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public service. He published twenty-five or more pam- Lowenhielm or Loewenhielm, (GUSTAF CARL
phlets, mostly political, and was one of the founders of FREDERIK,) COUNT OF, a Swedish diplomatist, born at
the Boston Athenaeum and the Massachusetts General Stockholm in 1771. He served in the army, and obtained
Hospital. He was distinguished for his colloquial powers, the rank of general. He represented Sweden at the
Died at Boston in 1840. Congress of Vienna, (1814,) and was Swedish minister

Lowell, (JOHN,) the founder of Lowell Institute, was at the court of Paris from 1818 until 1856. He wrote
born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1799, and was a son several military treatises, and a remarkable work on the
of Francis Cabot Lowell, noticed above. Having lost organization of government. Died in 1856.
his wife and children about 1831, he travelled extensively Lbwenklau. See LEUNCLAVIUS.
in Europe, Syria, and Egypt He died at Bombay in Lowenthal, 16' wen-til, (JOHN JACOB,) a celebrated
March, 1836, leaving by his will about $250,000 to main- Hungarian chess-player and writer on the game, born in
tain in Boston annual courses of gratuitous lectures on ,g, Oj at Buda-Pesth. He went to London in 1851 to
various subjects. partake in a chess tournament, and from that time perma-

Lowell, (JOHN,) LL.D., an American jurist, born in nently resided in England. He published " Morphy's
Boston, October 18, 1824, graduated at Harvard College Games," "Book of the Chess Congress," (1864,) and
in 1843, was a United States district court judge, 1865-78, "Transactions of the British Chess Association," (1867-
and a United States circuit court judge, 1878-84. He 69.) Died July 20, 1876.

published two volumes of United States Reports, and Lower, low'ei, (MARK ANTHONY,) an English antl-
wrote especially upon bankruptcy. Died May 14, 1897. q uar i an writer, born at Chiddingly, Sussex, in 1813 ;

Lowell, (MARIA WHITE,) an American poetess, the died March 22, 1876.

wife of James Russell Lowell, noticed above, was born LSw'er, (RICHARD,) F.R.S., an eminent English

at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1821. She was married anatomist, born in Cornwall about 1630. He became a

to Mr. Lowell in 1844. She died in 1853. She is f nen d an( j coadjutor of Dr. Willis, whom he assisted in

described as having been singularly beautiful both in },j s W0 rk on the " Anatomy of the Brain." In 1661 he

person and character. A volume of her poems appeared confirmed the Harveian theory bv experiments on the

n 1855. transfusion of blood. He practised medicine in London

Lowell, (MARY.) See PUTNAM, (Mrs. MARY.) many years, and wrote, besides other works, a "Treatise

Lowell, (PERCIVAI., ) an American author, born on the Heart, on the Motion of the Blood." etc. Died

at Boston in 1855. lie has written "The Soul of the in 1691.

Far East," and other works on Japan, "The Eve of Lower, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English dramatist, born
the French Revolution," etc. in Cornwall; died in 1662.

Lowell, (ROBERT TRAILL SPENCE,) son of the Rev. Lowitz, lo'wits, (GEORG MORITZ,) a German astrono-
Charles Lowell, noticed above, was born in Boston in mer, born near Nuremberg in 1722. He became pro-
1816. He was ordained a clergyman of the Episcopal fessor of mathematics at Gottingen about 1755, and was
Church in 1842, and subsequently became rector of afterwards director of the observatory at that place. In
Christ Church, Duanesburg, New York. He published 1766 he removed to Saint Petersburg, and was admitted
a novel entitled "The New Priest in Conception Bay," into the Academy of Sciences, by which he was employed
and a collection of poems. Died September 12, 1891. in astronomical observations. He was killed by some
Lowen or Loewen, 16'ften, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) rebels at Dmetriefsk in 1774. He had written several
a German poet and writer of fiction, born at Klausthal memoirs on astronomy.

in 1729 ; died in 1771. His son TOBIAS, born at Gottingen in 1757, became

Lbwendahl or Loewendahl, 16'wen-dSl', written one of the most eminent members of the Imperial Acad-

also Loevendahl, (Ui-RiCH FRIEDRICH WOLDEMAR,) emy of Saint Petersburg, and professor of chemistry.

a celebrated general, born at Hamburg in 1700, was; Died in 1804.

a, e, I, 5, u, y. long; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; mSt; n6t; good; moon :




Low'man, (MosES,) a learned English divine, born
in London in 1680. About 1710 he settled at Clapham,
where he preached many years to a congregation of Dis-
senters. He wrote a " Rationale of the Ritual of the
Hebrew Worship," and other works. Died in 1752.

