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and professor of Greek in the London University in most admired of all his productions. It has been pro-
1826. About this time he became a member of the nounced (and we think justly) "the most perfect speci-

Night," which attracted great attention and raised him
at once to the first rank among American poets. In
1841 he published "Ballads, and other Poems:" his

tributed many articles to Smith's "Classical Dictionary," i England Tragedies," (1868,) "The Divine Tragedy,"

edited Cicero's Orations, and published, besides other
works, " France and its Revolutions," (1850,) and "The
Decline of the Roman Republic," (5 vols., 1864-74.) He
translated into English the "Thoughts of the Emperor
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus." He was one of the pro-
fessors in the college at Brighton from 1849 to 1871.
Died August 10, 1879.

Long, (JOHN DAVIS,) an American statesman,
born at Buckfield, Maine, in 1838. He studied law
and practised in Boston, was a member of the Massa-
chusetts legislature 1875-78, (speaker 1876-78,) lieu-
tenant-governor 1879, governor 1880-82, member of
Congress 1883-89, and was appointed secretary of the
navy in McKinley's cabinet 1897.

Long, (ROGER,) F.R.S., an English astronomer, born
in the county of Norfolk in 1680. He became Lowndes
professor of astronomy at Cambridge in 1749, and after-
wards obtained the rectory of Bradwell. He wrote* a
"Treatise on Astronomy," of which the first volume was
published in 1742 and the second in 1764. Died in 1770.

Long, (STEPHEN H.,) an American engineer, born at

(1872,) "Three Books of Song," (1873,) "Aftermath,"
(1874,) "The Hanging of the Crane" and "The Masque
of Pandora," (1875,) " Keramos," (1878,) " Ultima Thule,"
(first part, 1881 ; second part, " In the Harbour," 1882.)
A posthumous drama, " Michael Angelo," appeared in
1883. Of his prose writings, besides " Hyperion," al-
ready referred to, we may mention "Outre-Mer : a Pil-
grimage beyond the Sea," (1835,) " Kavanagh," a novel,
(1849,) and his contributions to the "North American
Review." He also published a careful and scholarly
translation of Dante's "Divine Comedy," (3 vols., 1867-
70,) and edited a series of volumes entitled " Poems of
Places." Longfellow resigned his chair at Harvard in
1854, and was succeeded by Lowell. In 1868-69 ne ^ v ~
elled in Europe, and was everywhere received with
marked attention, the degree of D.C.L. being conferred
on him by the Universities of both Oxford and Cam-
bridge, England. He died at Cambridge, Massachusetts,
March 24, 1882.

As a poet, Longfellow is characterized by tenderness
and depth of feeling, to the expression of which the pic-
turesque and graceful simplicity of his language often

e as k; 9 as j; g hard; g as /; G, H. ^guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as i; th as in this. ( J^"See Explanations, p. 23,




Imparts an indescribable charm. He seldom or never
attempts to excite admiration by far-sought conceits, by
wild or lofty flights of imagination, or by the exhibition
of dark and terrible passions. He relies chiefly for his
success on a simple and direct appeal to those sentiments
which are common to all mankind, to persons of every
rank and of every clime.

It is, in fact, to his command over those feelings which
are universal in the human heart, that we must ascribe
the extraordinary popularity of his Indian story of " Hia-
watha." It is, perhaps, not too much to say that he is
not merely the first but the only writer who has suc-
ceeded in giving a deep and living interest to a story of
Indian life. Restricted as he necessarily was by the
nature of the subject, by the extreme simplicity, not to
say meagreness, of the character of our aborigines, he
has yet produced a poem which not only comes home to
the hearts of the masses of the people, but which must ex-
cite the admiration of the cultivated reader who will take
into consideration the inherent difficulties of the task,
and the limits and restrictions which the poet, in selecting
such a subject, had necessarily to impose upon himself.
The form of the verse is in admirable keeping with the
simplicity of the story. " But, unhappily for the poet," as
has been observed, " this is the very measure to attract
the parodist," and, immediately upon the issue of the
poem, countless parodies were made upon it. Those,
however, who can appreciate the intrinsic merits of true
poetry find much that is beautiful and excellent in the
" Song of Hiawatha." Several different translations of
it have been made, one by the distinguished German
poet Freiligrath, and it has been read and admired in
every part of Europe.

