enlarged his mercantile pursuits,
dealt with great liberality, and be-
coming very popular, his wealth so
increased, that at his death, the 13th
October, 1808, his personal estate
was estimated at above one million
"Preston's and King's works were
then conducted by his widow, now
Mrs. F. Smith, James King and
Wm. Trigg, as devisees of a life
estate; and since by Col. Jas. White;
at present by Wm. King & Co.; Mr.
King being the only son living of
James King and devisee of the es-
tate in remainder from his uncle
Wm. King, who died without chil-
dren. Gen. Preston's and King's
works in the first lease to Col. White
were rented at $30,000 each per an-
num, but have not been so productive
of late years as is understood.
"During the year 1832, Gen. Pres-
ton not being satisfied with the g-ood-
ness of his well, employed Mr. An-
thony, an ingenious mechanic and
partner of Dubrough's in a patent
plan of boring, to sink cast iron tubes
of five inch bore 218 feet or the
depth necessary, where Avas found a
supply of salt-water, sufficient for
400 bushels of salt daily, the water
being stronger than any known, 22
to 24 gallons producing 50 lbs. salt.
"The space in which good salt-
water can be procured in large quan-
tities is very small â€” in the vicinity
of Saltville has been expended above
$40,000 in fruitless digging and bor-
ing by the owners of land. Pres-
WESTERN VIRGINIAâ€” SMYTH.
ton's new tubed well is only 40 yards
from King's, and an experiment on
King's land, within 40 feet of the
old well made last month, produced
no water at the depth of 270 feet,
though the borings were for many
feet through the salt rock, and partly
through gypsum, blue and red clay
and half formed sand- stone. â€” The
formation below the depth of 200
feet, in which salt-water is found,
seems to be on a slaty basis, at an in-
clination of about 15 degrees facing
the south east, and in King's old
well, whence has been drawn water
for 40,000 bushels of salt in the last
60 days, there are large irregular
columns of plaster or gypsum, and a
plaster roof supporting the ground
above, the interior clay for 40 or
more feet in some directions having
been washed away. Into these open-
ings near 100 cords of wood were
thrown, but all disappeared. From
all the borings and the most careful
observation, it is evident, at this place,
that both the sand-stone and plaster
are above, and of more recent forma-
tion than the muriate of soda.
"The crater-like sides of the tran-
sition rock's exposed around Saltville,
at some points, into which the plaster
never intrudes, has given rise to a
conjecture, that at some ancient peri-
od, the plane on which stands Salt-
ville, was as high as the adjacent
hills; and that by a dissolution of
the saline substratum which the river
(being lower) may have received, the
upper earth gave way, throwing the
rocks into their present disjointed
state, and the surface of all which
has been levelled by the washings
from the hills, and by the impercep-
tible workings of time; and this con-
jecture would seem to be supported
by the numerous bones and teeth of
the Mastodon and other animals found
at any depth yet approached.
" The surface of the salt-water be-
ing some thirty feet higher than the
river water, has suggested to Mr.
Anthony the use of a syphon, half a
mile in length to draw the water from
the well, without a force pump ; and
the facility of conveying the water
to wood or more convenient points of
navigation, is now clearly tested by
its transfer in tubes two miles. Salt
at the works is now reduced to two
cents per pound, which will, no
doubt, cause more economy to be
used in its manufacture and transpor-
tation ; so far, there appears, how-
ever, to have been no ad vantage taken
of the great evaporating improve-
ments used at the salines in New
York, or the sugar factories of the
South. At Saltville, the furnaces
are trenches dug in the earth, the
kettles several inches thick â€” the fur-
nace doors large and open, and placed
under open sheds: and in some in-
stances streams of fresh water sweep-
ing from the hills issue out of the
furnace flues; but doubtless the pre-
sent proprietors will make the neces-
sary improvements. The salt made
is free from all impurity, its chrys-
tals are large by slow, and fine by
rapid evaporation; and .white and
brilliant, and when thrown from the
basket, soon becomes as dry as corn
meal; never deliquescing or giving
off any water, even in the wettest
weather. No settling or clarifying
process is necessary, the water being'
a clear semi-transparent, somewhat
whitish fluid, which after being re-
leased from its great pressure in the
deep parts of the well, seems incapa-
ble of holding in solution, the former
quantity of saline material. The
slight excess of muriatic acid over
the soda is united in the boiling with
some free gypsum, and precipitated
to the bottom, where attaching itself
to the mettle and becoming heated,
additions of salt are constantly made,
till it endangers breaking the kettle,
and is very difficult (once weekly) to
separate from the iron by pick-axes.
