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was then without doubt the greatest and most compact
power in Europe. To the arduous duties of his new
position the king brought imposing and popular persona,
qualities, and political talents of a high order. His am-
bition was to make France prosperous and the monarchy
absolute. His policy was briefly summed up in his fa-
mous saying, "L'tat, c'est mm.'" ("The State that is
myself!") The death of Philip IV. of Spain, in 1665,
furnished him a pretext for the extension of his domin-
ions towards the Rhine. In exchange for the dowry
promised to his queen, which the Spanish court neglected
to pay, he claimed Flanders and Franche-Comte, which
he invaded with success in 1667. The emperor Leopold
and the Dutch aided the Spaniards against him until the
treaty of Nymwegen, (1678,) by which Louis retained
Franche-Comte' and a large part of Flanders. In the
mean time the administration had been reformed and
centralized by Louis, and the taxes had been reduced
and the revenue increased by Colbert. In 1670 Louis
made a secret treaty with Charles II. of England, whose
alliance he purchased by a pension. Commerce, manu-
factures, arts, literature, etc. were liberally encouraged in
his reign ; but the intolerant zeal of the king betrayed
him into one very unjust and impolitic measure when,
in 1685, he revoked the edict of Nantes, which had se-
cured the religious liberty of Protestants. His Catholic
zeal, however, did not deter him from a serious quarrel
with the pope, on the question of franchises, in 1687.
About this time he secretly married Madame de Main-
tenon, a lady of obscure origin but eminent merit. (See

A second general war broke out in 1688, between Louis
on one side, and Spain, Austria, England, and the Prince
of Orange on the other. Louis failed in his attempt to
restore James II. of England, and found a formidable
adversary in James's successor, William III. After many
sieges and indecisive actions in Flanders, the war was
suspended by the treaty of Ryswick, (1697.) By the will
of Charles II. of Spain, (1700,) Philip, Duke of Anjou,
a grandson of Louis XIV., was appointed heir to the
Spanish throne. This occasioned a great European coali-
tion against the French king, and the long war of the
Spanish succession, in which he had to contend against
the English and Austrians, under Marlborough and Eu-
gene, who won great victories at Blenheim, Malplaquet,
etc. ; but the French prince Philip remained master of
Spain, and hostilities were ended by the treaty of Utrecht,
in April, 1713. After a reign of seventy-two years, he
died, on the 1st of September, 1715, and was succeeded
by his great-grandson, Louis XV. The age of Louis
XIV. was the most brilliant in the literary history of
France, and he was a very judicious as well as a very
munificent patron of literary merit. He preserved his
equanimity in his successes and his reverses.

" No sovereign," says Macaulay, in his review of Du-
mont's "Recollections of Mirabeau," "has ever repre-
sented the majesty of a great state with more dignity
and grace. . . . He was not a great general ; he was not
a great statesman ; but he was, in one sense of the words,
a great king. Never was there so consummate a master
of what our James I. would have called king-craft.
Though his internal administration was bad, though the
military triumphs of his reign were not achieved by

a, e, t, 6, u, y, long; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short;*, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fall, fit; mJt; not; good; moon:



himself, though his later years were crowded with de-
feats, ... he succeeded in passing himself off on his
people as a being above humanity."

