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tory of New York City," (1884,) "The Empire State,"
(1887,) etc. Died June 3, 1891.

Lot, [Heb. 31"7 ; Fr. LOTH, lot,] a Hebrew patriarch,
who lived about 1900 B.C., was the son of Haran, and
nephew of Abraham. He resided in Sodom until hf
was warned by angels of its impending destruction.
See Genesis xi., xii., riii., xix. : II. Peter ii. 7.
Lotario. See LOTHAIRE I.

Loten, lo'ten, (JoHN or JACOB,) a Dutch landscape-
painter, who excelled in wild, rocky scenery, and storms.
He worked mostly in England, where he died in l68t.
Loth. See LOT.

Loth, lot, or Loti, lo'tee, [in Italian, LoTTl,] (JoHANN
KARL,) a German painter, born at Munich in 1632. He
acquired a high rank among the realists, whom the Ital-
ians call "Naturalisti." Among his chief works are
" The Death of Abel," and a " Nativity." He received
the title of first painter to the emperor Leopold I. Died
at Venice in 1698.

Lothaire, lo-thair', [Fr. pron. lo'tiR' ; Lat. LOTHA'-
RIUS ; Ger. LOTHAR, lo-taR' ; It. LOTARIO, lo-ta're-o,] I,
Emperor of the West or of Rome, born abou. 195 A.D.,
was the eldest son of Louis le Debonnaire. His father as-
sociated him with himself in the empire in 8 1 7, and made
him King of Italy in 822. Pepin and Louis, brothers of
Lothaire, received respectively Aquitaine and Germany.
At the death of his father, in 840, he claimed supremacy
as emperor ; but his brothers, Louis the Germanic and
Charles the Bald, united to dispute his title, and defeated
him at the great battle of Fontanet, (now Fontenailles,) in
841. By the treaty of Verdun (843) Lothaire retained
Italy, with some provinces of France. His capital was
Aix-la-Chapelle. He died in 855 A.D., leaving three sons,
Louis, Charles, and Lothaire, among whom the empire
was divided.

See ASTRONOMUS, "Vita Lvtdovici Pii ;" FAURIEL, " Histoire de
la Gaule m<Sridionale," tome iv. ; " Nouvelle Biographic Generale.

Lothaire [Lat. LOTHA'RIUS ; Ger. LOTHAR] II. or
UX, Emperor of Germany, sometimes called LOTHAIRE
OF SAXONY, was born in 1075. He was the son of Geb-
hard, Count of Arnsberg. After the death of Henry
V. he was elected emperor, in 1125. Conrad, Duke
of Franconia, protested against the election, and was
crowned at Milan by his partisans. About 1132 Lothaire
marched to Rome and restored Pope Innocent II., who
had been expelled by his rival Anaclete. He was
crowned at Rome by Innocent, and performed acts of
homage to the pope which were afterwards cited as an
evidence that the empire was a fief of the Roman See.
He died in 1 137, and Conrad III., above named, became
i:mperor. In the reign of Lothaire the Diet of the empire
asserted its exclusive right to impose taxes and make
war or peace.

SeeGERVAls, "Geschichte Deutschlards unter Kaiser Heinrich
V. und Lothar III.." 2 vols., 1842; MASCOV, " Commentam de
Rebus Imperil Romano-Germanici sub Lothario II., 1753- -! AFF 7,
" Geschichte des Deutschen Reiches unter Lothar von bachsen,

Lothaire, lo-thair' or lo'tSR', King of France, th
of Louis d'Outremer, was born in 941 A.D., and suc-
ceeded his father in 954. His reign was disturbed t

th as in this. ( J^=See Explanations,


contests with powerful vassals, among whom was Hugn
Capet, and he waged war with Otho II. of Germany. He
died in 986, and was succeeded by his son, Louis V.