In the whole process of. manufactur-
ing this water, no trace of iodine or
WESTERN VIRGINIAâ€” TAZEWELL.
bittern water is to be found â€” and no
species of settling or clarifying is
necessary, the salt being deposited as
soon as milk warm, is three or four
times daily ladled out of kettles of
96 gallons each. At present, mea-
dow lands, pasture and farming to
the extent of 2,500 acres appears to
be in use; a saw mill, two grist
mills and about 100 persons, and as
many horses, compose the force of
the place; but as the market is limit-
ed, and not more than four cords of
face of the earth and of the very best
quality. Hundreds of boats and
wagons could be usefully employed
m its transportation, as the whole
lands of this interior country are ad-
mirably adapted to its use."
"There are few places in the world
which can vie with Saltville in beau-
ty and novelty of scenery. The ex-
tended meadows,- â€” rich ridges â€” high
conical peaks, â€” mountain coves, â€”
clear springs, and the remarkable
verdure covering the soil â€” set off to
wood are necessary to make 100 great advantage the lofty Clinch
bushels of salt, the apparatus of the [ mountain. The Chilhoway springs
place is unnecessarily large and i are in the vicinity, and often the
"The gypsum-beds on the Saltville
summer visiters add new interest."
Seven Mile Ford, P. O. 362
lands are perhaps the most conven- ms. S. W. by W. of W., and 287
ient and abundant in the world, be- from R.
ing only five to ten feet from the sur-
Tazewell was created by act of Assembly in 1799, and formed out of
portions of Russell and Wythe counties. It is bounded N. by Tug Fork
of Sandy river, separating it from Logan, â€” N. E. by Giles,â€” E. and S. E.
by Walker's mountain, separating it from Wythe, â€” S. by Clinch mountain,
separating it from Smyth, â€” S. W. by Russell, â€” and W. by Floyd county,
Kentucky. Its mean length is 66-1 miles, mean breadth lOf; and area
1,305 square miles :â€” Extending in lat. from 36Â° 54' to 37Â° 32' N. and in
long, from 4Â° to 5Â° 12' W. of W. C. It is situated immediately within the
vicinity of the sources of Clinch and Great Sandy rivers. The Clinch takes
its rise seven miles N. E. of Jeffersonsville, and pursues a course nearly W-
From the eastern section of the county, the great Kanawha receives many
tributary branches ; the principal of which are the Blue Stone and Wolfe
creeks. These have their sources within a few miles of Jeffersonsville,
and after some inconsiderable meanderings assume a N. E. direction. This
county is traversed by several ranges of mountains, some of which rise to
an immense height; the chief of which are the Clinch, Rich, East River,
and Paintlick. Their general course is a little S. of W. Between some
of* these mountains are interspersed beautiful valleys, of a black, deep and
rich soil, surprisingly fertile, and perhaps inferior to no county in the state
for grass, which thickly covers every cultivated portion to the very tops of
the mountains. Ten miles N. E. is Abb's valley a delightful vale.â€” Situ-
ated at its entrance is the Stonefort, a large circular wall of stone, bearing
on its image the stamp of great antiquity, from the ages of the trees on it,
and various other data. The modern savages that were first found in pos-
session of this county appear totally ignorant, not only of this ancient cas-
tle, but of other relics of antiquity in different parts of this valley. Here
WESTERN VIRGINIAâ€” TAZEWELL. 461
are slso deposited in lonely caverns, human skeletons of both sexes, and of
various ages preserving in their composition an outline of those general
features that characterise the Indian race. When brought into contact with
the external air, they quickly moulder into dust. Five miles S. W. of JeÂ£
fersonsville is a broken continuation of Rich mountain, termed Morris's
Nob, a noted object of curiosity. Near its S. W. extremity, and 12 miles
from the count) r seat, is the Maiden Spring Cove, a flourishing settlement,
watered by the Maiden Spring, a S. E. branch of Clinch river. On the
summit of Rich mountain, in view, and one and a hall miles S. is a pre-
cipitous ledge of rocks, of stupendous height, called the Peak â€” command-
ing a magnificent view of the surrounding country for 20 or 30 miles.