See ALLfBONH, " Dictionary of Authors :" GRISWOLD, " Poets and

Long'fellow, (SAMUEL,) an American Unitarian
clergyman, brother of the preceding, was born al
Portland, Maine, in 1819. He graduated at Harvard
Divinity School in 1846, and was pastor successively
at Fall River, Brooklyn, and after 1880 at German-
town, Philadelphia. He published "Hymns of the
Spirit." Died October 3, 1892.

Longhena, (BALDASSARE,) an Italian architect,
worked at Venice about 1640.

Longhi. See LUNGHI.

Longhi, lon'gee, (ALESSIO or ALESSANDRO,) a Vene-
tian painter and engraver, born in 1 726 ; died about 1 790.

Longhi, (GIUSEPPE,) a celebrated Italian engraver,
born at Monza, in Lombardy, in 1766. He was a pupi
of Vincenzo Vangelisti. He worked mostly at Milan
where he became professor in the Academy of Fine Arts.
His works are admired for the magical effect of the chiaro-
scuro. He was an excellent draftsman. Among his
master-pieces are "The Marriage of the Virgin," afte
Raphael, "The Magdalene," after Correggio, a " Gala
tea," after Albani, and "The Last Judgment," after Mi
chael Angelo. He published " La Calcographia," (1830,
an able treatise on engraving. Died in 1831.

Longhi, lon'gee, or Luiighi, loon'gee, (LuCA,) an
Italian painter, born at Ravenna in 1507, always residec
in that city. He excelled in portraits, and also paintec
some subjects of sacred history with success. Died in
1580. " His conceptions," says Lanzi, " are sweet, varied
and graceful, with a powerful union of colours." His
daughter BARBARA was also a painter.

Longin. See LONGINUS.

Longino. See LONGINUS.

Longinus. See DLUGOSZ.

Lon-gi'nus, [Gr. A.oyyivof; Fr. LONGIN, 16N'zhaN'; It
LONGINO, lon-jee'no,] a celebrated Greek philosophei
and critic, was born probably in Syria, and flourishec
in the third century. Some ancient writers call hin
He was a pupil of his uncle Phronto of Emesa, and was
a Platonist in philosophy. He opened at Athens a
school of philosophy and rhetoric, which became ver
celebrated. The famous Porphyry was one of his pupils
After passing many years at Athens, he accepted the

nvitation of Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, to reside at
er court He taught her Greek, and served her as
ouncillor or prime minister during her war against Au-
elian, Emperor of Rome. The latter, having captured
'almyra, put Longinus to death in 273 A.D. Longinus
'as the first to whom was applied the phrase, often re-
eated since, "a living library," and is considered the
reatest philosopher of his age. He wrote many critical
nd philosophical works, none of which have come down
o us except his admirable " Treatise on the Sublime,"
IIcp2 Tfyotif,) which Boileau translated into French and
ailed a " master-piece of good sense, learning, and elo-
uence." Some writers, however, have doubted but witb
ittle reason, it would seem whether Longinus was the
eal author of this work. (See, on this subject, the arti-
le " Longin" in the " Nouvelle Biographic Generale.")
It has been truly said that to be a good critic one must
>e something of a poet. This qualification Longinus
lossessed in a pre-eminent degree. Pope, addressing
im, says,

"Thee, bold Longinus ! all the Nine inspire,
And bless their critic with a poet's fire ;
An ardent judge, who, zealous in his trust,
With warmth gives sentence, yet is always just ;
Whose own example strengthens all his laws,
And is himself that great sublime he draws."

Essay on Criticism, part lii

Of Longinus's " Treatise on the Sublime," several good
French translations have been made, one by the cele-
rated critic and poet Boileau, (1674.) It has also been
ranslated into German by Schlosser, and into English
>y \V. Smith.

See D. RUHNKBN, " Dissertatio de Vita et Scriptis Longini,"
776; P. EKEKMAN, " Dissertatio de D. Longino Cassio," 1750;
^ VAUCHER, "fitudes critiques sur la TraitiS du Sublime et sur
es ficrits de Longin," 1854; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;"
' Monthlv Review" for May, 1779.

