with terror. Should curiosity prompt
him to tarry the rest of the day amidst
this wild scene, the sacrifice will be
amply repaid. â€” The botany of this
neighborhood is very rich ; here are
in close proximity plants of the
mountain and of the marshes. The
mosses are numerous and beautiful.
In the marshes, near the mouth of
the river, are many interesting plants.
In the river in this vicinity there is a
quarry of valuable whetstones, a bank
impregnated with alum, and a cave
which has never been satisfactorily
Thoroughfare, P. V. 47 ms. S.
W. of W. and 124 from R., situated
near the western boundary of the
county, 9 ms. N. E. of Warrenton;
with a turnpike to Alexandria 36
ms. distant. It lies immediately un-
der the Bull Run mountain, which
runs N. and S. and takes its name
from a small stream which passes
throusrh it. About 3 miles N. of this
place Broad Run, one of the best
streams in this section of country for
size and constancy, passes through
the same mountain. Upon this
stream there are 2 manufacturing
flour mills, running 3 pair of buhrs,
and which jointly manufacture from
20 to 30,000 bushels of wheat annu-
ally; the water of these mills has a
fall of from 22 to 24 feet in the dis-
tance of half a mile. About 600
yards below the Thoroughfare, there
is an advantageous position for a
manufactory, with a fall of water of
22 feet. At this place are located 12
dwelling houses, and I mercantile
store. Baoad Run is composed of
two streams which unite a short dis-
tance above the mountain, each hav-
ing pursued their respective courses
through a rich and mountainous re-
gion for many miles; at the base of
the mountain they unite, and rush to-
gether with great velocity over a
rocky bed: bearing a striking resem-
blance to the scene presented by the
mountains, rivers, &c, at Harper's
Ferry, on a smaller scale.
The land lying immediatelj'- above
the mountains is rich, and contains a
dense population, bearing a strong
evidence that it was once inundated,
from a like cause as at Harper's Fer-
ry. The western side of the moun-
tain presents an abrupt precipice of
granite rock, Avhile the trees grow to
the summit. On the east in the gap
of the mountain, the rocks lie scat-
tered in wild confusion, evidently
thrown out by some great concussion
of nature. Near the gap is a spring
issuing from under a great rock, of
the purest and best water, which is
not increased or diminished in any
season. It stands on the road side,
and is by travellers regarded as the
"Diamond Spring, in Palestine. 1 '
There are some indications of coal
and iron, but neither has as yet been
discovered. The mountains on the
east side present a most romantic,
and beautiful view of the rapid and
roaring current winding its way
through a fertile valley,
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” RAPPAHANNOCK.
Rappahannock was created by the Legislature in 1831, and formed
out of a portion of Culpeper county. It is bounded on the N. by the North
Fork of the Rappahannock river, which separates it from Fauquier, â€” -E.
by Culpeper, â€” S. by Madison, â€” and W. by the Blue Ridge, which sepa-
rates it from Shenandoah. It extends in lat. from about 38Â° 3' to 38Â° 22*
N. and in long, from about 0Â° 5' to 1Â° 15' W. of W. C. Its precise di-
mensions in miles, Ave are unacquainted with. Its population also, being
included with that of Culpeper at the last census, is unknown.
Rappahannock belongs to the 11th judicial circuit and 6th district. Tax
paid in 1833, $1851 06â€” in 1834, on lots, $46 72â€” on land, $1096 83â€”
1858 slaves, $464 50â€”2743 horses, $164 58â€”10 studs, $81 00â€”13
coaches, $33 00â€”6 carryalls, $6 00â€”9 gigs, $5 50. Total, $1898 13.
No report from school commissioners.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Flint Hill, P. O. 128 ms. from
R. and 91 S. W. of W. This vil-
lage contains 26 dwelling houses, 4
mercantile stores, 2 taverns, 1 manu-
facturing flour mill, 1 house of pub-
lic worship, free for all denomina-
tions, 2 tanyards, 2 saddlers, with va-
rious other mechanics. Population
140 persons; of whom 1 is an attor-
ney, and 2 practising physicians.
