creek several mills, mercantile stores,
and 1 Baptist house of worship.
The land is fertile, producing the or-
dinary staples, — and is well adapted
Jacksonville, P.O. distant 281
1ms. both from W. and R., situated on
ithe Little Kanawha. It contains 12
dwelling houses, 1 Methodist and 1
Baptist house of worship, 1 common
school, 2 mercantile stores, 1 benevo-
lent society, 1 tan yard, 1 grist and
2 saw mills, and several mechanics.
Population 64 persons: of whom 1
is a physician.
PARKERSBURG, P. V.and seat
of justice, 299 ms. from R. and 299
N. W. of W., situated on the point
above the confluence of the Little
Kanawha with the Ohio river, 12
ms. below Marietta in Ohio. Be-
sides the ordinary county buildings,
It contains 75 dwelling houses, 1
46 6 WESTERN VlRGINtA-WYTHE.
.house of public worship (Methodist,)
% mercantile stores, 4 taverns, 3 com-
mon school, 1 steam saw mill, 1
printing office (issuing a weekly pa-
per,) 2 tan yards, 1 saddler, 3 cabinet
makers, 2 boot and shoe factories, 2
blacksmith shops, 3 tailors, 2 hatters
and 1 rope-walk. Population 500
persons; of whom ten are resident
attorneys, and 2 regular physicians.
County Courts are held on the 3d
Monday in every. month; Quarterly
in March, June, August and Novem
Pennsborough, P. O. 303 ms.
from R. and 268 from W.
Schultz's Range, P. O. 324 ms.
from R. and 219 W. of W., situated
on the Clarksburg road, on the wa-
ters of Cow creek, (6 miles from its
mouth,) which empties into the Ohio
r i ver ; — 15 miles from Marietta and
20 from Parkersburg. Schultz's
Range is the name of a tract of land,
of 25,000 acres laid off in lots of
500 acres each, all of which is in
this county. The northwestern turn-
l eTt • j pike runs through a part of this tract,
Circuit Superior Courts of Law | on Walker's creek. The range con-
and Chancery are held on the 1st o/j tains 5 families, in all about 30 per^
April and September, by Judge Sum- sons.
Wythe was created by act. of Assembly at the session of 1789-90, and
formed from a portion of Montgomery. It is bounded N. by Giles, — E.
by Montgomery,— S. by the Iron mountain, separating it from Grayson, —
W. by Smyth,— and N. W. by Walker's mountain, separating from Taze-
well. The greater part of Wythe is situated in a mountain valley included
between the Iron mountains and Walker's mountain. Its mean length
(before a portion was taken to form Smyth) was 45£ miles, — its mean
width 22£ and its area 1998 square miles. It extends in lat. from 35° 44'
to 37° 11' N., and in long, from 3° 34', to 4° 20* W. of W. C.
Wythe valley is an elevated table land. From the south western parf
flow the head waters of the Middle Fork of Holston, interlocking sources
with some of the branches of ISew river, which flows across the eastern
angle of this county. The characteristic features of the scenery of this ri-
ver are its sublimity,— its hanks are generally terrible cliffs, and toppling
precipices of solid limestone, often hundreds of feet in height, and inaccessi-
ble to any foot save those of the bird and reptile. There are few plains on
this river, and those few are comparatively small, rarely if ever extending
to the width of half a mile.
The principal creeks, are Red, Cripple, Peak, Cove and Walker's, tribu-
taries to New river on its northern side, and Big and Little Island and
Poplar' camp creeks on the southern. The first named creeks run S. of
E., the latter N. E.
The grandest ana most prominent features of this county, are its moun-
tains. Of these the largest is called Walker's mountain, which together
with other smaller ones, such as Little Walker's mountain, Brushy, Little
Brush/y, Cove and. others, lie between the Iron mountain on one side, and
the Garden mountain, Clinch mountain and others (not however in Wythe
but the adjoining counties) which are parts of. the Blue Ridge on the other.
!;he general course of all these mountains is from N. E. to S. W. and they
WESTERN VIRGINIA— WYTHE. 46T
are generally connected with each other by spurs. ''■ There are two other
mountains in this county, which are detached chains, — -the one called the
Lick, and the other Draper's mountain, the former being some 12 or 15
miles in length, the latter 6 or 8.