See VOLTAIRE, " Siecle de Louis XIV," 1752 ; PELLISSON, " His-
toire de Louis XIV," 1749 ; DANGSAU, " Journal de la Cour de Louis
XIV;" "Letters of Madame de Maintenon ;" J. DE LARRBY. " His-
toirede France sous le Regne de Louis XIV," 1718-22: CAPBFIGUE.
" Louis XIV, SOD Gouvernement," etc.. 6 vols , 1837; SAINT-SIMON,
"M<<nioires;" G. P. R. JAMES, '' TheLife and Timesof Louis XI V.,"
4 vols., 1838; LORD BOLINGBROKB. " Siecle politiquc de Louis XIV."
* vols.. 1754; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Louis XV. of France, the great-grandson of Louis
XIV., was born at Fontainebleau the I5th of February,
1710. His father was the virtuous Duke of Burgundy,
and his mother was Maria Adelaide of Savoy. Louis
became king on the ist of September, 1715, the Duke of
Orleans, a nephew of Louis XIV., being then appointed
regent. The minority of Louis was a period of scan-
dalous corruption in morals and politics. Among the
ruinous errors of the regent's administration was his
adoption of the financial system of the famous projector
Law. (See LAW, JOHN.) In 1723 the king was declared
of age, the Duke of Orleans died, and the Duke of
Bourbon became prime minister. In 1725 Louis married
Marie Leczinska, daughter of Stanislas, the dethroned
king of Poland, and in the next year Bourbon was super-
seded by the eminent statesman Cardinal Fleury, who
had been preceptor of the young king and had merited
his confidence. By his prudent and pacific administra-
tion Fleury restored some degree of order and prosperity
in the state, and arrested the downward progress of the
monarchy. A war which began between the French and
Austrians in 1733 was waged on the Rhine and in Italy
until 1735, when Lorraine was ceded to France by the
treaty of Vienna. Against the advice of Fleury, Louis
joined in 1741 the iniquitous coalition against Maria
Theresa of Austria, and sent an army into Bohemia.
The English then declared war against France. In 1743
Cardinal Fleury died, and Louis resolved to dispense
with a prime minister. Among the principal events of
this war was the battle of Fontenoy, (1745,) where in
presence of Louis his army defeated the English under
the Duke of Cumberland. Hostilities were suspended
by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. About this
period Louis ceased to take an active part in the govern-
ment, and abandoned himself to scandalous vices in the
harem called the "Pare aux Cerfs."

Rival claims of the French and English in Canada
were the cause or pretext of a war which began in 1755,
and the French court was at the same time involved in
the Seven Years' war as the ally of Maria Theresa. The
disasters and disgraces of this war increased the un-
popularity of the king, who was stabbed by a fanatic
named Damiens in 1757, but only slightly hurt. The
French were defeated by Frederick the Great at Ross-
bach (1757) and at Minden, (1759,) and in various nava!
battles by the English. After losing Canada and other
colonies, the French court signed the treaty of Paris in
1763, and ended a war the odium of which was thrown
on Madame de Pompadour. Under the auspices of the
Due de Choiseul, then chief minister, the order of the
Jesuits was suppressed about 1762. Louis died in May,
1774, leaving the kingdom impoverished, oppressed, and
demoralized. He was succeeded by his grandson, Louis
XVI., whose father, the dauphin, had died in 1765.

See LACRETBLLB, " Histoire de France pendant le dix-huitieme
Siicle," 5 vols., 1809; BAUER, " Ludwig XV., Konig von Frank-
rcich," 1804; VOLTAIRE, "Histoire du Siecle de Louis XV;" DB
TJCQUEVILLE, "Histoire philosophique du Regne de Louis XV,"
1847; MAURBPAS, "Memoires," 1791 ; M. CAPEFIGUE, "Louis XV
et la Sociihe du XVIlIe Siecle;" CARLYLE, " French Revolution."

Louis XVI., the grandson of Louis XV., was born
at Versailles, August 23, 1754. He was the second son
of Louis, Dauphin of France, and Marie Josephe of
Saxony, and received at his birth the title of Due de
Berry. In 1770 he married Marie Antoinette, a daughter
of Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria. He ascended
the throne in 1774, and appointed Turgot minister of the
finances, which were then in great disorder. Turgot,
a man of probity and ability, undertook wise and exten-
sive reforms ; but these were resisted by the nobility
and clergy, and he was dismissed from office in 1776.
Necker then became contrSlcur-gMral, or prime minister.

(See NECKER, J.) In 1778 the French court recognired
the independence of the United States, declared war
against England, and sent a fleet and army to fight for
trie new republic. Peace was restored between France
and England in 1783, and the French soldiers returned
home enthusiasts for liberty.