From this, some 4 or 5 miles a little S. of E. may be seen on the top of
Clinch mountain (immediately before it divides to form Burk's Garden) a
romantic assemblage of huge rocks, thrown together hy the hand of nature,
in the wildest confusion, clothed with a variety of perennial growth and
matted with impenetrable thickets of laurel; while far beneath are formed
between their interstices, horrible caverns, and subterraneous recesses, the
yetreat of numerous wild beasts, that frequent the surrounding wilderness,
hence its name of Bear Town. On this spot flourishes extensive groves of
balsam copavia, a variety of copaifera officinalis and other strange vegeta-
ble growth not found elsewhere in this region pf country.
Inexhaustible quarries of limestone rock, extending in a series of vertical
strata from N. E. to S. W. are found in many parts of the county. Stretch-
ing across the northern boundary are extensive beds of stone coal of excel-
The principle staples are cattle, horses, hogs, feathers, tow and flax-linen,,
beeswax, genseng, seneca, snakeroot, serpentaria, &c. &,c.
Compared with the elevation of the water in Great Kanawha, at the influx:
of the Qreenbrier, ascertained to be 1,333 feet, the lowest elevation that car^
be given to the central mountain valleys of this county must be 1,500 feet^
and the mean relative height of the arable soil of the county, at the lowest
estimate 1,200 feet.
Population in 1830, 5,749. It belongs to the fifteenth judicial circuit
and eighth district. Taxes paid state government in 1833, $686 35 â€” ir>
1834, on lots, $14 88â€” on land, 313 11â€”426 slaves, $106 50â€”2851
horses, $171 06â€”14 studs, $117 00â€”5 carryalls, $5 00â€” Total, $72?;
55. No report of school commissioner for 1S32. Expended in educating
poor children in 1833, $184 23.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Blue Stone, P. O. 279 ms. S. W.
Blue Stone river, in the southern part
pf the county.
Burk's Garden, P. U. 274 ms.
W of R. and 349 from W.â€” Situat-
ed 10 ms. E. of Jeffersonsville.
Ejurk's Garden is one of the most re-
markable spots in Western Virginia,
but being out of the track of the tou-
rists, it has not hitherto been describ-
ed. It is insulated by Clinch moun-
tain, except a narrow pass through
which its waters, by uniting into one
stream, are discharged into Wolf
creek, â€” its form is somewhat oval,
1 1 miles long and 5 wide, a beautiful
and perfect level, and naturally very
fertile. The settlement contains 62
families, amounting to 450 souls.
There are 1 house of public worship,
free for all denominations, 1 exten-
WESTERN VIRGINIAâ€” TYLER.
sive manufacturing flour mill, 2 tan-'
yards, and various mechanics. It is
well timbered with sugar maple, cher-
ry and white oak. The under growth
consists of Crab apple and hawthorn.