Lothaire, King of Italy, was the son of Hugh of
Provence, who admitted him to a share of the royal
power in 931. He reigned alone a few years, and died

where for nearly forty years he liveQ a laborious and
uneventful life. Died at Berlin, July i, 1881. Among
his works are " Metaphysics," (1841,) and " Logic," (1843,)
and later works (1874 and 1879) with the same titles,
forming parts of his uncompleted " System of Philos-
ophy," "General Pathology and Therapeutics as Me-

in 950, leaving an only child, Emma, who was married to ] chanical and Natural Sciences," (1842,) " General p'nysi-
Lothaire of France. His successor was Berenger II. ology of the Organic Life," (1851,) " Medical Psychology,
Lothaire, King of Lorraine, was the second son of or Physiology of the Soul," (1852,) "History of /Esthetics
ihe emperor Lothaire I. In 855 he inherited the country in Germany," (1868,) etc. But his greatest work is the
situated between the Rhine and the Meuse, which was "Microcosmus," (3 vols., 1856-64.) Lotze is one of the
called Lotharingia, Gallic^ Lorraine. He weakened the ablest of the recent opponents of materialism. Several
royal power by yielding to the encroachments of the oi his treatises have been translated into English. With-
clergy, and by other impolitic measures. Died in 869 A.r>. out founding a new school of thought, Lotze exerted,
See " Nouvelle Biographic GiSne'rale." anc ^ st '" exerts, a wide and wholesome intellectual and
Lothar See LOTHAIRE. moral influence ; but his usefulness as a teacher has been
Lotharius See LOTHAIRE. limited by the frequent obscurity of his diction.
Lotharius, CARDINAL. See INNOCENT III. la, deh If loo'baiR', (ANTOINK.) a French
Lo'throp, (HARRIET MULFORD,) an American geometer, born in Languedoc in 1600. He taught va-
author, born (Stone) at New Haven, Connecticut; nons sciences in the colleges of the Jesuits, and pub-
married, 1 881, Daniel Lothrop, of the publishing house "shed several learned 1 mathematical works. Died in 1664.
of D. Lothrop & Co. She founded the National So- Loubere, de la, (SiMON ) a nephew of the precedipg,

ciety of the Children of the American Revolution, and ; wa f,. born . at J ulou A s , e ln , I 6 * 2 ' H ^ was , s , en ,' *? env 7
f TL, to oiam in 1687. After his return he published a work

under the name of Margaret Sidney wrote "Hve O n the Kingdom of Siam," (.69.,) whkh is praised for
Little Peppers and other juveniles of the Peppers fide , it ^ and j* dicjous observati ^ s . H e was elected to
series, and a considerable number of other works. ;he p^^ Academy in l6g3 . Died in , 72Q .
v f 1 ' (Pl , ERRE ' ) 'he pseudonym of Louis Mane, Loubet , oo , ba , (EMILE>) a Frenc h statesman,
Viaud was born at Rocheiort, France, m 1850. He born a , Marsanne in ,^3. H e adopted the profession

entered he navy, but fell into disgrace by his too Q{ , he , and $ in blic ,&, as a ^ ember of

truthful letters m "Figaro on the conduct of the , he municipal coun b ci f of Montelimar. He was elected
French soldiers at Hue m 1883. He afterwards be- , (he fn ^ chamber in l876 became a Senator in
came an active writer, producing vividly imaginative ]g8 an(j was ier of France duri , of l8o3 _

pictures of nature, which posse ss an enduring charm. He ' was la(er p , sident of the Senate a ^ on the de ^ h
He was admitted to the Academy in 1891. Among Q{ presidem February, 1899, was elected Presi-
h,s works are " Le Manage de Lot,," ( 1880,) "Ma- d of France _

dame Crysantheme," (1887,) " Le Desert," (1894,) .

and "Ramuntcho," (a Basque story, 1897.) Loubon, (CHARLES JOSEPH EMILE,) a French

Lotich, [LaL LOTICH'IUS,] (PETER,) a celebrated painter of history and landscapes, born at Aix m 1809.
German poet, born at Schluchtern, Hesse-Cassel, in Died at Marseilles, March i, 1863.
i8. was called SECUNDUS, to distinguish him from his Loudon, (GIDEON ERNST.) See LAUDON.
uncle of the same name. He fought for the Protestant Loudon, (JOHN CLAUDIUS,) an eminent Scottish
League of Schmalkalden, and afterwards entered the writer on horticulture and agriculture, was born at
civil service of the Elector-Palatine. He became pro- Cambuslang in 1783. Having learned the business of
fessor of medicine at Heidelberg in 1557, and died in a landscape-gardener, he removed to London m 1803.
1560. He owes his fame to Latin elegies and other A few years later he rented a farm, on^ which he tried