Necker having resigned in 1781, Calonne was ap-
pointed contr6kur-genfral. He not only failed to supply
the deficit in the revenue, but increased the public dis-
tress by his prodigality, and called an Assembly of Nota-
bles in 1787. In this year Calonne was superseded bj
Lomenie de Brienne, who also was found incompetent
to guide the state through that great financial and politi-
cal crisis, and advised the king to convoke the States-
General, which had not been assembled since 1614.
Louis recalled Necker to the place of prime minister
about September I, 1788, and convoked the States-Gene-
ral at Versailles in May, 1789. This event was the signal
for the explosion of passions, ambitions, and resentments
which had accumulated and fermented during a long
period of misrule. The popular cause derived greal
advantage from Necker's ordinance that the number of
the deputies of the Third Estate should be equal to the
sum of all the noblesse and clergy. After a contes 1
between the Third Estate and the other orders on the
question whether they should vote together or separately
by orders, the Third Estate prevailed, and took the name
of the National Constituent Assembly. Necker having
been dismissed in July, 1789, the populace of Paris de-
stroyed the Bastille a few days later. Thenceforth the
progress of revolution was rapid and irresistible. The
Assembly made a great and sudden change in the po-
litical and social condition of France by the abolition of
tithes, titles of nobility, feudal privileges, and inveterate
abuses. The landed estates of the Church, comprising
nearly one-third of France, were confiscated. The king,
who was disposed to make large concessions and lacked
firmness to resist popular aggressions, remained as a
hostage of the old regime in the hands of the nation.
The position of Louis became so irksome and perilous
that he attempted, in June, 1791, to escape with his
family from Paris, but was arrested at Varennes and
compelled to return. He then accepted the new consti-
tution, which proclaimed liberty, equality, and universal
suffrage. In March, 1792, a Girondist ministry was
formed, in which Dumouriez and Roland were the chief
ministers, and war was declared against Austria and
Prussia. By the insurrection of August 10, the Jacobins,
led by Danton and Robespierre, effected the total sub-
version of the monarchy and initiated the reign of terror.
Louis was confined in a prison called the Temple, after
being subjected to indignities and outrages from the mob
He was tried for treason by the National Convention,
which met in September, 1792, defended by Deseze and
Tronchet, and condemned to death, the vote being 387
for death and 334 for banishment or detention. He was
executed January 21, 1793, and died with tranquil forti-
tude. He left a son, Louis, styled the Seventeenth, and
a daughter, Elizabeth. His virtues were better adapted
to a private station than to a throne.

See GASSIER, " Vie de Louis XVI," 1814: DURDENT, "Histoire
de Louis XVI," 1817; J. DROZ, "Histnire du Regne de Louis
XVI," 3 vols., 1839-42 ; FALLOUX, " Louis XVI," 1840; CAPEFIGUE,
"Louis XVI, son Administration," etc., 4 vols., 1844; SoULAVIR,
"Me'moires du Regne de Louis XVI," 6 vols., iSoi : THIERS,
"History of the French Revolution;" LAMARTINE, "History of
the Girondists," 1847; CARLYLE, "French Revolution ;" "Last
Years o!" the Reign and Life of Louis XVI.," by FRANCIS Hue.

Louis XVII. of France, the second son of Louis
XVI., was born in 1785. He became dauphin at the
death of an elder brother in 1789, and was recognized as
king in January, 1 793, by the French royalists and several
foreign courts, but was closely confined by the Jacobins.
The cruel treatment which he received from his jailers
hastened his death, which occurred in prison in June,


See A. DE BEAUCHRSNE, "Life, Sufferings, and Death of Louii
XVII.," translated by W. HAZLITT.