JEFFERSONVILLE, P. T. and
county seat, 352 ms. S. W. by W. of
Washington,â€” 290 a little S. of W.
from Richmond, â€” and 30 ms. N. W.
by W. of Evansharn in Wythe coun-
ty;â€” lat. 37Â° 0.3' N. and long. 4Â° 32'
W. of W. C. â€” Situated on the south
side of Clinch river, one mile from
its bank, and near the base of the
Jlich mountain. Besides the ordina-
ry county buildings, it contains 20
dwelling houses, 1 house of public
worship, free for all denominations, 1
common school, 4 mercantile stores,
% taverns, 1 lanyard, 1 saddler, G
joiners, 2 boot and shoe factories, 1
blacksmith, 2 hatters, 1 painter and 1
grist mill â€” and a manufacturing flour
mill is situated a mile to the north of
the village. Population 150 persons;
of whom 2 are attornies, and 2 regu-
County Courts are held on the 3d
Monday in every month ; â€” Quarter-
ly in April, June, August, and No-
Circuit Superior Courts of Law
and Chancery are held on the 22d
of April and 23d of September, by
Four miles N. W. of this village
are situated Cecil's Mineral Springs-;
which bid fair to rival any mineral
waters that have yet been discovered
in the western country.
Tyter was created by Act of Assembly in the year 1814, and formed
from a portion of Ohio county. It is bounded N. by Marshall, â€” N. E.
by Greene co. of Pa., and Monongalia of Va. â€” E. and S. E. by Harri-
son, â€” S. and S. W. by Wood, â€” and W. by the Ohio river, separating it
from Washington county, Ohio, â€” and N. W. by the same river separating
it from Monroe county. Its mean length is 27^ miles â€” mean breadth 23 ;
and area 855 sq. miles; â€” extending in lat. from 39Â° 13' to 39Â° 42' and in
long, from 3Â° 25' to 4Â° 12' W. of W. C. This county declines to the
west towards the Ohio, and is drained by Middle Island and Fishing creeks,
both running diagonally through the county and emptying into the Ohio.
The surface is exceedingly hilly and broken, but the soil is generally of
excellent quality. Population in 1820, 2,314, â€” 1830, 4,104. It belongs to
the twentieth judicial circuit and tenth district. Tax â€” no returns. Ex-
pended in educating poor children in 1832, $259 46â€” in 1833, $309 23.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Centre ville, â€” situated on the'
west bank of Middle Island Creek,!
7 ms. E. of Middlebourn, and 16
from Sistersville. It contains 15
dwelling houses, 2 mercantile stores,
and several mechanics.
Fishing Creek, P.O. 330ms. from
R. and 266 N. W. by W. of W.
This P. O. is situated on the head!
waters of the creek of the same name, '
which is a small stream rising in
Tyler, flowing nearly N. W. in a
winding course, and which about 50
ms. from its source empties into the
Ohio about 39 ms. below Wheeling.
Grape Island, P. O. 316 ms.
from R. and 289 W. of W.
Ingram's Mills, P. O. 313 ms.
from R. and 279 from W.
MIDDLEBOURN, P. V. and
WESTERN VIRGINIAâ€” WASHINGTON.
seat of justice, 307 ms. from R. and
273 W. of W. in lat. 39Â° 32' N. and
long. 3Â° 55' W. of W. f situated on
Middle Island creek, 45 ms. S. W.
of Wheeling. It contains besides
the ordinary county buildings, 25
dwelling houses, 1 Methodist house
of worship* 1 common school, 2 mer-
cantile stores, 2 taverns^ 1 manufac-
turing flour mill, 1 tan yard, and 1
saddler. The principal mechanics
are cabinet makers, house-joiners, and
blacksmiths. In the neighborhood
of this place on Middle Island creek,
there is an excellent site for a manu-
factory. The stream is large, and
after making a bend, five miles in ex-
tent, it returns to within 90 feet of
the same bed, â€” making a fall at the
nearest point of approximation of 12
or 15 feet. It is thought that there
is an abundance of iron ore and stone
coal contiguous to this site. Middle
Island creek is one of the principal
streams watering this county, â€” it is
about 200 miles in length, running a
course east and west through a fer-
tile valley, and emptying into the
Ohio river. Population 160 persons;
of whom 1 is a resident attorney, and
two are regular physicians.
County Courts are held on the 2d
Monday in every month ; Quarterly
in March, June, August and Novem-
Judgf Fry holds his Circuit Su-
perior Courts of Law and Chancery
on the 24 th of April and September.