Gaines' Cross Roads, P. O. 87
ms. S. W. of W. and 124 N. N. W.
of R. It contains 9 dwelling houses,
1 general store, 1 tailor, and 1 black-
smith shop, and 1 Baptist house of
worship. The surrounding country
is fertile, well cultivated and densely
Newby's Cross Roads, P. O. 109
ms. from R. and 70 N. W. by W. of
W. It contains several dwelling
houses, and 2 mercantile stores.
Population 30. There are within
the circumference of 6 miles ten
country and flour manufacturing
mills, several tanyards, &c. The
country around is thickly settled and
fertile, producing well all the com-
mon staples of the country.
Sandy Hook, P. O. 134 ms. from
R. and 85 from W., situated 3 ms. S.
of Chester Gap, and one-fourth of a
mile N. of Flint Hill in Wakefield
Manor, on the road leading from
I Washington, the seat of justice, to
Front Royal, in Frederick county, 9
ms. from the former and 10 from the
latter. The land adjoining Sandy
Hook is fertile and productive, about
8000 acres of it is in the possession
of Bazil Gordon, of Falmouth, Va.
Sandy Hook has 4 dwelling houses,
1 mercantile store, 1 blacksmith, 1
wheelwright, and t boot and shoe
maker. Population 33; of whom 1
is a physician.
Slate Mills, P. O. 109 ms. from
R. and 91 S. W. of W. This vil-
lage contains 4 dwelling houses, 1
general store, 1 manufacturing flour
mill, a grist and saw mill, 2 black-
smiths, a wheelwright, and a cooper
WASHINGTON, P. V. and seat
of justice, 118 ms. from R. and 81
S. W. of W. C. It is situated at the
southeastern foot of the Blue Ridge,
in a fertile country, upon one of the
head branches of Rappahannock
river, (called Bush river,) and recent-
ly chosen as the seat of justice for the
county. It was formerly a P. O. in
Culpeper Co.) It contains besides
the usual county buildings, (lately
erected,) 1 academy, 55 dwelling
houses, 4 mercantile stores, 2 taverns,
1 house of public worship, free for
all denominations. The principal
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” RICHMOND.
mechanics are 4 blacksmiths, 4 car-
penters, 2 saddlers, 1 hatter, 1 tan-
ner, 2 wagon makers, 3 tailors, 4
shoemakers, 1 cabinet maker, 1 sil-
versmith, 3 milliners, 1 plaisterer and
bricklayer. In the vicinity there is
a large and highly respectable female
seminary, in which are taught all
the various branches of English lite-
rature, together with the French and
Italian languages; and in the imme-
diate neighborhood, are 2 large and
extensive manufacturing flour mills.
This village is rapidly improving,
and is in a flourishing and prosper-
ous condition, being situated in a
thickly settled and enterprising neigh-
borhood. Population 350 persons:
of whom 4 are attorneys, and 2 regu-
County Courts are held on the 1st
Monday va every month. Quarterly
in March, June, September, and No-
Judge Field holds his Circuit Su-
perior Court of Law and Chancery
on the 22 d of April and September.
Woodville, F. V. in the western
angle of the county, 115 ms. N. W.
of R. and 97 S. W. by W. of W.,
situated on the road leading from
Thornton's Gap, in the Blue Ridge,
to Fredericksburg, 1 1 ms. from the
top of the Ridge, and 55 from the
latter. It contains 4 mercantile stores,
2 taverns, 1 school in which is taught
all the main branches of an English
education, 30 dwelling houses, 1 tan-
yard, 3 blacksmiths, 1 saddler, 1 boot
and shoe maker, 1 cabinet maker, 1
carpenter and house joiner, and 1
tailor. Population 200 persons; of
whom 1 is an attorney, and 2 are
Richmond was created by the Legislature in 1692, when the old county
of Rappahannock w r as extinguished and the counties of Essex and Rich-
mond made from its territories. It is bounded N. and N. E. by Westmore-
land, â€” E. by Northumberland, â€” S. by Moratico creek, which separates it
from Lancaster, â€” S. W. and W. by the Rappahannock river, which sepa-
rates it from Essex, â€” and N. W. by Brockenbrough creek, separating it
from Westmoreland. Its mean length is 25 miles, breadth 7Â£; and area
194 sq. miles. It extends in lat. from 37Â° 47' to 38Â° 10' N. and in long,
from 0Â° 10' to 0Â° 30' E. of W. C.
