was far led out of the way. she would never see a human creature. During this
WESTERN VIRGINIA— RUSSELL.
Population in 1820, 5,536 — in 1830, 6,714. This county belongs to the
fifteenth judicial circuit and eighth district. Tax paid in 1833, $668 60 —
in 1834 on lots, $22 54— on land, $247 00—366 slaves, $91 50—3301
horses, $198 06— 23 studs, $103 00— 7 carryalls, $7 00— Total, $669 98.
Expended in educating poor children in 1832, $418 44— in 1833, $485 64.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Bichley's Mills* P. O. situated]
in Castle's Woods.
Clifton, P. O. 312 ms. S. W. ofl
R. and 374 from W., situated on the
Maiden Spring Fork.
DlCKENSONVILLE, P. O. This |
village was formerly the seat of j us- j
tice, but since that has been removed
to Lebanon, it is almost depopulated,!
and the houses in a state of dilapida-
LEBANON, P. V. and seat of
justice, 330 ms. from R. and 394 S.
W. by W. of W., in lat. 36° 53' N.
and long, 5° 03' W. of W. C, situat-
ed about 130 ms. N. E. by E. of
Knoxville, Ten., on Little Cedar j
creek, a branch of Clinch river hav-
ing its source in Clinch mountain,'
on a southern inclination, near the!
centre of the population of the coun-i
ty. It is well watered by springs,!
and commands a beautiful prospect off
Clinch mountain on the south, whose
lofty summits present an almost un-
broken range from Little Moccasin
to Hayter's Gap, a distance of 12
miles. On the left of the latter gap,
and directly east of this village, the
mountain rises to a considerable
height and is covered on the summit
with evergreens, — amongst which is
the balsam tree, from which a resinous
substance is extracted, and which is
celebrated as useful in the cure of
chronic diseases. This village was
located in 1816, and in 1818 the seat
of justice was established here. The
court house which is of stone, is the
only permanent building in the place,
Che rest being all wooden tenements
and most of them rather indifferent.
It contains 6 mercantile stores, 1
grocery, 2 tan yards, 2 blacksmiths,-
2 tailors, 1 hatter, 1 cabinet maker,
and in the vicinity 1 school house.
The main road from Botetourt, thro'
Montg-omerv and Giles to Cumber-
land Gap, passes through this village,
and will when completed, contribafe
much to the prosperity of this place
and the adjoining country.
County Courts are held on the
Tuesday after the first Monday in
every month ; — Quarterly in March,
June,- August and November.
Circuit Superior Courts of Law
and Chancery are held on the 3d
Monday in April and September, by
doubt, a beautiful bird passed close by her, fluttering along the ground, and went out
of sight up one of the valleys. This drew her attention, and whilst considering
what it might mean, another bird of the same appearance in like manner fluttered
past her, and took the same valley the former had done. This determined her choice
of the way ; and in two days, which was on the 11th day of August, she reached the
settlement on Clinch, called New Garden ; whereas, (she is since informed by wood-
men,) had she taken the other valley it would have led her back towards the Ohio.
Mrs. Scott relates that the Indians told her that the party was composed of four dif-
ferent nations, two of whom she thinks they named Delawares and Mingoes.
She further relates, that during her wandei ing from the 10th of July to the 11th of
August, she had no other subsistence but chewing and swallowing the juice of young
cane stalks, sassafras leaves, and some other plants she did not know the names of;
that on her journey she saw buffaloes, elks, deers, and frequently bears and wolves —
not one of which, although some passed very near her, offered her the least harm.
One day a bear came near her with a young fawn in his mouth, and on discovering
her he dropped his prey and ran off. Hunger prompted her to go and take the flesh
and eat it ; but on reflection she desisted, thinking that the bear might return and de-
vour her — besides, she had an aversion to taste raw flesh.
440 WESTERN VIRGINIA— SCOTT.
Scott was established by act of Assembly in 1814, and formed from por-
tions of Lee, Washington and Russell. It is bound N. and N E. by Rus-
sell, E. by Washington, — 8, by Sullivan and Hawkins counties of Ten-
nessee, — and W. by Lee. Its mean lat. is about 46° 47' N., its long. 5°
40' W. of W. C. — its mean length 25 miles, mean breadth 24, and area
624 square miles.
The face of the country is mountainous and uneven. — Clinch mountain
passes through the county from N. E. to S. W. — all the principal ridges and
streams take the same direction. The county is exceedingly well watered
by good springs, creeks and rivers, and possesses water power in abundance.