The "Rich Valley of Holston" lying on the North Fork of that rivet
commences with the head of the stream in the N. W. part of Wythe. That
part of it lying in this county, has a pre-eminent claim to the title. There
is in the eastern part of this county a valley called Draper's valley, a de-
lightful tract of some 5 or 6 miles in length, and ranging in breadth from
half to one and a half miles, having Draper's mountain on its N. side, and
on the other, hills and highlands. The soil of Wythe cannot be said to be
rich, but sufficiently fertile to produce all the necessaries of life. It pos-
sesses the characteristic of all the soil of western Virginia, the faculty of
renewing itself iri grass, and is peculiarly benefitted by the cultivation of
clover. Many if not all of the farmers are learning to use gypsum, and
find it peculiarly beneficial. Small grain of all kinds is raised with facili-
ty, as also corn and potatoes, — the latter of the finest quality. Fruits of ail
the common kinds, such as apples, pears, cherries, plums and peaches are
easily produced, but the lateness of the season, and shortness of the summer
often cuts off the hopes of the inhabitants in the bud.
Wythe is rich in minerals. Iron is abundant almost every where.
Lead is found on the river in abundance, and is worked with profit. There
are three establishments for making lead in the county, and which manu-
facture about 200 tons per annum. There is one iron manufactory in ope-
ration. Gypsum is found in Wythe, though not so abundant as in the
neighboring county of Smyth. There are large beds of coal in this county,
untouched for want of a turnpike or some improved means of transportation,
No county in the state suffers more than Wythe for want of internal im-
provements. Her mineral weahh: has hardly commenced a developement,
and must probably lie dormant another century, until there shall be more
public spirit, or less sectional feeling in the legislature. There have been
some copper and silver specimens found in working the lead mines, but in
no great quantities. The elevation of Wythe is about 1600 feet above the
level of the ocean.
Population in 1810,8,356—1820, 9,692—1830, 12,163, It belongs to the
I6th judicial circuit and 8th district. Tax paid in 1833, $1,805 59 — in
1834, on lots, $112 12— on land, $985 74—1,040 slaves, $260 00—4,326
horses, $259 56—26 studs, $223 00—11 coaches, $28 50—31 carryalls,
$32 00 — 1 gig, 50 cents. Total $1,901 42. Expended in educating poor
children in 1832, $373 53— in 1833, $408 60.
TOW T NS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, &,c.
Austinville, P. O. 265 rns. fromiis fertile, producing well Indian corn,
R. and 341 from W. ! wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat and pota-
Draper's Valley, P. O. 235 ms
S. W. of R. and 310 S. W. of W.,
situated 16 ms. E. of Evans ham, and
12 W. of Newbern. It contains sev-
eral dwelling houses, I mercantile
toes. It is also well adapted to pas-
turage. Extensive iron works are
carried on in this neighborhood.
EVANSHAMor WYTHE C. H.
P. V. 253 ms. S. W. of R. and 329 S.
store, 1 tanya°rd, &c. Population 15. W. by W. of W., in lat. 36° 56' N«
The soil of the surrounding country land long. 4° 5' W of W, C. Besides
WESTERN VIRGINIA— WYTHE.
the ordinary county buildings, this
village contains from 90 to 100 dwel-
ling houses, 1 house of public wor-
ship, (Methodist,) 9 miscellaneous
stores, 2 cabinet makers, 1 painter
and glazier, 1 coppersmith, 1 tin plate
worker, 4 boot and shoe makers, 2
tanyards, 3 saddlers, 1 printing office,
issuing a weekly paper, 4 taverns
and 6 blacksmith shops. Population
about 600 persons ; of whom 7 are at-
tornies and 5 regulai physicians.
County Courts are held on the
2d Monday in every month ; — Quar-
terly in March, June, August and
Circuit Superior Courts of Law
and Chancery are held on the 7th
of April and September by Judge
Early Traditions. — There is much
traditionary lore in this county among
the old settlers. One romantic cir
cumstance, though not exactly inac-
cordancewith this work, maybe worth
recording as evincing the difficulties
of various sorts, which occurred in
first settling the frontier counties of
The incident alluded to, is that a
man by the name of White, who lived
on Walker's creek, was out with
General Rogers Clarke. The
General being in want of intelligence
as to the future plans of the enemy,
and being desirous of obtaining infor-
mation, sent out White by himself to
bring him in an Indian. White
went out, and after two days unsuc-
cessful hunt returned without one.