Richmond belongs to the fifth judicial circuit, and third district. Popu-
lation in 1820, 5,706â€” in 1830, 6,055. Tax paid in 1833, $1158 67â€” in
1834,â€” on land, $679 02â€”1281 slaves, $320 25â€”686 horses, $41 16â€”
4 studs, $40 00â€”16 coaches, $40 40â€”9 carryalls, $9 00â€”78 gigs,
$47 25. Total, $1177 08. Expended in educating poor children in
1833, $167 51â€” no report for 1832.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Harnham, P. O. 66 ms. N.E. of R.
and 128 from W.
Lyell's Store, P. O. 60 ms. from
R. and 122 S. S. E. of W.
RICHMOND C. H. P. V. 56 ms.
from R. and 118 S. E. of W., in lat.
37Â° 55' N. and lone-. 0Â° 18' E. of
W. C. This village, besides the
usual county buildings, court house,
clerk's office and jail, contains 9 pri-
vate dwelling houses, 2 general stores,
1 house of public worship, (Episco-
palian,) 1 female boarding school, in
which are taught the necessary
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” SOUTHAMPTON.
branches of polite education, and 1
primary school for boys, 2 boot and
shoe factories, 1 saddler, and 2 houses
of public entertainment. The near-
est navigable waters are two branches
of the Rappahannock river, each 3
ms. distant, one the Toteskey, the
other Rappahannock creek. The
situation of this place is elevated and
healthy, and the vicinity in a high
state of improvement. Indian corn
and wheat are the staple crops of the
neighborhood. Population 100 per-
sons: of whom 4 are attorneys, and
1 a physician.
County Courts are held on the 1st
Monday in every month. Quarterly
in March, May, August and Novem-
Judge Lomax holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chance-
ry on the V2th of April and 8th of
Southampton was created by act of Assembly in 1748, and formed cut
of a part of Isle of Wight county. It is bounded N. W. by Sussex, â€”
Surry N. â€” Blackwater "river, separating it from the Isle of Wight, N. E.
â€” Nansemond E., â€” Hertford and Northampton counties, N. Carolina, S.
â€” and Meherrin river, separating it from Greensville, S. W. Its length is
40 miles, mean width 15; and area 600 square miles. The parallel of N.
lat. 36Â° 40', and the meridian of W. C. intersect in this county. Its slope
is southeastward, and in that direction it is traversed by Nottoway river.
The soil of this county is light and but little broken and well adapted to
the cultivation of Indian corn, cotton, beans and potatoes, of which the
two first are the principal commodities The husbandry is generally good.
â€” It abounds in the finest of pine timber, from which is made for exporta-
tion tar and turpentine. Nottoway river runs from N. W. to S. E., and by
its junction with the Black water river forms the Chowan. It is naviga-
ble for vessels of 60 or 70 tons, as far as Monroe, from which place con-
siderable quantities of lumber and other produce are shipped to Norfolk.
Its length is about 120 miles. â€” Blackwater river takes its rise in Prince
George county, and running in a southwardly direction, unites with the
Nottoway. It is navigable for vessels of the largest size as far as South
Quay in Nansemond county, and for small vessels for some miles higher,
up into the county of Southampton. In the low grounds bordering upon
Nottoway and Blackwater rivers, the growth is chiefly oak and cypress of
the finest quality, which must at no distant period be of great value. â€” The
Portsmouth and Roanoke rail road passing through the county, and con*
sequently crossing each of these rivers, will afford the greatest facility in
conveying produce to market. â€” The prevailing religious denominations in
this county are the Methodist and Baptist. They each have numerous
houses of public worship in convenient parts of the county.