Cisalpine writer of the sixteenth 'century.' ,

duction to the Literature of Europe.") large sale. He afterwards produced " Encyclopedia of

Lotichius. See LOTICH, (PETER.) Agriculture," (1825.) and " Encyclopedia of Cottage,

Lotta. See CRABTREE, (LoTTA.) Farm, and Villa Architecture," (1832.) The last was

Lptteri,lot-ta'ree, (ANGELoLuiGl,) an Italian mathe- especially popular. He was editor of the "Gardener's
marician, born in the Milanese in 1760. Among his Magazine," commenced in 1826, and of the "Magazine
works is "The Principles of the Differential and Integral of Natural History," (1828-36.) His industry and ex-
Calculus," (1788.) Died at Milan in 1839. tensive learning were displayed in an expensive work on
Lotti. See LOTH. the trees and shrubs of Britain, entitled " Arboretum el

Lota, lot'i

at Venice about

Lotti, ( r

was noted for mechanical ingenuity, and made several Garden," " Botany for Ladies," and other popular

automata at Florence. About 1628 he was invited by works. Died in 1858.

Philip IV. to Madrid, where he built the theatre linen Louet, loo'J', (GEORGES,) a French jurist, born at

Retire. ! Angers about 1540; died in 1608.

Lotto, lot'to, (LORENZO,) an excellent Italian painter, Lough, luf, (JOHN GRAHAM,) an English sculptor,

was born at Venice about 1490. He worked chiefly at born at Greenhead, in Northumberland. He produced

Bergamo, and had the reputation of being one of the about 1827 an admirable statue of Milo for the Duke of

best painters of the Venetian school. Among his master- Wellington, and went to Italy in 1834. After his return

pieces are several Madonnas at Bergamo. His first home, in 1838, he exhibited "Ophelia,"" Hebe banished,"

bee LOTH. the trees and shrubs ot Britain, entitled - Arooreium ei

lot'tee, (ANTONIO,) an Italian composer, born Fruticetum Britannicum," (1838.) Died in [843.

about 1665; died in 1740. His wife, nt? JANE WEBB, born in iSoS^wrote a

(CosiMO,) a Florentine painter and architect, novel called "The Mummy," "The Ladies' Flower

works are dated about 1515, and his last about 1560.
"His master-pieces," says Lanzi, "place him almost <i"
a level with the first luminaries of the art."

Lotze, lot'seh, (RUDOLPH HERMANN,) an eminent
German philosopher, born at Bautzen, Saxony, May 21,

"The Roman Fruit-Girl," a statue of Victoria, (1845,)
and a statue of Prince Albert, (1847.) Among his
greatest works is a colossal marble group of "Satan
subdued by the Archangel Michael," (1851.) Died 1876.
Loughborough, LORD. See WEDDERBUKN.

1817. He was educated at Zittau and Gottingen, and in Louis, loo'iss, [It. LUIGI, loo-ee'jee,] I., King of Etru-
1838 graduated as doctor of philosophy and of medicine. I r ia, born at Parma in 1773, was the son of Ferdinand
He afterwards lectured on philosophy at Leipsic, and in Duke ot" Parma. In 1795 he married Maria Louisa, a
1844 was made professor of philosophy at Gbitingen, 1 daughter of Charles IV. of Spain. By a treaty between

i, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, ilwrt; a, e, i, <;, obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; n8t; good; moon :




the Spanish court and Napoleon in 1801, Louis acquired
Tuscany in exchange for Parma, and the name of the
former was changed to Etruria. He died in 1803,
leaving a son, Louis II.

Louis, loo'iss, [Fr. pron. loo'e'; Ger. LUDWIG, lood'-
wic ; Lat. Luoovi'cus,] the name of many kings of
France. Louis I., surnamed LE DEBONNAIRE and THE
Pious, [Lat. LUDOVI'CUS Pi'us; Ger. LUDWIG DER
FROMME,] Emperor of the West, and King of France,
the son and successor of Charlemagne, was born at
Casseneuil in 778 A.D. Two elder brothers having died
before their father, Louis became heir of all the vast
dominions of Charlemagne in 814 ; but his character
was too feeble to maintain the integrity of the empire.
He had three sons, Lothaire, Pepin, and Louis, whom
about 820 he made his colleagues in the government,
giving Italy to the first, Aquitaine to the second, and
Bavaria to the third. After this division another son,
Charles the Bald, was born to him. His sons Lothaire
and Pepin revolted in 830, and deposed him. He was
compelled to do public penance, and confined in a con-
vent. By the efforts of his sons Louis and Pepin, he was
restored to the throne a short time before his death",
which occurred in 840.