Lowndes, lowndz, (RAWLINS,) born in the British
West Indies in 1722, settled at Charleston, South Caro-
lina, where he rose to eminence as a statesman and law-
yer. He was elected president or Governor of South
Carolina in 1778. Died in 1800.

Lowndes, (WILLIAM JONES,) an eminent American
statesman, a son of the preceding, was born at Charles-
ton, South Carolina, on the 7th of February, 1782. He
studied law, and married a daughter of General Thomas
Pinckney. In 1810 or 1811 he was elected a member of
Congress for a district of South Carolina. He was an
eloquent debater, and was eminent for his wisdom and
logical acumen. He is said to have been modest and
unambitious. He continued to serve in Congress about
eleven years, and was chairman of the committee of
ways and means from 1818 to 1822. It appears that he
was a general favourite, and was reputed to stand in the
first rank of American statesmen. His health having
failed, he sailed for Europe, but died on the voyage in
October, 1822.

See "Encyclopaedia Americana," (Supplement.)

Lowndes, (WILLIAM THOMAS,) an English bibliog-
rapher, lived in London. He published, about 1834,
" The Bibliographer's Manual," which is highly esteemed.
Died in 1843.

Low'ry, (WiLSON,) a skilful English engraver, born
at Whitehaven in 1762, became a resident of London.
He contributed to the perfection of his art by several
important inventions, and acquired a high reputation,
especially as an engraver of architecture and mechanism,
in which he was unsurpassed. He engraved many figures
for Rees's "Cyclopaedia." Died in 1824.

Lowth, lowth, (ROBERT,) an English bishop and emi-
nent writer, born at Winchester in 1710, was the son of
William Lowth, noticed below. He was educated at Ox-
ford, and became eminent as a biblical scholar. Having
been chosen professor of poetry at Oxford, (1741,) he
delivered " Lectures on the Poetry of the Hebrews," (in
Latin,) which were published in 1753, and often reprinted.
This work was highly esteemed by the most eminent
critics. He was appointed Bishop of Saint David's in
1766, translated to the see of Oxford in the same year,
and to that of London in 1777. Among his most impor-
tant works is an excellent " Translation of the Prophet
Isaiah," (1778.) Died in 1787.

See P. HALL, "Life of Bishop Lowth," 1834 : " Memoirs of the
Life of Robert Lowth," London, 1797; "Monthly Review" for
February and March, 1779, and April, 1780.

Lowth, ( SIMON,) an English theologian, born in
Northamptonshire about 1630. He was vicar of Saints
Cosmas and Damian-on-the-Blean. He published " Let-
ters between Dr. G. Burnet and Simon Lowth," (1684,)
and other writings. Died in 1720.

Lowth, (WILLIAM,) a scholar and commentator, the
father of Robert, noticed above, was born in London in
1661. He was chaplain to the Bishop of Winchester,
and became rector of Buriton about 1700. He wrote
several highly esteemed works, among which are " Di-
rections for the Profitable Reading of the Holy Scrip-
tures," (1708,) and a "Commentary on the Four Greater
Prophets," (4 vols., 1714-26.) Died in 1732.


Loyd,loid, (LEWIS,) an English banker, born in 1768.
He was a partner of the banking-house of Jones, Loyd
& Co., London, and was distinguished as a financier. He
died in 1858. His son, Samuel J. Loyd, received the
title of Lord Overstone.

Loyer, Le, leh Iwa'yi', (PIERRE,) a French lawyer,
born in Anjou in 1550, was learned in antiquities and
Oriental languages. He wrote a curious work on de-
monology, entitled "On Spectres, Angels, and Demons
distinctly manifesting themselves to Men," ("Quatres
Livres des Spectres, Anges et Demons se montrant sen-
siblement aux Hommes, ) and otherworks. Died in 1634.