The soil is generally good, some of superior quality, the poorest well suit-
ed to small grain, — good meadows can be made almost any where. The
county is well suited to rearing stock.
The principal growth consists of poplar, hickory, beech, sugar maple,
white and black oak, lynn, buckeye, black walnut: chesuut on the mountains
and ridges, and wild cherry is found in many places:
The chief productions are, Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, hemp, flax, &.c.
and apples and peaches in abundance. Many horses, homed cattle and
hogs are reared in, and driven out of the county.
Rivers, &c. — The North fork of Holston and Clinch rivers, run through
• the county, — -each afford the facilities of boat navigation down them in times
of freshets; and with some improvement would add greatly to the conve-
nience of the country for the purposes of trade: they both afford fine fish.
Clinch river, for a river of its size, is remarkable for its fish. Some of the
largest taken in it are of the following weight: — blue cats, 30 to 40 lbs. —
salmon, 15 lbs. — carp, 15 lbs. — red horse, 7 lbs. &x.
Big Mocasin Creek rises in Russell county at the foot of Clinch moun-
tain — winds along the North side of the mountain, a distance of about 80
miles, to Big Mocasin Gap. — Little Mocasin creek rises at the loot of said
mountain in a different direction, runs along the mountain a distance of
about seven miles to said Gap, where the two streams form a junction, flow
through the Gap on nearly level ground, and pass on to the North fork of
Holston. Clinch mountain here is large and the Gap, although formed
abruptly, is so perfectly level that the main western road in passing through
it, does not ascend more than in passing up a gently flowing stream. — Big
Mocasin Gap is situated about one mile east of Estillvitle.
Sinking Creek empties into Clinch river about 22 miles north of Estill-
ville, is 6 or 7 miles long, and large for its length. It rises on the south
side of said river, in Copper ridge, and when it approaches within three-
fourths of a mile of the river, sinks, passes under the bed of the river and
rises about one hundred yards from the river on the north side, and runs
back into the river, — the stream rising has often been proved to he the same
that sinks.— ~Fish from the river pass into the mouth of the creek in the fall
of the year in large numbers, winter under ground, and return to the river
in the spring, when many are raught in a trap fixed between the risiflg
water and river.
Minerals, 6cc. — Iron ore abounds in every part of the county — stone
coal of good quality is found m man}^ places — marble, considered coarse,
abounds about Estillville — lime and free stone quarries are abundant— se It
water has lately been discovered by boring at the distance Qi upwards of
WESTERN VIRGINIA—SCOTT, 441
300 feet below the surface, in the Poor Valley, near the North fork of Hol-
ston, and about 8 miles east of Estillville. The proprietor, Col James
White of Abingdon, is now letting down pipes and making preparations to
work the well. The quality and quantity of the water is not yet fully ascer-
tained in consequence of the interference of fresh water, which was struck
first near the surface; — there however appears to be no doubt among those
employed at the well but that it may be profitably worked,
The Hols ton Springs, situated on the North fork of Holston, south of
Estillville 2 miles, or 4 miles as the road runs, is considered by many to
be not inferior to any springs in the state for the medicinal virtues of the
water, but as yet has gained no great celebrity in consequence of the accom-
modations being inferior to those of most other watering places.
The White Sulphur Springs, near the Rye Cove N. W. of Estillville 8
miles* is considered equal to the Catawba Springs in Washington county-
There are many other Sulphur Springs in the county of less note.
There are in the county, exclusive of the town of Estillville, 9 meeting
honseSr^of which belong to the Methodists and 3 to the Baptists; — the Me-
thodists also have 18 or 20 other preaching places in the county, where they
have societies formed and preach every other week — 6 stores, 4 tanyards,
10 licensed houses of private entertainment, 4 hatter shops, 33 mills, some
of which are very ordinary, others make good flour; but none are entitled
to the appellation of merchant mill To 10 or 15 of these mills, saw mills
are attached,-— and to two, carding machines.
The climate is somewhat milder than that of Washington or Russell
counties — vegetation commencing at Estillville one or two weeks sooner
than at Abingdon or Lebanon. There is but one practicing attorney besides
those residing in Estillville, and no regular physician.