Pine Grove, P. O. 327 ms. from
R. and 247 W. of W.
Sistersville, P. O. 320 ms. from
R. and 274 N. W. of W. This vil-
lage is pleasantly situated on the south
bank of Ohio river, 50 ms. N. W. by
W. of Clarksburg in Harrison Co.,
in a remarkably healthy neighbor-
hood, commanding a fine view of the
river; and possessing one of the best
landings for steamboats and other
craft on the Ohio. It contains about
30 dwelling houses, 2 mercantile
stores, 2 taverns, a school house, 1
tanyard, and various mechanics. â€”
Population about 200 persons; of
whom 1 is a regular physician. This
town was laid out in 1814 by com-
missioners appointed by the Legisla-
ture, as the county seat of Tyler; but
by a petition presented from the in-
habitants at the session of ' 15 and '16,
the Legislature was induced to re-
move the seat of justice to Middle-
bourne, 9 ms. nearly east from this
Washington was created by Act of Assembly in 1777, and formed
from a portion of the now extinct county of Fincastle. It is bounded N.
by Clinch mountain, separating it from Russell, â€” E. by Smyth, â€” S. E. by
Grayson, â€” S. by Carter county of Tennessee. â€” S. W. by Sullivan county
of the same state, â€” and W. by Scott. Mean length (including Smyth) 41
miles, â€” mean breadth 18f ; and area 754 square miles. â€” We have no
means of ascertaining its precise extent since the severance of Smyth ; but
an approximation may be made by reference to that county. It extends in
lat. from 36Â° 35' to 36Â° 52' N. and in long, from 4Â° 34' to 5Â° 19' W. of
W. C. This county occupies part of the valley between the Blue Ridge
and Clinch mountains, and is watered by the North. Middle, and South
Forks of Holston, which rise in Wythe and flow through this county, di-
viding it into three fertile valleys. But Washington is not less celebrated
for its valuable minerals, than its fertile soil, excellent pasturage, and de-
lightful climate. The gypsum found in this county in great quantities, is
WESTERN VIRGINIAâ€” WASHINGTON.
said to be equal, if not superior to that of Nova Scotia., and is now being
extensively applied to the same purposes by the farmers of Western Vir-
ginia and Tennessee. A fall account of its valuable salt works and other
minerals has however already been given in connexion with Smyth coun-
ty, â€” -especially in the article on Saltville, â€” which village is divided by
the line which separates the two counties.
Population in 1820, 12,444,â€” -1830; 15,614,â€” both of which numera-
tions were taken before the severance of Smyth. It belongs to the fifteenth
judicial circuit and eighth district. Tax paid in 1834 on lots, $195 25= â€”
land, $1,131 96â€”1122 slaves, $280 50â€”5364 horses, $321 84â€”39
studs, $226 00â€”33 coaches, $94 50â€”31 carryalls, $31 00â€”6 gigs,
$4 50. Total, $2286 10. The poor children in "this county are educated
on the district system, and we have no means at present of of ascertaining
the exact amount.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
ABINGDON, P. T. and seat of
justice, 309 ms. S. W. of R. and 385
S. W. by W. of W. in N. lat. 36Â°
42', and long 4Â° 58' W. ot W. C.
It is situated on the great valley road,
about 8 miles N. of the Tennessee
boundary, â€” at the south east side of
a mountain ridge, about 7 miles dis-
tant from either of the two main
Forks of the Holston river. A part
of the town stands on a considerable
eminence, beneath which there is a
cavern containing a lake.