Loyola, loi-o'la, [Sp. pron. lo-yo'la,] (IGNATIUS,)
originally Don INIGO LOPEZ de Recalde, (da ri-kal'da,)

often called Saint Ignatius, (ig-na'she-us ;) [Fr. SAINT-
IGNACE, san'ten'yis'; It. SANT" IGNAZIO, sint en-yat'-
se-o,] a celebrated Spanish reformer, and the founder
of the order of Jesuits, was born of a noble family at
Loyola Castle, in Biscay, in 1491. He received from
nature an ardent, imaginative temperament, and in youth
was the very prototype of the hero of Cervantes, an
enthusiastic votary of chivalrous romance. After signal-
izing his gallantry in several campaigns, he received
about 1520, at the siege of Pampeluna, a wound which
made him a cripple for life. During the tedious con-
finement which followed, his attention was directed to
the mysteries of religion. Ascribing his recovery to a
miracle of grace, he dedicated himself to arduous re
ligious enterprises and to the service of the Blessed Vir-
gin. He became a popular preacher, and was renowned
for his penances and vigils. In 1523 he performed a
pilgrimage to Jerusalem, from which he returned to
Spain in 1524. He passed several ensuing years at Al-
cala and Salamanca in the study of grammar, philosophy,
etc., which he had neglected to learn in his youth. In
1528 he became a student in the University of Paris,
where he found several congenial spirits, among whom
were Francis Xavier and James Lainez. With these he
formed in 1534 a religious society devoted to the educa-
tion of youlh, the renovation of the Catholic Church,
and the conversion of the infidels.

After they had digested the polity and peculiar maxims
of the new order, Paul III. gave it his formal sanction
in 1540, and Loyola was chosen superior or general
(with absolute power) of the order, which was styled the
Society of Jesus. Loyola thenceforth remained in Rome,
and witnessed the extraordinary success of his efforts.
"Under his rule," says Macaulay, "the order grew
rapidly to the full measure of its gigantic powers. With
what vehemence, with what policy, with what exact
discipline, with what dauntless courage, with what self-
denial, with what unscrupulous laxity and versatility in
the choice of means, the Jesuits fought the battles of
their Church, is written in every page of the annals of
Europe during several generations. In the Order of
Jesus was concentrated the quintessence of the Catholic
spirit ; and the history of the Order of Jesus is the
history of the great Catholic reaction. This order pos-
sessed itself at once of all the strongholds which com-
mand the public mind, of the pulpit, of the press, of
the confessional, of the academies. . . . Nor was it less
their office to plot against the thrones and lives of apos-
tate kings, to spread evil rumours, to raise tumults, to
inflame civil wars, to arm the hand of the assassin."
(See Review of Ranke's "History of the Popes.") It
does not appear, however, that Loyola was responsible
for the corruptions referred to in the above quotation.
His chief work is "Spiritual Exercises," (" Exercicios
espirituales," 1548,) in which he gives rules and counsels
for the guidance of believers. He died in 1556, and was
canonized as a saint by the pope in 1622.

See RIBADBNBIRA, " Vida de S. Ignazio," 1570; G. P. MAPFHi t
"De Vita et Moribus Ignatii Loyolae," 1584; STEIN, "Vita Ignatii
Loyola;," 1598: P. BOUHOURS, " Vie de Saint- Ignace," 1679; BOM-
BINA, "Vita S. Ignatii/' 1615: M. WALPOLH, Life of Saint Igna-

1848; "Retrospective Review," vol. ix., 1824.

Loyseau. See LOISEAU.

Loyseau, Iwi'zo', (CHARLES,) a French jurist, born
at Nogent-le-Roi in 1566; died in 1627.

Loysel. See LOISEL.


Loyson, Iwa'zoN', (CHARLES,) a French poet, born
in Mayenne in 1791, was maitrc des confirmees in the
Normal School. He published, in 1819, a volume of
elegies and epistles, which abound with beautiful verses.
"He approaches Lamartine," says Sainte-Beuve, "in
elevation and spiritttalisme of sentiments." Died in 1820.

Lu'a, [from lua, to " purge" or " purify,"] a Roman
goddess, who presided over things purified by lustra-
tions. By some she is identified with Ops or Rhea.