Population in 1820, 14,170 â€” in 1830, 16,074. Southampton belongs to
the first judicial circuit and first district. Tax paid in 1833, $3136 33 â€”
in 1834.â€” On lots, $31 28â€” on land, $1470 03â€”3835 slaves, $958 75â€”
2661 horses, $159 66â€”14 studs, $166 00â€”51 coaches, $125 00â€”24 car-
ryalls, $24 00â€”277 gigs, $161 55. Total, $3096 28. Expended in
educating poor children in 1832, $515 45â€” in 1833 : $507 SI.
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” 3P0TTSYLVANIA. 279
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Bethlehem Cross Roads, P. O.
91 ms. from R. and 213 from W.
Bowers', P.O. 91 ms. S. E. of R.
and 213 from W. situated in the
of public entertainment. This town
has been stationary for 20 years, hav-
ing neither retrograded or advanced.
Population 175 persons; of whom 4
southern part of the county. are resident attorneys, and 4 regular
Farm Tavern, P. O. 90 ms. S. physicians.
S. E. of R. and 210 S. of W. County Courts are held on the 3d
JERUSALEM, P. V. and scat oj '\ Monday in every month; â€” Quarter-
justice. 81 ms. S. S. E. of R. and
203 from W. in lat. 36Â° 42' and long.
0Â° 3' W. of W. This village is situa-
ted on Nottoway river, and contains
besides the ordinary county buildings,
about 25 dwelling houses, 4 mercan-
tile stores, 1 saddler, I carriage maker,
2 hotels, 1 masonic hall, and 2 houses
ly in March, Jitne ) August and No-
Judge Baker holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chancery
on the 15/ of June and 29th of Octo-
Urquhart's Store, P. O. 79 ms.
S. E. of R. and 201 from W.
SpottsylvaniA, was created by the legislature in 1720, and formed out
of portions of Essex, King William and King 6l Queen counties. It is
bounded on the N. by the Rappahannock river which separates it from
Culpepef and Stafford, on the E. by Caroline, on the S. by Caroline, Han-
over and Louisa, and on the W. by Orange. It is situated between 37Â° 59'
and 38Â° 20' N. and between 20Â° 30' and 57Â° 30' W. from W. This coun-
ty contains exclusive of Fredericksburg, 11,826 inhabitants. The soil of
Spottsylvania is various, that near the rivers and smaller streams is very
fine; but it is far otherwise on the ridges; for a wretched system of cultiva-
tion adopted by the first settlers and long persisted in by their descendants,
has reduced the land, originally thin, to a condition from which it will re-
quire much time and labor to rescue it.
The gold mines of this county having excited some interest, it may not
be out of place here to say something of them. About seven years ago two
brothers of the name of White, discovered some small pieces of gold on
their farm, this naturally excited them to look further; when it was disco-
vered that after every rain numerous particles of various sizes became visi-
ble. This was a sufficient hint to others. The most energetic, but misdi-
rected zeal covered the country with explorers, having the least possible
knowledge of the matter in hand. They might be seen hurrying hither
and thither with a spade and tin pan, now stooping to lift a stone â€” now
stooping to wound the bosom of their mother earth, and perhaps add another
pound to the already cumbrous load of "indications" at their back. It
was marvellous to see how they mutilated and distorted terms of science.