See FRANTIN, "Louis le Pieux et son Siede," 2 vols., 1840;
FRANCK, "Ludwig der Fromme," 1832; "Nouvelle Biographic

Louis II., surnamed LE BEGUE, l?h bjg, (i.e. "the
Stammerer,") King of France, the son of Charles the
Bald, was born in 846 A.D. He succeeded his father in
877. He propitiated his turbulent nobles by granting to
them many duchies, earldoms, and seignories. He died
in 879, leaving three sons, Louis, Carloman, and Charles
the Simple.

See MICHBLKT, " Histoire de France."

Louis m., King of France, born about 863, was the
eldest son of Louis II. In 879 the kingdom was divided
between Louis and Carloman, the former of whom re-
ceived for his share Neustria. He gained a victory over
the Normans who invaded France, when he died, with-
out issue, in 882 A.D., aged about twenty, and Carloman
became sole king of France.

See MICHELET, " Histoire de France."

Louis IV., surnamed D'OUTREMER (dootR'maiV)
because he had visited England in infancy, was the son
of Charles the Simple. He was born in 920 A.D., and
crowned king in 936. Among the events of his reign
was a war between him and Hugh, the father of Hugh
Capet. He died in 954, and was succeeded by his son,
Lothaire II.

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Fran9ais."

Louis V., King of France, surnamed LE FAINEANT,
(i.e. "the Idle" or "Do-Nothing,") the son of Lothaire
II., was born about 966. He inherited the title of king in
986, and died in 987, without issue, being the last kmp
of the Carlovingian dynasty. Hugh Capet was electe
as his successor.

See MICHELET, "Histoire de France."

Louis VI. of France, surnamed LE GROS, (leh gRo,)
was the son of Philip I. and of Bertha. He was born
in 1078, and became king in 1108. Before his accession
the royal power had been much reduced by the preva-
lence of the feudal system, and in his reign many sei-
gneurs asserted by arms the sovereign power over their
fiefs. He waged war against Henry I. of England for
the possession of Normandy, but was not successful.
He is represented as a brave and generous prince, and
is honoured for the establishment of communes and
municipal governments, by which he promoted the politi-
cal influence of the third estate. He died in 1137, and
was succeeded by his son, Louis VII.

See SISMONDI, "Histoire des Francais:" MICHELET, "Histoire
de France."

Louis VH, King of France, surnamed LE JEUNE,
("the Young,") born in 1120, was the son of Louis VI.,
whom he succeeded in 1137. He married Eleanor,
heiress of the Duke of Aquitaine. Having been anathe-
matized by the pope, he became penitent, and, in order
to expiate his sins, he joined the second cnsade to Pal-
estine in 1147, and was followed by a large army of

Frenchmen and others. After many defeats and disas-
ters, by which he lost nearly all his men, he returned in
1149. His wife Eleanor, having been divorced in 1152
married Henry II. of England, who by this marriage
acquired Guienne and Poitou. War ensued between
Louis and Henry, but no decisive advantage was gained
by either. He died in 1180, and was succeeded by his
son, Philip Augustus.

See MICHELET, " Histoire de France;" MICHAUD, " History of
the Crusades ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Louis VUL, surnamed CcEUR-DE-LlON, (kuR'deh-
IC'ON',) the son of Philip Augustus, was born in 1187,
and ascended the throne in 1223. His wife was Blanche
of Castile. He recovered by arms Poitou and several
places which the English held in France. Instigated by
Ihe pope, he led a crusade against the Albigenses, and
waged an unjust war against the Count of Toulouse,
who was denounced as a heretic. At the end of the first
campaign he died, in 1226, leaving the throne to his son,
Louis IX.