Population in 1820, 4,263— in 1830, 5,724. It belongs to the 15th
judicial circuit and 8th district. Tax paid in 1833, 8646 73- — in 1834. on
lots, $25 76— land, $273 95— 180 slaves, $45 00—2032 horses, $121 92
—13 studs, $55 00—3 carryalls, $3 00— Total, $524 63. Expended in
educating poor children in 1*832,8242 61— in 1833, $361 56.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, fcc,
ESTILLVILLE, P. V. and seat, equalled by none except the Sweet
of justice, 357 ms. S. W. of R. and Springy, to which they have a consid-
433 S. W. by W. of W. It contains jerable resemblance. This place is
besides the county buildings, 61 dwel-| supplied with water by means of pipes,
ling houses, 2 houses of public wor-j through which it is brought 800 yards,
ship, (1 Methodist and 1 Pr'esbyte-jand is conveyed to every dwelling,
rian,) 1 academy, 1 common school) The water is of the purest and best
and 1 female do, 4 mercantile stores, j quality. This place possesses some
2 tanyards, 2 saddlers, 3 blacksmiths,! of the best waterfalls and sites for
1 extensive hat manufactory, 2 cabi- 1 manufacturing establishments in Wes-
net makers, several house carpenters,! tern Virginia, and other advantages
and various other mechanics. It is! not to be surpassed by any village in
situated on Mocasin creek, between
the N. fork of Holston and Clinch
rivers, and 4 miles from the Hol-
the state. The country around abounds
with stone coal and iron ore, and salt
water has lately been obtained in great
ston Springs, which are now visited quantity within 6 miles of the C. H
by much company, and said to be] A northern, southern, eastern and
WESTERN VIRGINIA— SCOTT
western mail arrives in this village
once a week. - Population 200 per-
sons ; of whom three are resident at-
torneys and two regular physicians.
County Courts are held on the 1st
Wednesday after the 2d Monday in
every month; — Quarterly in March,
June, August, and November.
Circuit Superior Courts of Law and
Chancery are held on the 2d Monday
in April and September, by Judge
Osborn Ford, P. O. 20 ms. north
Pendleton, P. O. 367 ms. from
R. and 443 from W. — Situated 12 ms.
N. W. of Estillville.
Stock Creek, P. O. 368 ms. from
R. and 444 from W. — Situated 1 1 ms.
W. of Estillville. The remarka-
ble NATURAL TUNNEL is situ
ated near this P. O. We present an
account of this natural curiosity writ-
ten by S. H. Long, Lieut. Col. TJ. S.
Army originally from the Monthly
American Journal oj Geology, in
which it was published in February,
"The immediate locality of this
tunnel is upon a small stream called
Buck-eye, or Stock creek. This last
name owes its origin to its valley hav-
ing been resorted to by the herdsmen
of the country, for the attainment of a
good range, or choice pasture ground
for their cattle. The creek rises in
Powell's mountain, and is tributary
to Clinch river, which it enters at the
distance of between two and three
miles below the tunnel. The aspect
of the surrounding country, and espe-
cially of that to the northward of the
tunnel, and constituting the southerly
slope of the mountain just mentioned,
is exceedingly diversified and broken,
by elevated spurs and ridges, separat-
ed from each other by deep chasms,
walled with cliffs and mural precipi-
ces, often presenting exceedingly nar-
row passes, but occasionally widening
into meadows or bottoms of considera-
ble extent. The mural precipices just
! mentioned, occur very frequently,
! bounding the valleys of the streams
i generally in this part of the country,
and opposing ramparts of formidable
height, and in many places utterly in-
surmountable. Such are the features
peculiarly characteristic of Wild Cat
Valley, the Valley of Copper Creek,
of Powell's and Clinch rivers, and of
numerous other streams of less note,
all of which are situated within a few
miles of the natural tunnel.
"To form an adequate idea of this
remarkable and truly sublime object,
we have only to imagine the creek to
which it gives a passage, meandering
through a deep narrow valley, here
and there bounded on both sides by
walls or revetemcnis of the character
above intimated, and rising to the
height of two or three hundred feet
above the stream: and that a portion
| of one of these chasms, instead of
presenting an open thorough cvthom
[the summit to the base of the high
grounds, is intercepted by a continu-
ous unbroken ridge more than three
hundred feet high, extending entirely
across the valley, and perforated trans-
versely at its base, after the manner
of an artificial tunnel, and thus af-
fording a spacious subterranean chan-
nel for the passage of the stream.