Louis XVIII. of France, born at Versailles in No-
vember, 1755, was the third son of the dauphin, and
ounger brother of Louis XVI. He received at his
' th the names of Louis Stanislas Xavier, and the title


e as*; 9 as/; g hard; g as/; G, H, v., guttural; x, nasal; R, trilled; s as t; th as in this. (JE^="See Explanations, p. 23.)




of Count de Provence. He was also styled MONSIEUB
during the reign of Louis XVI. In 1771 he married
Marie Josephine de Savoy. He favoured the Revolu-
tion in its first stages, and by his influence determined
that the Third Estate should send to the States-General
as many deputies as both of the other orders. He re-
mained in Paris until the flight of the king to Varennes,
in June, 1791, when he escaped by another route. During
the republic and empire he resided at Verona, Mitau,
Warsaw, and Hartwell, England. In April, 1814, he
returned to France and ascended the throne vacated
by Bonaparte. He hastened to accept a constitutional
charter which his ministers presented. By the escape
of Napoleon, his daring march to Paris, and the defec-
tion of the army, Louis was forced to fly on the 2Oth of
March, 1815, and retired to Ghent. (See BONAPARTE.)

He was again restored by the allied armies in July,
1815, at one of the most disastrous epochs in French
history. "The king must have had," says Lamartine,
"great courage or a great thirst of power, to accept a
throne and a nation buried under so many ruins." Louis
dismissed Talleyrand, and selected for prime minister
the Due de Richelieu; but M. Decazes, minister of
police, was his chief favourite. The majority of the
Chamber of Deputies were extreme royalists, and main-
tained an opposition to the ministry. Several Bona-
partists were executed, and others banished. On Sep-
tember 5, 1816, the king dissolved the Chamber, and by
this coup d'itat gained much popularity. The next elec-
tions resulted in favour of the moderate royalists. In
December, 1818, a new liberal ministry was formed, and
Decazes became prime minister. (See DECAZES.) The
ultra-royalists, with Villele as premier, came into power
in February, 1820, and passed an electoral law less
favourable to the liberal party. In 1823 the French
court sent an army into Spain, and supported the cause
of absolutism, as an ally of Ferdinand VII. Louis died
in September, 1824, without issue, and was succeeded by
his brother, Charles X. " His qualities," says Michaud,
"were rather brilliant than solid." He had respectable
literary attainments and an easy elocution. He is re-
puted the author of the saying, " Punctuality (exactitude)
is the politeness of kings.

See ALPHONSE DE BEAUCHAMP, "Vie de Louis XVIII," 1821;
LACRETELLE, "Histoire de France depuis ia Restauration," 4 vols.,
1829-36; LAMARTINE, " History of the Restoration ;" "Memoires
de Louis XVIII," (anonymous,) Paris, 1832; CHATEAUBRIAND,
"Memoires d'Outre-Tombe;" "Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale;"
EYRE EVANS CROWB, " History of Louis XVIII. and Charles X.,"
2 vols., 1854; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for January, 1833.

Louis, (Kings or princes of Germany.) See LEWIS.

Louis [It. LUIGI, loo-ee'jee] II., King and Emperor of
Italy, the son of Lothaire I., was born about 822 A.D.
He became the colleague of his father in 850, and at the
death of the latter, in 855, inherited the throne of Italy.
Among the events of his reign were battles which he
fought with various success against the Saracens who
invaded Italy. He died in 875, leaving a daughter
Ermengarde, who was married to Boson, King of Aries.
They had a son, who was styled Louis III.

See MURATORI, " Annali d'ltalia;" "Nouvelle Biographie

Louis (Luigi) IH., King or Emperor of Italy, sur-
named THE BLIND, born about 879, was a grandson of
the preceding. He was a son of Boson, King of Aries
and Ermengarde. In 900 he was invited to Italy by
several barons, and was crowned in place of Berenger,
who took Louis prisoner in 905 and put out his eyes.
Died in 929.