Lubbert, liib'bert, orLuthbert, lut'beRt, (SIBRAND,)
a learned Dutch Calvinist, born in Friesland about 1555-
He was for many years professor of divinity at Fransker,
and was deputed to the Synod of Dort about 1618. He

eas; 933*; ^hard; gas/;G H, Vi,guttut-J; ti,nasa/; R, trilled; sasz; th as in Mir.

anations, p. 23.)




wrote controversial works against Socinus, Armim;is,
and Grotius. Died in 1625.

Lub'bpck, (Sir JOHN,) an English banker and savant,
a son of Sir John William, noticed below, was born in
London in 1834. In 1870 he was elected to Parliament
as a Liberal from Maidstone. He is the author of
" Prehistoric Times," (1865,) " The Origin of Civili-
zation," (1870,) "Ants, Bees, and Wasps," (1882,)
"The Pleasures of Life," (1887,) "The Use of
Life," (1894,) '"The : Scenery of Switzerland,"
(1896,) etc.

Lubbock, (Sir JOHN WILLIAM,) Bart, an English
mathematician and astronomer, born in London in 1803,
was educated at Cambridge. About 1830 he was elected
a Fellow of the Royal Society, which he served as treas-
urer for many years. He contributed to the " Philosophic
Transactions" treatises on the "Tides," "On Meteor-
ology," " Researches in Physical Astronomy," etc. In
1833 he produced a work "On the Theory of the Moon
and on the Perturbations of the Planets." Died in 1865.
Lubersac, de, deh lii'beVsaV, (N.,) a French writer
and amateur of art, born in Limousin in 1730; died
in 1804.

Lubert, de, deh lii'baiR', MADEMOISELLE, a French
romance-writer, born in Paris about 1710. She com-
posed successful romances and fairy-tales, one of which
is entitled "Princess Rose-Colour and Prince Celadon."
Voltaire complimented her with the title of "Muse et
Grace." Died about 1780.
Lubieniecius. See LUBIENIECKI.
Lubieniecki, ]oo-be-en-e-ets'kee, written also Lu-
bienetaki or Lubienietski, (CHRISTOPHER,) a painter,
of Polish extraction, born at Stettin in 1659. He settled
in Amsterdam, where he painted portraits and history.
Died in 1729.

Lubieniecki or Lubienietski, [Lat LUBIENIE'-
cius,] (STANISLAS,) a Polish Socinian and astronomer,
was born at Cracow in 1623. He became minister of a
church in Lublin, and wrote a " History of the Polish
Reformation," (1685.) He was exiled from Lublin for
his opinions in theology, and died at Hamburg in 1675.
His reputation rests chiefly on his "Theatrum Cometi-
cum," (1667,) which gives an ample account of four
hundred and fifteen comets which appeared from the
Deluge to his own time.

Lubieniecki or Lubienetski,(THEODORE,) a paintei
and engraver, born at Cracow in 1653, was a brother ot
Christopher, noticed above. He became a resident of
Berlin, where he painted landscapes and historical pic-
tures. A Socinian treatise which he wrote having been
burnt by the hangman, he resigned his place, and re-
turned to Poland, in 1706. Died in 1720.

Lubin, lii'baN', (AucuSTlN,) a French monk, born in
Paris in 1624. He received the title of geographer to
the king, and published, besides other learned works
on ancient and sacred geography, " Plates of Sacred
Geography," ("Tabulae Sacrae Geographicae," 1670.)
Died in 1695.

Lubin, loo'bin, (EiLHARD,) a German philologist,
born in Oldenburg in 1565. He became in 1595 pro-
fessor of belles-lettres at Rostock, where he died in 1621,
leaving, besides other works, a " Key to the Greek Lan
guage," ("Clavis Linguae Grascae," 1622,) and notes on
Horace, Persius, and Juvenal.

Lubis, lu'bess', (E. P.,) a French political writer,
born in 1806, published a " History of the Restoration,"
(in French, 6 vols., 1836.) Died in Paris in 1859.

Liibke, liib'keh, (WILHELM,) a German art-historian,
born in Dortmund, January 17, 1826. He was professor
of art-history at Zurich, 1861-66, when he was called to
a professorship in the art-schools of Stuttgart. He is the
author, among other works, of a " History of Art," (1861,)
a "History of Sculpture," (1863,) etc. Died in 1893.