" The entrance to the natural tun-
nel on the upper side of the ridge, is
imposing and picturesque, in a high
degree; but on the lower side, the
grandeur of the scene is greatly
heightened by the superior magnitude
of the cliffs, which exceed in loftiness,
and which rise perpendicularly — and
in some instances in an impending
manner — two to three hundred feet;
and by which the entrance on this side
is almost environed, as it were, by an
amphitheatre of rude and frightful
"The observer, standing on the
brink of the stream, at the distance of
about one -hundred yards below the
debouchure of the natural tunnel, has,
in front, a view of its arched entrance,
WESTERN VIRGINIA— SCOTT.
rising seventy or eighty feet above thejmation, a little within it. I have not
water, and surmounted by horizontal! been able to discover any organic re-
stratifications of yellowish, white and mains in the limestone there, or in the
grey rocks, in depth nearly twice the | neighborhood. On the little projec-
height of the arch. On his left, altions of the rock which occur on the
view of the same mural precipice, de- walls, near the lower (S.) end of the
fleeted from the springing of the arch
in a manner to pass thence in a con
tunnel, a crystallized deposit is lodged,
which you no doubt recollect, that
tinuous curve quite to his rear, and seemed to my taste to be a mixture of
towering in a very impressive man-| saltpetre and alum. No attempt has
ner, above his head. On his right, a I been made to analyze it. The earth
sapling giowth of buck-eye, poplar, found near the upper (N.) extremity
linden, &,e. skirting the margin of the of the tunnel some years ago, (the
creek, and extending obliquely to the
right, and upward through a narrow,
abrupt ravine, to the summit of the
first time I visited it,) afforded saltpe-
tre. The crystallized deposit seems
to be made from a stratum apparently
ridge, which is here, and elsewhere, not more than six inches thick, which
crowned with a timber growth o[ pines. ; is so high that it cannot be reached
cedars, oaks, and shrubbery of various! for examination. The growth of tim-
kinds. On his extreme right, is a gi- ber is such as is common in the neigh-
gantic cliff lifting itself up perpendi- ^boring country, white, red, Spanish,
cularly from the water's edge, to the black oaks; hickory, white walnut,
dogwood, poplar, chesnut, birch, iron-
wood; some hemlock and pawpaw
height of about three hundred feet,
and accompanied by an insulated cliff,
called the chimney, of about the same!(asimina triloba) on the banks of the
altitude, rising in the form of a tur-i creek, and the edges of the cliffs fring-
ret, at least sixty feet above its base-!ed with cedar. On the creek, below
ment, which is a portion of the impos -'the tunnel for two miles, is found that
ing cliff just before mentioned. variety of ash called the fringe tree,
"In order to give a more full de-!(chiouanthusvirginica,)the long white
scription of the magnificent spectacle! fringe-like blossoms of which are so
which forms the subject of this article, I delightfully fragrant.'*
I shall transcribe some of the minutes The following passages are from
taken from my private notes, whilst
on the ground; but first I shall give
an extract from a letter addressed to
my own private journal:
'Saturday, Aug. 13, 1331. Hav-
ing ascended Cove ridge, we turned
me by my friend P. C. Johnston, Esq. (aside from our route to visit the natu-
of Abingdon, in the adjoining county Iral bridge, or tunnel, situated on Buck-
to Scott, a gentleman well acquainted | eye, or Stock creek, about a mile be-
withthis interesting locality. I low the Sycamore camp,t and about
" ' The rocks through which Stock! one and a half miles from a place call-
creek flows, are a light blue and gray! ~
* This plant, in the natural system, be-
longs to the oleacece, or olive tribe. 'The
flowers of the olea tragrans are used for
flavoring tea in China. We offer this hint
limestone, of a subcrystalline charac
ter; the strata are nearly horizontal:
and this arrangement of the strata is
obvious for several miles northeast-! to our readers who have access to the chio-
wardly; but in every other di rection ^Th^deSgnationiisbeeiigiventoaspot
very near the bridge, (natural tunnel, )j in the Galley of the creek, where formerly
near what I have believed to be trie persons are said to have encamped at the
NW, boundary of the transition for- same time together
WESTERN VtRGI NIA— SCOTT.
ed Rye cove, which occupies a spa-. its reverberations upon the roof and
cious recess between two prominent' sides of the grotto, 'he discharge of a
spurs of Powell's mountain, the site of
thenatural tunnel being included with
in a spur of Cove ridge, which is one of
the mountain spurs just alluded to.
Here is presented one of the most re-
markable and attractive curiosities of
its kind to be witnessed in this or any
other country. The creek, which is
about seven yards wide, and has a
general course about S. 15 W. here
passes through a hill elevated from
two to three hundred feet above the
surface of the stream, winding its way
through a huge subterraneous cavern,
or grotto, whose roof is vaulted in a
peculiar manner, and rises from se-
venty or eighty feet above its floor.
musket produces a crash-like report,
s ucceeded by a roar in the tunnel, which
has a deafening effect upon the ear.