The classic heathen were not more familiar with their household gods, than
were these children of mamon with what they were pleased to call "fridigi-
7ious quartz and u oxinginized iron" A little cube of sulphuret of iron
found on a man's farm, would elevate his hopes to the highest pitch of ex-
citement: and if any one told him that it was not gold, he incontinently sus-
280 EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” SPOTT3YLVANIA.
pected him of a design to purchase the land. Gold, however, was found in
considerable quantities, and that sort of stock rose to an excessive price,
which of necessity produced a correspondent reaction, and the present de-
pression is probably as much below the real value, as the former was
Tobacco was formerly planted to the exclusion of almost every thing
else ; but within the last 30 years it has gradually given place to wheat and
The minerals found in greatest abundance are granite, free stone, quartz
and shistus : the two latter being ordinarily the gangue of the gold.
The religious sects in the county are exclusive of the town, chiefly Bap-
tists, who have 8 meeting houses ; and Methodists who have 4 meeting
houses. Of stores there are 7; mills 25, some of which are prepared for
making flour, but only I is thus employed, and taverns 5. In these last
are included only those which have tavern licence. The natural growth of
the county is principally oak, and what is here called fox-tail pine, the lat-
ter being found in lands which were formerly exhausted by injudicious cul-
tivation, and being neglected have thus clothed themselves. Population
1820, 14,254â€”1830, 15,134. This county belongs to the 5th judicial cir-
cuit and 3rd district. Taxes paid in 1833, $4,064 10 â€” in 1834, on lots,
$959 24â€” on land, $1,534 89â€”4,250 slaves, $1,062 50â€”2,478 horses,
$148 68â€”10 studs, $98 00â€”78 coaches, $174 00â€”4 stages, $7 00â€”39
carrayalls, $39 00â€”131 gigs, $80 27. Total, $4,103 58. Expended in
educating poor children in 1832, $402 39â€” in 1833, $507 23.
Historical Sketch. â€” The earliest authentic information we have of
that portion of our state now called Spottsylvania, is found in an act past
"at a grand assemblie held at Tames Cittie" between the 20th September
1674, and the 17th March 1675, in which war is declared against the In-
dians ; and amongst other provisions for earring it on, it is ordered that
"one hundred and eleven men out of Glocester county be garrisoned at one
"ffort," or place of defence at or neare the ffalls of Rapahanack river, of
which ffort Major Lawrence Smith to be captain or chiefe commander ;"
and that this " ffort" be furnished with " ffour hundred and eighty pounds
of powder, ffourteen hundred and fforty three pounds of shott." This "ffort"
was built in 1676 as appears by the preamble of a subsequent act.
In the year 1679 Major Lawrence Smith upon his own suggestion was
empowered, provided he would settle or seate downe at or neare said fort
by the last day of March 1681, and have in readiness upon all occasions On
beat of drum, fifty able men w T ell armed with sufficient ammunitions, 6lc.
and two hundred men more within the space of a mile along the river, and
a quarter of a mile back from the river, prepared always to march twenty
miles in any direction from the fort ; or should they be obliged to go more
than such distance to be paid for their time thus employed at the rate of
other 'I souldiers," "to execute martiall discipline" amongst the said fifty
" souldiers and others so put in arms" both in times of war and peace ; ana*
* There are two manners of gathering gold practised hereâ€” 1st. by washing the
earth for what is called " surface-gold." This plan is pursued in several places in
the county. The earth containing the particles, is thrown into cradles, into which
mercury is poured, and a constant stream of water is directedâ€” the amalgum found in
the bottom is distilledâ€” 2nd. mining, properly so called, is also carried on at a place
on the Rappahannock river about 20 miles above Fredericksburg, the property of the
United States Mining Company, incorporated at the last session of the legislature.
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” SPOTTSYLVANIA, 281
said Smith with two others of said privileged place to hear and determine
all causes civil and criminal, that may arise within said limits, as a county
Court might do, and to make bye-laws for the same. These military set-
tlers were priviledged from arrest for any debts save those due to the King,
and those contracted among themselves â€” and were free from taxes and le-
vies save those laid within their own limits.
The exact situation of this fort cannot now be determined with absolute
certainty; but as it is known that there was once a military post at Germana,
some ruins of which are still occasionally turned up by the plough, it is
probable that this is the spot selected by Col. Smith for his colony.