Lublink, lub'link, (JAN,) a Dutch writer, born at
Amsterdam in 1735. He translated into Dutch Thom-
son's " Seasons" and Young's " Night Thoughts," and
wrote other works. Died about 1815.

Lubomirski, loo-bo-min'skee, (STANISLAS HERA-
CLIUS,) a noble Polish writer, born about 1640. He

Decame grand marshal of Poland, and defended the
national independence with his pen and sword. One
of his works is a political treatise called " Consultations ;
or, On the Vanity of Counsels," ("Consultationes, si"
de Vanitate Consiliorum," 1700.) Died in 1702.

Luc, the French for LUKE, which see.


Luc, de. See DELUC.

Luc de Bruges. See LUCAS BRUGENSIS.

Luca. See LUKE.

Luca, loo'ka, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an Italian jurist
and prelate, born at Venosa in 1614. He published
" Theatre of Truth and Justice," (" Theatrum Veritatis
et lustitiae," 7 vols., 1697,) which treats on canon and
civil law and was highly esteemed. Died in 1683.

Luca or Lucae, loo'tsa, (SAMUEL CHRISTIAN,) a
German anatomist, born at Frankfort in 1787; died in

Luca, de, da loo'ka, (ANTONINO SAVERIO,) an Italian
cardinal, born at Bronte, Sicily, October 28, 1805. He
was bred in the seminary of Monreale, and at Rome,
where he was a secretary, and an editor, and afterwards
acted as an ablegate, and as censor of the Academy of
the Catholic Religion. He was also appointed an hon-
orary professor in the Roman University, a consultor for
the Propaganda and the Index, and a supernumary secret
cameriere. In 1845 he was consecrated Bishop of Aversa,
in 1853 was appointed Archbishop of Tarsus and nuncio
to Bavaria, and in 1856 nuncio to Austria. In 1863 he
was created a cardinal-priest, and in 1878 a cardinal-
bishop, and Bishop o! Palaestrina. He was head of the
apostolic deanery, vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman
Church, etc. Died in 1884.

Luca, von, fon loo'ka, (!GNAZ,) a German historian
and political writer, born in Viennain 1746 ; died in 1799.

Luca Santo, loo'ka sin'to, or Saint Luke, a Flor-
entine painter of the eleventh or twelfth century. He is
supposed to have painted the Madonnas which were
ascribed to Saint Luke the Evangelist.

Lucain. See LUCAN.

British general, a son of the Earl of Lucan, was born in
London in 1800. He succeeded to the earldom about
1840. In 1854-55 he served in the Crimea in command
of a division of cavalry, and took part in the battles of
the Alma, Balaklava, and Inkerman. He became colonel
'in the Life-Guards in 1855, and was made lieutenant-
general in 1858, and general in 1865. Died in 1888.

Lu'can, [Lai. LUCA'NUS ; Fr. LUCAIN, lii'kaN' ; It
LUCANO, loo-ka'no,] (MARCUS ANN^US,) a Roman epic
poet, born at Corduba, (Cordova,) Spain, in 38 A.D., was
a nephew of the philosopher Seneca. He was educated
at Rome. His early poems procured him the favour of
Nero, who appointed him quaestor and augur and con-
descended to appear as his rival in a literary contest.
Lucan gained the prize, but at the same time lost the
favour of the tyrant, whom he had formerly addressed
with gross adulation. Nero forbade him to read any more
poems in public. Lucan, with Piso and others, conspired
against the life of Nero; the plot was detected, and the
poet was put to death in 65 A.D. His fame rests on a
poem entitled " Pharsalia," which treats of the civil war
between Caesar and Pompey, and displays great beauties
with great defects. Among the latter is an inflated,
declamatory style. Corneille and Voltaire were warm
admirers of Lucan. " His genius," says Villemain, re-
ferring to his early death, " had only time to produce
grandeur, without naturalness or truth." Among his
merits are exalted imagination, intense energy, and
impressive diction.

See KARL H. WEISE, "Vita Lucani," 1835; JACOB PALMER
"Apologia pro Lucano," 1704; VOLTAIRE, " Essai sur la Poe'sie
4pique;"J. G Mi i EI. " Dissertationes II. de Lucano," 1767;
SMITH, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography."

Lucano. See LUCAN.

Lucanus. See LUCAN.