" 'The hill through which this sin?
gular perforation leads, descends in a
direction from east to west, across the
line of the creek, and affords a very
convenient passage for a roao 1 which
traverses it at this place, having a de-
scent in the direction just -mentioned,
of about four degrees.'
" The rocks found in this part of
the country are principally sandstone
and limestone, in stratifications nearly
horizontal, with occasional beds of
clay slate. A mixture of the two for-
mer frequently occurs among the al-
The sides of this gigantic cavern rise ternations presented by these rocks.
A variety of rock resembling the
French burr, occurs in abundance on
Butcher's fork, of Powell's river,
about twenty miles northwardly of
the natural tunnel. Fossils are more
perpendicularly in some places to the
height of fifteen or twenty feet, and
in others, are formed by the spring-
ing of its vaulted roof immediately
from its floor. The width of the tun-
nel varies from fifty to one hundred! or less abundant in these and other
and fifty feet; its course is that of aj rocks. Fossil bones of an interesting
continuous curve, resembling the let- character have been found in several
ter S, first winding to tRe right as we' places. Saltpetre caves are numerous,
enter on the upper side, then to thej Coves, sinks and subterranean caverns
left, again to the right, and then again are strikingly characteristic, not only
to the left, on arriving at the entrance of the country circumjacent to thena-
on the lower side. Such is its pecu- Unral tunnel, but of the region gene-
liar form, that an observer, standing; rally situated between the Cumber-
at a point about midway of its subter-jiand mountain and the Blue Ridge or
ranean course, is completely excluded j Apalachain mountain. Bituminous
from a view of either entrance, and is! coal, with its usual accompaniments,
left to grope in the dark through a [abounds in the northerly parts of this
distance of about twenty yards, occu-
pying an intermediate portion of the
tunnel. When the sun is near the
region; and in the intermediate and
southerly portions, iron, variously
combined, often magnetic, together
meridian, and his rays fall upon both! with talcose rocks, &c. &e. are to be
entrances, the light reflected from both met with in great abundance.
extremities of the tunnel, contributes
to mollify the darkness of this interior
portion into a dusky twilight.
'"The extent of the tunnel from its
upper to its lower extremity, following
" The mountains in this vicinity,
long. 82° to 84° W. from Greenwich,
lat. 35° to 36° N. are among the most
lofty of the Alleghany range. Seve-
ral knobs in this part of the range,
its meanders, is about 150 yards, in among which maybe enumerated the
which distance the stream falls about j Roan, the Unaka, the Bald, the Black,
ten feet, emitting, in its passage overland Powell's mountains, rise to the
a r .°cky bed, an agreeable murmur,! height of at least four thousand five
which is rendered more grateful by hundred feet above tide."
WESTERN VIRGINIA— SHENANDOAH. 445
Shenandoah was established by act of Assembly in 1772, from a por-
tion of the county of Frederick under the name of Dunmore, from the
name of Lord Dunmore, then Governor of Virginia; but in October 1777
after Lord Dunmore had taken a decided stand against the colonies in the
contest with the mother country, one of the delegates from the county stated
that his constituents no longer wished to live in, or he to represent, a coun-
ty, bearing the name of such a tory, he therefore moved to call it She?ia?i-
doah, after the name of the beautiful stream which passed through it; which
was accordingly adopted. Shenandoah is bounded N. and N. E. by Fred-
erick, — E. and S. E. by Page, — S. and S. W. by Rockingham, — W. and
N. W. by Hardy. Its average lat. is about 38° 50' N. and long. 1° 30' W.
of W. C. ; — its greatest length from S. W. to N. E. is 32 miles, — average
width 15, — and area 334 sq. rns. This is a fertile and populous county,
situated in the valley. The whole county is traversed by the North Fork of
Shenandoah river, lying between the Massanutten and North mountain. The
North and South branches of the Shenandoah river pass through the entire
length of the county and Page, and unite-immediately below its north-eastern
line, and form the Shenandoah river. They admit of a descending naviga-
tion when the waters are a little swollen. — its creeks are Cedar creek, Pas^
sage creek, Stoney creek, Mill creek and Smith's creek. It is divided into
four valleys, two of which are long and two small, — by the Three Topped
or Massanutten mountain and the Little North mountain. The larger val-