Long'land or Lang'land, (JOHN,) an English bishop,
>orn at Henley in 1473. 'He became confessor to Henry
VIII., and Bishop of Lincoln, in 1520. On the question
of the divorce of Queen Catherine he gave the king
such counsels as were most agreeable to the latter. His
sermons were published. Died in 1547.

Longland, Langelande or Langley, (WILLIAM,) an

early English poet, a native of Shropshire, was a con-

temporary of Chaucer, and a disciple of Wickliffe. He

ras the reputed author of a celebrated poem called the

Visions of Piers Plowman," (1369.) It is a satire

directed against the vices of the clergy and other pro-

iessions, and displays considerable fancy and originality.

Long'man, (THOMAS NORTON,) an English merchant
and publisher, born about 1770, was honourably and
widely known as the head of the great publishing-firm
of Longman & Company, Paternoster Row, London.
He published works for Scott, Wordsworth, and Thomas
Moore. Died in 1842.

Lougmuir, long'mur, (JOHN,) LL.D., a Scottish Free
Church clergyman, born near Stonehaven, November 13,
1803. He graduated at Marischal College, Aberdeen,
in 1825. Besides many volumes of prose and verse, he
prepared several dictionaries, and was one of the editors
of " Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary." Died May 7, 1883.

Longobardi lon-go-baa'dee, (NiccoL6,) a Jesuit,
born in Sicily in 1565. He went to China as a mission-
ary in 1596, and wrote a "Treatise on Confucius and his
Doctrine," (" De Confucio ejusque Doctrina Tractatus. )
Leibnitz published a new edition of this work, with notes.
Died at Pekin in 1655.

Lougoliua. See LONGUEIL.

Longoliua, long-go'le-us, (JoHANN DANIEL,) a Ger-
man scientific writer, born at Meissen in 1677 ; died in

Longolius, (PAUL DANIEL,) a learned German writer,
born near Dresden in 1704. He was rector of the gym-
nasium of Hof for forty-four years, and was one of the
editors of the "German Encyclopaedia, or Universal
Lexicon," of Zedler, (Leipsic, 1731-5-) He also P ub "
lished editions of Pliny the Younger, and of Aulus
Gellius. Died in 1779.

See G. W. KIRSCH, " Vier Programme von P. D. Longoli) Leben,"
1770-81: "Life of Longolius," prefixed to his "Notitia Hermun-
tlorum maximzque Partis Germaniz," by ERNESTI, 1793.

a, , 5, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, ?, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n&t; good; moon ;




Longomontan. See LONGOMONTANUS.

Longomontanus, lon'go-mon-ta'nus, [Fr. LONGO-
MONTAN, loN'go'moN'tON', ] (CHRISTIAN,) a Danish
astronomer, born in 1562 at Langsberg, (Jutland,) of
which place he assumed the name, Latinizing it, accord-
ing to the custom of the time. He was the son of a
poor labourer, whose family name was SEVERIN. He
obtained the favour of Tycho Brahe, whom he assisted
in calculations and observations at Huen, or Hoene,
from 1589 to 1597. From 1605 to 1645 he was professor
of mathematics in the Academy of Copenhagen. He
died in 1647. Among his principal works are "First
Part of a Mathematical System," (" Systematis Mathema-
tici Pars I.," 1611,) "Danish Astronomy," (" Astronomia
Danica," 1622,) " Pentas Problematum Philosophise,"
(1623,) and "Invention of the Quadrature of the Circle."

Longperier, de, deh 16N'pa're-i', (HENRI ADRIEN
PREVOST,) a French antiquary, born in Paris in 1816,
wrote treatises on numismatics, etc. Died in 1882.

Long'street, (AUGUSTUS BALDWIN,) son of William,
noticed below, was born in Augusta, Georgia, in 1790.
He became a minister of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, and was appointed president of the South Caro-
lina College in 1857. He died September 9, 1870.