Louis (Luigi) OF TARENTUM, King of Naples, born
in 1320, was a grandson of Charles the Lame. He was
a cousin of Queen Joan of Naples, who married Louis
in 1346, after she had strangled her husband Andrew.
Died in 1362.

Louis (Luigi) n., King of Naples, Sicily, and Jerusa-
lem, born in 1377, was a son of Louis I. He was crowned
by the pope in 1389, and obtained possession of Naples,
from which he was expelled by Ladislaus in 1399. Died
in 1417.

Louis (Luigi) III., of Naples, Duke of Anjou, born
in 1403, was a son of the preceding. He inherited his
father's title to the throne of Naples, which, however,

was occupied by Alfonso of Aragon. He invaded Italy,
and conquered a large part of the kingdom, but died in
1434, before his enterprise was finished.

Louis (Port. Luis, loo-ess'] I., King of Portugal, bcrn
in 1838, began to reign at the death of his brother,
Pedro V., in November, 1861, before which he was the
Duke of Oporto. He married Maria Pia, a daughter of
Victor Emmanuel of Italy, in 1862. Died Oct. 19, 1889.

Louis (Luigi) L, King of Sicily or of Naples, Count .
of Provence, Duke of Anjou, etc., born in 1339, was
a younger son of Jean II. of France. At the instigation
of Pope Clement VII., Queen Joan of Naples adopted
Louis as her successor in 1380, but his title was disputed
by Charles of Durazzo, who. afterwards became King of
Naples. Died near Bari in 1384.

Louis [Sp. Luis, loo-ess'] OF ARAGON, King of Sicily,
born in 1338, was the eldest son of Peter II., whom he
succeeded in 1342. Died in 1355.

Louis, Dauphin of France, the son of Louis XIV.
and Maria Theresa, was born in 1661, and was called
MONSEICNEUR. His education was directed by Bossuet,
who wrote for him his "Discourse on Universal His-
tory." The dauphin, however, had a great aversion to
study, and appears to have had only moderate abilities.
He married Marie Christine of Bavaria, and became
father of the Duke of Burgundy and of the Duke of
Anjou, who was afterwards Philip V. of Spain. In 1688
Louis XIV. placed him at the head of the army of the
Rhine, under the direction of Vauban. As commander
of the army in Flanders in 1694, the dauphin received
credit for a march which protected Dunkirk. His last
years were passed in compulsory idleness. Died in 1711.

Louis, Dauphin of France, the son of Louis XV.,
was born in 1729. His virtues, talents, and attainments
are highly commended by M. Michaud, Jr. In 1747 he
married Marie Josephe of Saxony, by whom he had
three sons, who became kings, viz., Louis XVI., Louis
XVIII., and Charles X. He was excluded by his father
from all participation in the government. Died in 1765.

Louis, loo'e , (ANTOINE,) a celebrated French sur-
geon, born at Metz in 1723. He settled in Paris at an
early age, and acquired a high reputation by his writings
on surgery. He wrote many able surgical articles for
the " Encyclopedic." He was for many years the oracle
and counsel of the tribunals in questions of medical
jurisprudence. Died in 1792.

See " Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale."

Louis, (Louis DOMINIQUE,) BARON, a successful
French financier, better known as ABBE Louis, was born
at Toul in 1755. He emigrated to England in 1792, and
returned about the end of 1799. During the empire he
became administrator of the treasury, councillor of state,
and a baron. From April, 1814, until August, 1815, he
served Louis XVIII. as minister of finance. He was re-
called to the same office in 1818 by Decazes, and resigned
in November, 1819. lie was also appointed minister ol
finance by Louis Philippe in 1830. Died in 1837.

See " Souvenirs sur le Baron Louis," Paris, 1842 ; COMTE ni
SAINT-CRICCJ, " filoge de Baron Louis," iS 3 8 : " Nouvelle Bio
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

physician, born at Ai (Marne) in 1787. Among his
works is " Researches on Typhoid Fever," (2 vols.,
1828.) Died at Paris, August 24, 1872.