Lu'cas, (CHARLES,) an Irish physician, patriot, and
politician, born in 1713. He was a popular member of
the Irish Parliament, and an opponent of the court
Died in 1771. .

, e, 1, 6, u, y, long : a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; n5t; good; moon;



Lu'cas, (CHARLES.) an English musician and com-
poser, born at Salisbury, July 28, 1808. He produced
" The Regicide," (an opera,) symphonies, anthems, songs,
etc. Died March 23, 1869.

Lucas, lii'ka', (HIPPOLYTE JULIEN JOSEPH,) a French
poet and writer of fiction, born at Rennes in 1807. He
produced in 1834 two volumes of verse and prose,
entitled "The Heart and the World." Among his
numerous works is a " Philosophic and Literary His-
tory of the French Theatre." Died Nov. 14, 1878.

Lucas, (JEAN ANDRE HENRI,) a French mineralo-
gist, born in Paris in 1780 ; died in 1825.

Lucas, (JEAN JACQUES ETIENNE,) a French naval
officer, born at Marennes in 1764. In 1803 he obtained
command of the Redoutable. At the battle of Trafalgar
(1805) his ship grappled with Nelson's flag-ship, the Vic-
tory, and one of his crew gave Nelson a mortal wound.
Lucas was taken prisoner in this action. Died in 1819.

Lucas, (JEAN MARIE CHARLES,) a French economist,
born at Saint-Brieuc in 1803. He wrote "On the Re-
form of Prisons," (3 vols., 1836-38,) and other works. He
was admitted into the Institute in 1836. Died in

Lucas, (JOHN SEYMOUR,) an English artist, born
at London in 1849. He became a student of the
Royal Academy in 1872, and exhibited " By Hook or
Crook" at Burlington House in 1875. All his sub-
sequent work is of a high order of technical excel-
lence, which is specially noticeable in "The Gordon
Riots," (1879.) He became a member of the Insti-
tute of Water-Colour Painters in 1877, and an associate
of the Royal Academy in 1886.


Lucas, (PAUL,) a French traveller, born at Rouen in
1664, was in early life a dealer in jewels. He visited
Upper Egypt, Syria, Persia, etc., and published "Voyage
to the Levant," (1704.) Having received a commission
from Louis XIV. to collect medals and other monu-
ments of antiquity, he again explored the Levant, (1705-
08,) and published a narrative of his journey. In 1719
he produced his best work, entitled a " Journey in Turkey,
Syria, Palestine, and Egypt," (performed in 1715-16.)
Many of his stories are exaggerated and absurd. Died
in 1737.

See MORBRI, " Dictionnaire Historique;' 1 " Nouvelle Biographic

Lu'cas, (RICHARD,) a learned British divine, born
in Radnorshire in 1648. He settled in London about
1684, and became prebendary of Westminster in 1696.
He published an " Enquiry after Happiness," and " Prac-
tical Christianity," which are highly commended, and
other works. Died in 1715.


Lucas, (SAMUEL,) an English journalist and miscel-
laneous writer, born at Bristol in 1818. He was editor
of the " Press" and of " Once a Week." He contributed
to the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews. Died in 1868.

Lu'cas Bru-gen'sis, [or Luc DE BRUGES, liik deh
briizh,] (FRANC.OIS,) a Flemish theologian and excellent
linguist, born at Bruges in 1549. He published, besides
other works, " Concordances of the Vulgate Edition of
the Sacred Books," (" Sacrorum Bibliorum Vulgatae
Editionis Concordantiae," 1617; and 5 vols., 1712.) Died
in 1619.

Lucas van Leyden See LEYDEN.

Lucas von Cranach. See CRANACH,

Lucatelli See LOCATELLI.

Lucca, look'ki, (PAULINE,) an Austrian operatic
singer, born at Vienna, of Jewish parents, in 1842. At
an early age she entered the chorus of the opera at
Vienna, and in 1859 created a sensation by her manner
of leading the Bridesmaids' Chorus. In the same year
she made her debut at Olmutz, in the character of "El-
vira" in " Ernani," and at once established herself as a
popular favourite. Attracting the attention of Meyer-
beer, the composer, he secured for her an engagement in
Berlin in 1861. Here she was appointed court singer

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 105 of 425)