Longstreet, (JAMES,) an able American general, born
in South Carolina in 1821, graduated at West Point in
1842. He served in the Mexican war, (1846-47,) and
was breveted major for his conduct at Molino del Rey.
In 1852 he obtained the rank of captain. He resigned
his commission about June, 1861, commanded a brigade
in the Confederate army at Bull Run, July 21, and be-
came a major-general soon after that date. He took
part in the battles near Richmond in May and June,
1862, and commanded the right wing of General Lee's
army at Antietam, September 17. Having been raised
to the rank of lieutenant-general, he commanded a corps
at the battle of Gettysburg, July 2-3, 1863. In the Sep-
tember ensuing he joined the army of General Bragg,
under whom he served at Chickamauga, September 19-
20. He commanded a force which General Bragg sent
against Burnsirle in October, 1863 ; and he attempted to
take Knoxville in November, without success. In the
battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, he was severely
wounded, but resumed his command during the siege of
Petersburg. At the close of the war he unreservedly
accepted the situation, and was subsequently appointed
by President Grant surveyor of the port of New Orleans.
In 1880-81 he was minister to Turkey. He subse-
quently became United States marshal for Georgia,
and in 1897 was made a commissioner of railroads.

Longstreet, (WILLIAM,) an American inventor, bom
in New Jersey, removed to Georgia. He obtained a
patent for an irnprovernfent in the cotton-gin. Died in

Lougueil, de, deh loN'guI' or loN'guh'ye, [Lat. LON
GO'LIUS,] (CHRiSTOPHE,) an eminent French scholar,
born at Malines in 1490. He practised law in Paris,
and was chosen conseiller au parlcmcnt. Afterwards he
removed to Padua, and devoted himself to literature.
He was one of the Latin scholars whose fastidious purity
Erasmus ridiculed in his "Ciceronianus," and who
affected to use no terms which were not found in Cicero's
works. He was author of discourses against Luther, of
"Letters to Bembo and Sadolet," etc. Died in 1522.

See POLUS. " Vita Longnlii :" PAOLO GIOVIO, " Elogia Virorum
illustrium;" NICERON, "Me"moires;" FOPPENS, "Bibhotheca Bel-

Longueil, de, deh loN'guI', [Lat LONGO'LIUS,] (GIL-
BERT,) a Dutch philologist, born at Utrecht in 1507. He
taught school at Deventer and Cologne, and practised
medicine. He published a " Latin-Greek Lexicon,"
("533.) an d notes on Ovid, Plautus, and Cicero. Died
at Cologne in 1543.

Longueil, de, (JOSEPH,) a French engraver, born at
Givet in 1736; died in 1792.

Longuemar, de, deh 16Ng'miR', ( ALPHONSE LE
Toi'RE,) a French geologist and antiquary, born at
Saint-Dizier about 1800; died in 1881.

Longuerue, de, deh loNg'ru', (Louis DUFOUR,
ABBE, a French ecclesiastic, eminent for learning, was

languages, history, philosophy, etc., and wrote many
works, but published none. His friends, however, pub-
lished for him an "Essay on the Antiquities of Chaldea
and Egypt," "Description of France, Ancient and Mod-
ern," (1719,) "Annals of the Arsacidae," (1732,) and
other works. Died in 1733.

See MORRRI, " Dictionnaire Historique," edition of 1759; "Nou-
velle Biographie Ge'ne'rale."

Longueval, 16Ng\ll', (JACQUES,) a French Jesuit
born near Peronne in 1680. He taught rhetoric and
theology in various colleges, and was author of the first
eight volumes of a "History of the Galilean Church,"
(1730-49,) which was continued by Fontenay and others.
Died in 1735.



French Hellenist, born in Paris in 1785 ; died in 1855.