The General still being determined
to have an Indian, sent White out the
second time, saying take companions
if you will. White being remarkable
for size, strength, agility, courage and
prudence, selected two men, and start-
ed with the determination of having
an Indian if he went to Canada for
nim. After a days travelling they
struck on a faint trail, which/by the
middle of the third day, took them to
an Indian village. White cautiously
crept up to reconnoitre, and discover-
ed a large muscular Indian, sitting on
a log - with his back towards the
whites, and facing the Indian encamp-
ment, engaged in mending a mocca-
sin. The Indian was partially con-
cealed by a tree, under which he was
sitting-, from the view of the villagers.
White at once, though fully aware of
the danger of the attempt determined
to carry that Indian to Clarke, and
leaving his companions, not thinking
it prudent for the three of them to
proceed for fear of discovery, he crept
softly up behind the Indian, who sat
perfectly unconscious of danger,
till he felt the grasp of While on his
throat, and saw a pistol presented at
his head. White in a few hurried
words, in the language of the tribe,
told him that if he made any noise or
resistance he would shoot him in-
stantly through the head, but if he
went. with him quietly he would pro-
mise he should return to his tribe.
The Indian submitted to his fate and
White carried him in triumph to.
Clarke, who immediately on seeing
him, said "this is no Indian," enquiry
being made of the prisoner who and
whence he was, he said that he was
born of white parents, that when a
small boy, the Indians attacked the
settlement, killed all the family save
his elder brother, who escaped during
the onset, and took him prisoner.
He described the place from which
he was taken. During the recital,
the countenance of his captor appeared
very much agitated, he asked him
several abrupt questions as to his early
rememberances, and finally cried out,
I am your Brother." All circum-
stances went to confirm the truth of
this assertion, even to the similarity
of persons. The exile was restored
to society, and for many years sat hi
the legislature of Kentucky, but still
so far retained his old habits and pre-
dilections as to spend months at a time
in the woods.
HOUSE OF DELEGATES,
Number of Delegates to which the several counties are entitled under the
Isle of Wight,
James City, ]
King & Q.ueen,
Charles City, and )
New Kent, )
Lancaster and )
Elizabeth City and )
Mathews and >
Fayette and )
Mason and )
The Constitution lays off the Senatorial District as follows: —
Brooke, Ohio, Tyler, and (Marshall,) 1, — Monongalia, Preston and Ran-
dolph, 1, — Harrison, Lewis and Wood, 1, — Kanawha, Mason, Cabell, Lo-
gan, Nicholas, (Fayette, Jackson,) 1, — Greenbrier, Monroe, Giles, Mont-
gomery, and (Floyd,) 1, — Tazewell, Wythe, Grayson, and (Smyth,) 1, —
Washington, Scott, Lee, 1, — Berkley, Morgan, and Hampshire, 1, — Fred-
erick, Jefferson, 1, — Shenandoah, Hardy, and (Page,) 1. — Rockingham,
and Pendleton, 1, — Augusta, Rockbridge, 1, — Alleghany, Bath, Pochahon-
tas, and Botetourt, I, — Loudoun, and Fairfax, 1, — Fauquier, and Prince Wil-
liam, 1, — Stafford, King George, Westmoreland, Richmond, Lancaster, and
Northumberland, 1, — Culpeper, Madison, Orange, and (Rappahannock,)
l,rrr4.1hemarle, Nelson, and Amherst, 1, — Fluvanna, GoochJand, Louisa,
and Hanover, 1, — Spottsylvania, Caroline, and Essex, 1, — King &, Queen,
King William, Gloucester, Mathews, and Middlesex, 1, — Accomack,
Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Warwick, and City of Williamsburg,
1, — Charles City, James City, New Kent, Henrico, and City ot Richmond,
1, — Bedford, and Franklin, I, — Buckingham, Campbell, and Cumberland,
1, — Patrick, Henry, and Pittsylvania, 1,— Halifax, and Mecklenburg, 1, —
Charlotte, Lunenburg, Nottoway and Prince Edward, 1, — Amelia, Pow-
hatan, Chesterfield, and Town of Petersburg, 1, — Brunswick, Dinwiddie,
and Greensville, 1, — Isle of Wight, Prince George, Southampton, Surry,
and Sussex, 1, — Norfolk, Nansemond, Princess Anne, and Borough of
()Those counties in brackets have been created since the Constitution, from portions
of the districts to which they have been assigned.