Abingdon contains besides the or-
dinary county buildings, between 150
and 200 dwelling houses, â€” many of
them handsome brick buildings, â€” 2
Presbyterian and 2 Methodist nouses
of public Worship, all of them neat
brick edifices. A portion of the in
habitants are followers of Baron
Swedenborg, â€” in other words, belong
to the New Jerusalem Church, â€” but
they possess no house of worship,
and their preacher occasionally oc-
cupies one or the other of the Metho-
There is an Academy for females
and one for males, (both brick edi-
fices,) 2 hotels kept in good style, 3
taverns principally used for the ac-
commodation of wagoners, 1 manu-
facturing flour mill, 9 mercantile
houses, some of which are wholesale
establishments, and sell goods to the
amount of one hundred and fifty
thousand dollars annually, 3 groce-
ries, 1 woolen and 2 cotlon manufac-
tures, and i well established nursery.
There are 4 lanyards with saddle
and harness manufacturics attached
to them, 10 blacksmith shops, 1 hat
manufactory and store, 6 wheef-
wrights and wagon makers, 2 cabinet
warehouses, 3 bricklayers, 2 stone
masons, 3 house carpenters, 3 watch
makers and jewellers, 2 boot and
shoe factories, 3 house and sign
painters, 2 coppersmiths and tin plate
workers, and 3 tailors.
Abingdon is rapidly increasing in
population and trade. Old houses
are giving place to handsome brick
buildings, which the opulent and en-
terprising citizens are daily erecting.
The main street has lately been Mc-
Adamized at considerable expense,
but greatly to the improvement of its
utility, beauty, and comfort.
As a specimen of the flourishing
condition of this town, we must men-
tion that a quarter acre lot, situated
near the court house, recently sold
for upwards of $4,000. There is a
distributing post office here. Popu-
lation 1000 persons; of whom 13
are resident attorneys, and 3 regular
Counti/ Courts are held on the 4;
Monday in every month ',â€”Quoy)ter-
WESTERN VIRGINIAâ€” WOOD.
ly in March, June, August and No-
Judge Estill holds his Circuit
Superior Court of Law and Chance-
ry on the 2d Monday after the 4th
of April and September.
It may excite some surprise when
told that in this large and well popu-
lated county, there were in 1331 but
two post offices â€” the one at Abing-
don, and the other at Seven Mile
Ford; but since the severance of
Smyth, the one at Seven Mile Ford
is now in that county â€” in conse-
quence of which we have no knowl-
edge of any other post office in this
county except the one at Abingdon
the county seat.
Wood was created by Act of Assembly in the year 1799, and formed
from a portion of Harrison county. It is bounded N. E. by Tyler and
Harrison, â€” E. by Lewis, â€” S. by Kanawha and S. W. by Jackson, â€” W. by
the Ohio river, separating it from Meigs and Athens counties, Ohio â€” and
N. by the same river separating it from Washington county of the same
state. Its mean length (before the severance of a portion to form Jackson
county) was 40.^ miles â€” mean breadth 3 -V ; and area 1,223 square miles.
It extends in kit. from 38Â° 52' to 39Â° 27' N. and in long, from 3Â° 56' to 4Â°
42' E. of W. C. Nearly the whole of this county is embraced in the val-
ley of the Little Kanawha and its tributaries Hughes' river, â€” and North
Fork of Hughes' river. A small portion on the northwestern border is
drained by creeks into the Ohio. The surface is much broken, but the soil
is for the most part good. Population in 1820,5,860, â€” in 1830, 6,429. It be-
longs to the nineteenth judicial circuit and tenth district. Tax paid in
1833, $1,150 24â€” in 1834 on lots, $1 12 i2â€” land, $885 74â€” 1040 slaves,
$260 00â€” 4326 horses, $259 56â€” 26 studs, $223 00â€” 1 1 coaches, $28 50
â€”31 carryalls, $32 00â€”1 gig, 50 cts. Total, $1901 42. Expended in
educating poor children in 1832, $292 31â€” in 1833, $533 78.
TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &c.
Belleville, P. O. distant 314
ms. both from Richmond and Wash-
Bull Creek, P. O. 299 ms. W.
of W. and 334 from R., situated 13
ms. above Parkersburg in a thickly
settled neighborhood. Bull creek is
a small stream which rises in Wood
county, and empties into the Ohio, 7
miles above Marietta in the State of
Ohio. There are located on this