See RVMER, " Foedera," 1704 ; VAISSETTE, " Histoire ge'ne'rala
du Languedoc," 5 vols., 1730-45.

Louis IX., or Saint Louis, King of France, was born
in 1215, and succeeded his father, Louis VIII., in 1226.
His mother, Blanche of Castile, was regent during his
minority, and defended his throne with wisdom against
Thibaut de Champagne and other barons who were
leagued with him. Louis married Margaret of Pro-
vence in 1234. In 1244 he recovered from a dangerous
illness, and made a vow to conduct a crusade against
the infidels. Having raised a large army, he departed
in 1248, and in the next year entered Egypt. There his
army was ravaged by disease, and defeated at Mansourah
by the Saracens, who took Saint Louis prisoner. By
paying a ransom he obtained his liberty, and pursued
his course to Palestine, where he remained about three
years. He returned to France in 1254, and employed
himself in improving the condition of the people by wise
laws. His foreign policy was pacific towards European
nations, but his zeal against infidels urged him to another
crusade in 1270. He first directed his operations against
Tunis, but before he had reached that place he died, near
Carthage or Tunis, in August, 1270. He was canonized
in 1297. He was succeeded by his son, Philippe le Hardi.
" Louis was," says Voltaire, " in all respects a model for
men. His piety, which was that of an anchorite, did not
deprive him of royal virtues. He made a profound policy
agree and concur with exact justice ; and perhaps he is
the only sovereign who merits this praise."

SeeG. DE NANGIS, "Vie de Saint-Louis;" JOINVILLE, "Vie de
Saint- Louis:" FILLEAU DE LA CHAISE, "Histoire de Saint-Louis,"

2 vols.. 1688 ; BURY, "Histoire de Saint-Louis," 1775; MICHKLHT,
" Histoire de France ;" MICHAUD, " History of the Crusades ;" VIL-
LENEUVE-BARGEMONr, " Histoire de Saint-Louis, Roi de France,"

3 vols., 1836; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Louis X, surnamed LE HUTIN, (leh hu'taN',) King of
France, the son of Philippe le Bel, was born in 1289,
and became king in 1314. He married Clemence, a
daughter of the King of Hungary. Among the chief
events of his short reign was his unfortunate expedition
against Flanders. He died, without male issue, in 1316
and his brother, Philippe le Long, was his successor

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Francais."

Louis XI., King of France, born at Bourges in 1423,
was the son of Charles VII. He married Charlotte, a
daughter of the Duke of Savoy. His ambitious and un-
scrupulous character was early manifested by revolts
against his father. He became king in 1461, soon after
which the Duke of Burgundy and other nobles formed
against him the " League of the Public Good." Besieged
in his capital by the army of this league in 1465, he in-
duced them to retire and disband by the large conces-
sions of a treaty which he intended to violate at his own
convenience. By crafty policy, superior abilities, and
vigorous measures, he greatly increased the royal power
at the expense of the nobles, many of whom fell victims
to his cruelty. His inveterate enemy, Charles the Bold
of Burgundy, having been killed in battle at Nancy in
1477, Louis availed himself of the occasion to seize
large domains, but was resisted with partial success by
Maximilian of Austria in a war of several years '-"'"


eas k; cass;S hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilled; as z; th as in this. (j33r"See Explanations, p. 23.)




had made peace with Edward IV. of England in 1475.
He died in 1483, leaving the throne to his son, Charles
VIII. The reign of Louis XI. is remarkable for the
multitude of important events, and for the complete
revolution which the monarchy then passed through.
Post-offices were first established by him in France.

See COMINES, " Me'moires contenant les Choses advenues durant
le Regne de Louis XI," 1523 : the same in English ; DUCLOS, " His-