The arrangement of the counties into Congressional Districts since the last census,
\s given after the District of Columbia.
biSTRICT OF COLOMBIA;
ESTABLISHMENT, SITUATION, BOUNDARIES AND EXTENT.
T"he sixteenth clause of the eighth section of the first Article of the
Constitution of the United States gives to Congress the power
"To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such dis-
trict (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states,
and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the
United States" — In pursuance Of this power General Washington, by
authority from Congress, after great research and observation selected the
present District of Columbia, as the site for the metropolis of this Great
Empire of Confederated Republics. It was ceded in 1790 by the states of
Virginia and Maryland to the United States, and became the seat of govern-
ment in 1800.
It lies upon both banks of the Potomac, in form an exact square of 10
rriiles, containing of course 100 square miles, or 64,000 acres. Two of its
sides run in a N. E. and S. W. direction, — at right angles to the other two
running in a S. E. and N. W. direction. It extends in lat. from 38° 46'
30" to 38° 58' N. nearly; and the long, of the capitol (which we assume
as zero with respect to all other places in this country) has rjeen found by
accurate astronomical calculations to be with reference to Greenwich, the
English point of reference, 76° 55' 30" west.
The District on the Virginia side is bounded by the county of Fairfax,
and on (he Maryland, — by Prince George county on the S. E. and Mont-
gomery county on the N. W.
The location of the District having been determined on, the first stone to
mark its boundary was set in Jones's Point, the uppermost cape of Hunting
creek, on the 15th of April, 1791, in presence of a large Concourse of
spectators. Of the 100 miles square included in the District, 36 lying south
of the Potomac, and included in ihe county of Alexandria, were ceded by
Virginia. A strip 10 miles long, by about 8 broad lying N. of the Potomac
and comprehended in Washington county was ceded by Maryland.
The surface of the District is gently undulating, affording fine sites for
the cities within its limits. In a commercial view its situation is highly fa-
vorable. Ships of any draught can be navigated to Alexandria, and those
of very considerable size to the Navy Yard on the East branch of the Po-
tomac, at Washington. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal, and the fine
roads which the government has made in every direction, also contribute
much to its commercial advantages.
There is as much variety of soil as of surface in the District. The hills
are for the most part covered with forests, and the vales are cultivated or
in GENERAL DESCRIPTION
covered with wild shrubbery, presenting a landscape, almost every where,
of great beauty. Springs of the finest quality abound.
Rock creek, Tiber creek, and the Eastern Branch of the Potomac on the
north, — and Oxen Run on the south, — and Four Miles Run on the west, —
irrigate a great portion of the District.
The Potomac presents a vast sheet flowing from N. W. to S. E. View-
ed from Fort Washington, — with the mouth of the Eastern Branch on the
left, — the main stream on the right, — and the opening of Four Miles Run
in front, it presents the appearance of a great inland sea, rather than of a
The composition of the soil on the banks of the Potomac and the Eastern
Branch, is a deep alluvial — rich and various — accumulated from the depo-
sites of successive ages, — and the gradual retreat of the waters; Frag-
rrients of primitive rocks, pyrites, gravel, sand, shells and decayed ve-
getable substances are mingled together.
The soil generally near the river is fertile and productive, elsewhere ra-
ther thin, and sometimes sandy; but susceptible of great improvement.
The most forbidding and barren looking with ordinary attention, and by
the use of manure and gypsum, may be fertilized to an extraordinary de-
With such a soil, nothing is wanting but enterprise and perseverance to
change the face of nature from a barren waste, to a blooming garden, and
Orie would think that a market of sufficient extent to stimulate to the requi-
site exertion was presented almost at the very doors of the farmer and hor-
ticulturist ;-^-if indeed the facilities for water transportation afforded by the
Potomac and its branches do not bring the more distant, but more fertile
portions of Virginia and Maryland into injurious competition.