Longueville, de, deh IdNg'vel', (ANNE GENEVIEVE
de Bourbon - Conde deh booR'bdN' kAN'dk', )
DUCHESS, a French lady, distinguished for beauty, tact,
and talent, was born at Vincennes in 1619. She was a
sister of the great Conde, and was married to the Due
de Longueville, noticed below, in 1642. The enmity
between the parliaments and Mazarin gave rise to the
faction or conspiracy of the Fronde, of which she became
the heroine. Her nonchalance and languor were agree-
ably diversified by surprising and splendid awakenings
of genius. She exercised great influence over the chiefs
of the Fronde, and had a liaison with La Rochefou-
cauld, who was one of the leaders of that party. When
her husband and brothers were imprisoned by'Mazarin
in 1650, she escaped to Stenay, the head-quarters of
Turenne, whom she induced to join the party of the
Fronde. With his aid she effected the release of her
three friends in 1651, and returned to Paris in triumph.
Peace was made between the Frondeurs and the court
in 1659, after which she ceased to meddle with politics.
She became devout, and spent much time in her latter
years at the cloister of Port-Royal. Cardinal Mazarin
once said, "We have three women in France who would
be competent to govern or overturn three great king-
doms, namely, the Duchess de Longueville, the Princess
Palatine, ana the Duchess de Chevreuse." Died in 1679.

See BOURGOING Dtl VrLLEFORE, "Vie de Madame de Loneue-
ville," 1738: V. COUSIN, "La Jeuncsse de Mme, de Longueville,"
1853; LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, "Me'moires;" " Nouvelle Biographic

Longueville, de, (CHARLES PARIS D'ORLEANS,)
Due, a son of the preceding, born in Paris in 1640,
inherited the brilliant qualities of his mother. He served
in the army of his uncle the Prince of Conde, and was
killed at the passage of the Rhine in 1672, when the
Polish deputies were on their way to offer him the crown
of Poland.

Longueville, de, (HENRI,) Due, a French general,
born in 1595, was the son of Henri d'Orleans, a prince
of the blood, and was a grand-nephew of Henry IV. In
the reign of Louis XIII. he distinguished himself by
military exploits in Italy, etc. He married the sister of
the Prince of Conde in 1642, and supported the party of
the latter in the time of the Fronde. Died in 1663.

Lon'guB, [Aoyyoc,] a Greek sophist or author, of whom
little or nothing is known. He is supposed to have lived
in the fourth or fifth century of our era, and to have been
the author of an ingenious prose romance entitled
Iloifievuai TO Kara bntyviv Ko2 XyiwTV, (" Pastorals relating
to Daphnis and Chloe,") sometimes called "Loves of
Daphnis and Chloe." It is admired for a charming,
elegant style, and other literary merits. In 1810 Paul
Louis Courier found at Florence a manuscript of Longus
which supplied a hiatus of all the other manuscripts.
He published a complete edition of the original and a
corrected edition of Amyot's French version.

See FABRICIUS, "Bibliotheca Grzca:" DUNLOP, " History ol
Fiction ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Long'worth, (NICHOLAS,) an American cultivator,
born at Newark, New Jersey, in 1782. Having removed
to Cincinnati, he devoted himself to the culture of native
grapes and the manufacture of wine, by which he acquired
an immense fortune. Died in 1863.

Loni, lo'nee, (ALESSANDRO,) an Italian painter, born

- - Died

ABBE, a French ecclesiastic, eminent tor learning was Florence in Io55 was a pup i] of Carlo Dolce.
borr at Charleville in 1652. He was deeply versed in - n 2

,- casj; ghard; gas/; G, H, K., , guttural ; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinMif.

Explanations, p.



Lonicer, lo'n?t-ser, [Lat. LONICE'RUS,] (ADAM,) a
German physician and naturalist, born at Marburg in
1528, was a son of Johann, noticed below. He obtained
in 1554 the place of pensioned physician of Frankfort,
which he occupied thirty-two years. He published
several treatises on medicine, and a Latin work on Plants,
Animals, and Minerals, called " Naturalis Historian Opus
Novum," (1551-55,) which was often reprinted. Died in

His son, JOHANN ADAM, born in 1557, was a physician
of Frankfort. He published Latin poems, and a treatise
on the chase, called " Venatus et Aucupium."

Lonicer, [Lat. LONICE'RUS,] (JOHANN,) a German
scholar, born in Mansfeld in 1499. From 1527 until his
death he was professor of Greek and Hebrew at Mar-
burg. He made good Latin translations of several Greek
authors, among whom were Pindar, Isocrates, and De-
mosthenes. He was a friend and correspondent of
Melanchthon. Died in 1569.

See M. ADAM, " Vifce Philosophorum Germanorum "

Lonicerus. See LONICER.