de France;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Louis 7TTT of France, born at Blois in 1462, was the
son of Charles, Duke of Orleans, and Marie of Cleves.
At the accession of Charles VIII. (1483) he was the
first prince of the blood. Before that date he had been
compelled to marry Jeanne, the daughter of Louis XI.
In 1495 he attended his cousin, Charles VIII., in his
expedition against Naples, and in 1498 became the suc-
cessor of that king, who left no issue. He married Anne
de Bretagne, the widow of the late king, thus securing
the province of Bretagne for the crown. His army con-
quered the duchy of Milan, and brought Duke Francis
Sforza a captive to France in 1500. He resolved, also,
to prosecute the claims of his family to Naples, then
ruled by Frederick of Aragon. In 1501 Louis and Fer-
dinand of Spain agreed to partition between themselves
the kingdom of Frederick, who, finding resistance im-
possible, retired to France and received a pension from
Louis. The quarrel that ensued between Louis and
Ferdinand ended in 1503 by the expulsion of the French
from Naples by Gonsalvo de C6rdova. The pope, Julius
II., having formed a league against Louis, the French
were defeated at Novara in 1513 and driven out of Italy.
At the age of fifty-three he married Mary, a sister of
Henry VIII. of England. He died on the 1st of Janu-
ary, 1515, leaving two daughters, Claude and Renee.
He was succeeded by Francis I. Louis XII. gained the
affection of his subjects by reducing the taxes and pro-
moting justice, and received the surname of " Father of
the People."

See JEAN D'AUTON, " Histoire de Louis XII," 1615; CLAUDE
DH SEVSSHU, "Les Louanges du bon Roi Louis XII." 1508: JAY,
" Histoire de Louis XII:" BRANT6MB, " CEuvres ;" A. VARILLAS,
"Histoire de Louis XII," 1688; SISMONDI, "Histoire des Fran-
$ais;" P. L. GINGUENE, " Eloge de Louis XII," 1788.

Louis VTTT of France, the son of Henry IV. and of
Marie de Medicis, was born at Fontainebleau on the
27th of September, 1601. He succeeded his father
May 14, 1610, under the regency of his mother, was de-
clared of age in 1614, and married Anne of Austria, a
daughter of Philip III. of Spain, in 1615. Soon after
that date Marie de Medicis was exiled from court, and
the Duke de Luynes became the royal favourite. In
1620 Louis marched against his Protestant subjects, who
had been provoked into a revolt During the progress
of this war Richelieu obtained the favour and confi-
dence of the king, who made him prime minister in
1624. As Louis was very deficient in political ability.
Richelieu was the master-spirit of the government from
that time until his death. Among the memorable events
of this reign was the capture of Rochelle from the Prot-
estants, (1628,) after a siege of about a year. The great
talents and policy of Richelieu were directed with suc-
cess to the subjection of the Huguenots, the establish-
ment of absolutism in France, and the abatement of the
overgrown power of Austria. During the Thirty Years'
war the French armies obtained frequent successes
against the Spaniards and Imperialists, and extended
the boundaries of France by the conquest of Roussillon,
Alsace, and the duchy of Bar. Louis died in May, 1643,
leaving the crown to his son, Louis XIV. His character
was timid, and not adapted to win the favour or admira-
tion of the French. He is said, however, to have given
proof of personal courage in several battles.

See MALINGRE, " Histoire de Louis XIII," 1646; CH. BERNARD,
"Histoire de Louis XIII," 1646: J. HOWELL, "Life of Lewis
XIII.," 1646: LE VASSOH, "Histoire du Regne de Louis XIII,"
1700-11; BAZIN, "Histoire de France sous Louis XIII," 1837;
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Louis XTV., surnamed LF. GRAND, (leh gRoN,) or " the
Great," often called even by English speakers Louis
QUATORZE, (loo'e' kS'toRz',) the eldest son of Louis XIII.

and Anne of Austria, was born on the l6th of September,
1638. At the age of five he ascended the throne, in 1643,
under the regency of his mother, who was a daughter of
Philip III. of Spam. During his minority the government
was directed by Cardinal MAZARIN, (which see,) a for-
eigner, whose ministry was very unpopular, and who was
involved in a civil war, against a faction called La Fronde,
from 1648 until 1653. In 1649 Louis and his mother were
driven out of the capital by the Frondeurs, of whom
Conde' was the chief. The Thirty Years' war was ended
in 1648 by the peace of Westphalia, on terms favourable
to France ; but Spain, refusing to unite in this treaty, con-
tinued the war against the French until the treaty of the
Pyrenees, (1659,) when Louis married Maria Theresa,
daughter of Philip IV. of Spain.

At the death of Mazarin, in 1661, Louis resolved to be
his own prime minister, and was fortunate in obtaining
the services of so able a financier as Colbert. France

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 102 of 425)