The Rock creek lands are of a li^ht, loamy nature, with a substratum of
The staple produce of the country is the same with that grown in the
adjoining portions of Virginia and Maryland, viz: tobacco, wheat, Indian
corn, fruit, and the esculent roots.
There is near the District, on Acquia creek, an extensive quarry of free-
stone, and on the Seneca One of beautiful variegated marble, or pudding
stone from which the columns in the Hall of the House of Representatives
The composition df the city low grounds, lying below the hights, from the
Capitol to Halorama and to the margin of the Potomac, are alluvial, and
appear to have been reclaimed but recently.
Within the memory of many now living, seines have been hauled, and
fish taken, where handsome stores now stand, in the part of Pennsylvania
Avenue in which rriOst business is now carried on, namely — between 9th
and 10th streets.
The extent of the marshes below Columbia College bears evidence 4hat
apart of the stream of Rock creek once found its way across towards the
Eastern Branch, along the foot of the hights which flank the northern
part of Washington.
By judicious draining these swamps have been recently limited to a com-
paratively small space, but their existence has still an injurious effect upon
the health of the inhabitants residing in their vicinity. This fact, is clearly
established by the improvement of the health of all situated in the vicinity
of the low grounds from the centre market to Capitol Hill.
OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 473
Pieces of sound timber are often discovered from ten to fifty feet below
the surface. In digging wells, several pieces of black looking limbs of
trees, and entire roots have been found at a considerable depth. — An exten-
sive stratum of carbonated limbs of trees has been discovered near Bla-
densburg, and north of the City, and traced for a considerable distance.
Many of the blocks of stone that compose the walls of the Capitol con-
tain specimens of the leaves of trees, and ligneous fragments, — and when
exposed to the air they have sometimes shrunk.
On turning up the surface of the soil some curiosities of Indian origin
have been found. Round stone vessels in the shape of common pots, or
bowls, and stone axes are sometimes picked up. A good specimen of an
Indian axe in excellent preservation was found on the farm of Mr. Dunlop
in Montgomery county, Md. — and is yet in his possession. Points of darts,
and arrow heads of stone, used in Indian warfare are met with in many
parts of the District. In some ancient records an Indian fort is mentioned,
as standing on the banks of the Eastern Branch, not far from the spot on
which the powder magazine is now located, — but there are now no traces
of it to be found.
The temperature of the water of the city springs, when brought to the
surface of the earth at midsummer may be set down at 58° of fahrenheit, —
the Bladensburg chalybeate at 64°, — and the stream of the Potomac at 85°,
— and the water in the hydrants in Pennsylvania Avenue generally, where
the pipes are sunk to a proper depth, at 56°, though it may issue from the
fountain at 58°.
GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY.
A few years ago a correspondent of a New York print, (generally under-
stood to be an intelligent member of Congress) took a glance at some of the
prominent geological features of this District; and although there be some
imagination in the sketch, yet, there is enough of science to justify its inser-
It is obvious, says he to the most careless observer, that over the site of
the Capitol of the United States, and the country far around, the waves of
the ocean once rolled, and that these fields, now quietly tilled by the planter,
were thrown from beneath it by some tremendous convulsion. Where the
great concerns of this nation are now canvassed, and our politicians are
imagining that they may provide tor the perpetuity of our republic, memo-
ry, as if mocking their schemes, points to the period when the monsters of
the deep flowed over the spot; and no human being conceived that the wa-
ters would not continue to hide it forever.
The proofs of the amazing changes are numerous and conclusive. It is
announced by the strata of earth; by the rounded stones, like those which
grind and polish each other on the sea shore; and by the numerous secon-
dary formations, which without analysis, instruct us satisfactorily on the
slightest inspection. In many of the stones found even on the hights around
us, are distinct impressions of marine shells. The lime of which these
shells were constituted, has been decomposed, and has vanished, oi been
incorporated with the general mass, which, when broken, exhibits the con-
cave and convex surfaces of the marine- substance, and the vacant space pro-
duced by the slow waste of ages not now to be numbered. These stones