The earliest notice we have of Spottsylvania county, as such, is found in
7th Geo. I. 1720, passed at Williamsburg, of which the preamble declares
by way of inducement " that the frontiers toward the high mountains are ex-
posed to danger from the Indians and the late settlements of the French to
the westward of the said mountains." Therefore it is enacted that Spott*
sylvania county bounds upon Snow creek up to the mill, thence by a S. W.
line to the North Anna, thence up the said river as far as convenient, and
thence by a line to be run over the high mountains to the river on the N.
W. side thereof, so as to include the northern passage through the said
mountains, thence down the said river until it comes against the head of
Rappahannock, thence by a line to the head of Rappahannock river and
down that river to the mouth of Snow creek, which tract of lands from the
1st of May 1721 shall become a county by the name of Spottsylvania Co."
The a?t goes on to direct that " fifteen hundred pounds current money
of Virginia shall be paid by the treasurer to the Governor, for these uses,
to wit: Â£500 to be expended in a church, court house, prison, pillory and
stocks in said county: Â£1,000 to be laid out in arms, ammunition, &c. of
which each "Christian tytheable" is to have "one firelock, musket,* one
socket, bayonet fired thereto, one cartouch box, eight pounds bullet, and
two pounds powder." The inhabitants were made free of public levies for
ten years, and the whole county made one parish by the name of St. George.
From the following clause of the same act it is presumed that this new
county had been cut off from Essex, King & Queen and King William:
for the act declares that "until the Governor shall settle a court in Spottsyl-
vania," the justices of these counties " shall take power over them by their
warrants, and the clerks of said courts by their process returnable to their
said courts, in the same manner as before the said county icas constituted."
In the year 1730 an act was passed directing that the Burgesses for this
county should be allowed for four days journey in passing to Williams-
burg; and the same returning. In the same year St. George's Parish was
divided by a line running from the mouth of Rappahannock to the Pamun-
key: the upper portion to be called St. Mark's Parish ; the lower part to re-
tain the name of St. George's Parish. Four years after this the county was
thus divided: St. George's Parish to be still called Spottsylvania; and St.
Mark's Parish to be called Orange, and all settlers beyond the " Sherran-
do,"f river to be exempt for three years from the "paiment" of public and
â€” " ' â€” - - â€” â€” â€” â€” â€” "- - ' â€” â– â€”â– â– -. - , ,â– ..-. â€” . â– , ,â– â– . , , ,. M ,., â– â– â– ..!â– â– â– â– â– â– â– !â– â– 1 ! â– II I ! J
* Whether it was intended to make these a compound word as firelock-musket, we
know not â€” we have followed the printed act.
t This is the spelling of the act " Sherrando."
EASTERN VIRGINIAâ€” SPOTTSYLVANIA.
The Governor fixed the seat of justice at Germarma, where the first court
sat on the 1st day of August 1722 when Augustine Smith, Richard Booker,
John Taliaferro, Wm. Hunsford, Richard Johnson and Wm. Bledsoe were
sworn as justices, John Waller, as clerk, and Wm. Bledsoe as sheriff: this
place being found "inconvenient to the people," it was directed by law that
from and after the 1st August 1732, the court should be held at Fredericks-
burg, which law was repealed seventeen years afterwards, because it was
" derogatory to his majesty's prerogative to take from the Governor or com-
mander-in-chief of this colony his power and authority of removing or ad-
journing the courts;" and because "it might be inconvenient in a case. of
small pox or other contagious distemper."
In 1769 the county which had theretofore been one parish was thus di-
vided, â€” all that part lyingtietween the rivers Rappahannock and Po retain-
ed the name of St. George's Parish, â€” the rest of the county was erected
into a new parish called Berkley. In 1778 an act was passed authorising
the justices to build a Court house at some point near the "centre 8f the coun-
ty to which the courts hould be removed, provided a majority of the justices