population 'appendages of grist, saw, and plaster
EASTERN VIRGINIA— PRINCE WILLIAM.
mills. A handsome and permanent
bridge is erected across the river at
this place; over the bridge and thro'
the town runs the great mail route
from Washington to the south. This
village is in a flourishing condition,
and with confidence looks forward to
further improvement. The principal
trade of the town is with the counties
of Fairfax, Loudoun, Fauquier, and
Stafford. The Occoquan at this
place has a fall of 72 feet in 1| ms.
affording excellent sites for manufac-
tories. This is the market for many
of the most important shad and her-
ring fisheries on the Potomac. The
scenery at and near Occoquan has
frequently been the theme of praise.
The traveller moving along the plains
of lower Virginia, his eye accustom-
ed to the tame prospect of the alluvial
country, suddenly finds himself in a
ravine, descending a hill, the precipi-
tous ridges of which inspire him