Louis Napoleon. See NAPOLEON III.

Louis Philippe, loo'e' fe'lep', Duke of Orleans, King
of the French, often called "the Citizen King," was
born in Paris on the 6th of October, 1773, and was the
eldest son of Louis Philippe Joseph, Duke of Orleans,
who was styled Philippe Egalite. His mother was Louise
Marie de Bourbon, a daughter of the Due de Pen-
thievre. His early education was directed by Madame
de Genlis, who taught him liberal principles and formed
him to habits of prudence and self-control. During the
life of his father, who was executed in 1793, he was styled
the Duke of Chartres. About 1790 he entered the army
as colonel, and merited two civic crowns by saving the
lives of two priests in an tmrute. He favoured the
popular cause in the Revolution, and served in the first
campaign against the Austrians in 1792. In Novembei

I, e.i, 5, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 5, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; mSon;




of that year he commanded the centre at Jemmapes,
and was, says Lamartine, the favourite lieutenant of
Dumouriez, the general-in-chief. Having been sum-
moned to appear at the tribunal of the committee of
public safety in April, 1793, he escaped across the Bel-
gian frontier with Dumouriez, in whose conspiracy with
the Austrians he was implicated. He afterwards wan-
dered as an exile and in disguise through various coun-
tries and strange vicissitudes, and was for some months
(1794) professor in the College of Reichenau, under the
name of M. Chambaud. In 1796 he came for greater
safety to the United States, where he travelled more than
a year. From 1800 until 1808 the Duke of Orleans re-
sided in England. He married Maria Amelia, daughter
of Ferdinand, King of Naples, in 1809. At the restora-
tion of the Bourbons (1814) he returned to France, and
was reinstated in his hereditary honours and possessions.
When the escape of Bonaparte from Elba became known
at Paris, Louis XVIII. appointed the Duke of Orleans
commander of the army of the North ; but he soon re-
signed this place. He took little part in public affairs
until the revolution of July, 1830, had dethroned Charles
X., and a provisional government was formed, under the
direction of La Fayette, Lafitte, Guizot, Thiers, and others.
A powerful party then urged the claim of Louis Philippe
to the throne, while others wished a republic. The scale
appears to have baen turned by La Fayette, (who did not
consider France yet prepared for a republic,) and the
crown was offered to the Duke of Orleans by the Deputies
and Peers, on the gth of August, and accepted, with a
remodelled constitution. The king called into his cabi-
net the Due de Broglie, Count Mole, M. Guizot, and
Lafitte. He was soon after recognized by the great powers
of Europe. In October, 1830, M. Lafitte became premier,
and in March, 1831, was superseded by Casimir Perier.
The first part of this reign was disturbed by riots and
conspiracies of the Carlists and republicans, and several
attempts were made to assassinate the king. In October,
1832, a new ministry was formed, of which Marshal Soult
was premier and Guizot and Thiers were members, the
majority being Doctrinaires. Frequent changes of the
ministry afterwards occurred, by which Count Mole, the
Due de Broglie, Thiers, and Guizot were successively
raised to the office of prime minister. In October, 1830,
Louis Napoleon made at Strasbourg an abortive attempt
to dethrone Louis Philippe, for which he was banished to
'the United States. Louis Philippe followed a pacific policy,
and waged no wars against the great European powers ;
but his army made important conquests in Algeria. His
reign, however, though successful, was not generally
popular. It was stigmatized as reactionary, temporizing,
"egotistical." The peace which had been the chief merit
of this reign was at last imperilled by the impolitic mar-
riage of the king's son, the Duke of Montpensier, to the
eventual heiress of the Spanish crown. Electoral reform
became the rallying-cry of a plan of agitation concerted
by a coalition of republicans, Bonapartists, and royalists
in 1847. The forcible opposition of the ministry to this
open agitation at reform banquets caused a collision be-
tween the troops and the Parisian populace on February
24, 1848. Unwilling to authorize a great slaughter of

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