Lonnrot or Loennrot, lon'rot, (LIAS,) a Finnish
philologist, born in the district of Helsingfors in 1802.
He became a zealous student of the national literature
of Finland. About 1835 he discovered and published
the famous Finnish poem of "Kalevala," which is said
to resemble the " Hiawatha" of Longfellow. He suc-
ceeded Castren as professor of Finnish at Helsingfors in
1852, and published several collections of old legends,
proverbs, etc., with a view to revive the use of the Finn-
ish language. Died in March, 1884,

Loni'dale, (HENRY,) an English physician and
writer, born at Carlisle in 1816. He gained distinction
by his researches in the toxicology of prussic acid and
other subjects. Died July 23, 1876.

Lonsdale, (WILLIAM LOWTHER,) EARL OF, an Eng-
lish peer, born in 1787. He was postmaster-general from
1841 to 1845, and was lord president of the council in
the cabinet of Lord Derby in 1852. Died March 4, 1872.

Loo. See VANLOO.

Loo'mis, (ELIAS,) an American astronomer and phy-
sicist, born in Tolland county, Connecticut, in 1811,
graduated at Yale College in 1830. He became pro-
fessor of natural philosophy at the Western Reserve
College, Ohio, in 1837, in the New York University in
1844, and in Yale College in 1866. He made valuable
contributions to the discussion of the subjects of mag-
netism, astronomy, and meteorology, and published sev-
eral text-books of mathematics, astronomy, and the
natural sciences. Died August 15, 1889.

Loon. See VAN LOON.

Loon, van, vin Ion, (THEODORE,) a Flemish painter,
born at Brussels about 1630. His design was correct,
and his colouring excellent After working with Carlo
Maratta at Rome, he returned to Brussels, where he con-
firmed his reputation by many historical paintings in the
manner of Maratta. Some of the churches of Rome and
Florence are adorned with his works. Died in 1678.

Loop, (HENRY A.,) an American artist, born at Hills-
aale, New York, September 9, 1831. He studied art in
New York under H. P. Gray, in Paris under Couture,
and in Italy. He was chosen to the National Academy
in 1861. He won distinction alike by his portraits and
ideal works. Among the latter are "Undine," (1863,)
"Improvvisatrice," (1869,) "The Italian Minstrel,"
(1869,) "Echo," (1879,) "Love's Crown," (1882,) and
"The Summer Moon," (1884.)

Loop, (JENNETTE S. HARRISON,) an American artist,
born at New Haven, Connecticut, March 5, 1840. Her
studies and instructors were much the same as those of

tinction is as a portrait-painter. Her portraits take rank
among the best ever painted in America. She was
chosen an associate of the National Academy in 1875.

Loopolof, Loupolov, or Lupolpw, loo'po-lof,
(PRASCOVIA,) a Russian heroine, bom in 1784, was a
daughter of an officer exiled to Siberia. She performed

the journey from Tobolsk to Saint Petersburg,
ained a pardon for her father. Her adventures

on foot the

and obtain

form the subject of Madame Cottin's " Elizabeth, or the

Exiles of Siberia." Died in 1809.

Loos, 16s, [Lat. CALLID'IUS,] (CORNELIS,) a Dutch
Catholic theologian, born at Gouda about 1545. He
was persecuted for opposing the prevalent superstitious
notions respecting magic in his book " De vera et falsS
Magii," (" On True and False Magic,") and for con-
demning the practice of burning those called witches.
He wrote other works. Died in 1595.

See "Callidius," it BAVLE'S "Historical and Critical Diction-
ary;" NICBRON, "Me'moires."

Loosjes, los'yes, (ADRIAAN,) a Dutch poet and novel-
ist, born at Haarlem in 1761, was a dealer in books.
He passed his life in his native city. Among his works
are novels entitled " John De Witt" (1805) and " Susanna
Bronkhorst," (6 vols., 1806,) and a poem called "The
Last Campaign of De Ruyter." Died in 1818.

See " Hulde aan de Nagedachtenis van A. Loosjes," by P. H.

Loots, lots, (CoRNELis,) a Dutch poet, born at Am-
sterdam in 1774; died about 1850.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 100 of 425)