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for life, but severed her connection in 1872. During this
period she also sang in London and Saint Petersburg,

and achieved a Continental reputation. In September,
1872, she visited the United States, where she remained
for two years. She then returned to Europe, and, after
making a tour of all the principal cities in Germany
except Berlin, finally settled in Vienna. Lucca married
Baron Rahden in 1865, but was shortly afterwards
divorced from him.

Lucceius, luk-see'us, (Lucius,) a Roman orator and
friend of Cicero, flourished about 60 B.C.

Lucchesini, look-ki-see'nee, (CESARE,) an Italian
philologist, born at Lucca in 1756, was a brother of
the marquis, noticed below. He acquired a European
reputation by his numerous works on philology, among
which is " The Sources of Ancient and Modern Lan-
guages." Died in 1832.

Lucchesini,(GlovANNl ViNCENZO,)an Italian scholar,
born at Lucca in 1660. He lived in Rome, and obtained
from Clement XII. the high office of secretary of briefs.
He published an edition of Demosthenes' Orations, with

MARQUIS, an able diplomatist, born at Lucca in 1752.
He removed to Berlin in the latter part of the reign of
Frederick the Great, who appointed him his librarian
and reader. He was sent as minister of Prussia to Vi-
enna in 1793, and to Paris in 1802. After the battle of
Jena (1806) he negotiated a truce with the victor ; but it
was not ratified by the Prussian court. Soon after this
event he returned to Lucca. He wrote a work called
" On the Causes and Effects of the Confederation of
the Rhine," (1819.) Died in 1825.

Luce, the French of Lucius, (Pope,) which see.

Luce, (STEPHEN BLEECKER,) an American ad-
miral, born at Albany, New York, in 1827. He was
appointed midshipman in 1841, became rear-admiral
in 1885, and retired in 1889. He has been an associ-
ate editor of " Johnson's Universal Cyclopaedia" and
naval editor of the "Standard Dictionary," and has
published "Seamanship."

Luce de Lancival, liis deh loN'se'vSl', (JEAN
CHARLES JULIEN,) a French litterateur, born in Picardy
in 1764. He was chosen professor of belles-lettres in
the Prytanee, a college of Paris, about 1797. Among
his best productions are a poem called "Achilles at
Scyros," (1805,) and "Hector," a tragedy, (1809,) which
Villemain pronounces "truly Homeric." Died in 1810.

See VILLEMAIN, notice in the " Magasin Encyclope*dique ;" H.
GRELLET, " Luce de Lancival : Notice biographique," 1857.

Lucena, de, da loo-sa'na, (JoSo,) a Portuguese writer,
burn at Trancoso about 1548. He was professor of phi-
losophy at Ev'ora, and author of an excellent " Life of
Francis Xavier," (1600,) often reprinted. Died in 1600.

Lucena, de, (VASCO FERNANDEZ,) COUNT, a Portu-
guese historian and statesman, born about 1410. He
translated Quintus Curtius into French for Charles the
Bold of Burgundy. He received the title of chancellor
of Portugal. Died about 1500.

Lu-ce'rI-us, [" light-bringing,"] a surname of JUPI-
TER, which see.

Luchet, lii'sh^', (AUGUSTE,) a French litttratcur and
democrat, born in Paris in 1806. He was sentenced in
1842 to an imprisonment of two years for one of his
works. He died March 9, 1872.

Luchet, de, deh lii'shi', (JEAN PIERRE Louis,) MAR-
QUIS, a prolific French author, born at Saintes about
1740, was styled Marquis de la Roche du Maine. He
published many superficial works. His " Literary His-
tory of Voltaire" (1782) furnishes some curious details.
Died in 1792.

Luchetto da Geneva. See CAMBIASO, (LucA.)

Luciau, loo'she^n, [Gr. Aaviaavof ; Lat. LuCIA'NUS;
Fr. LUCIEN, lu'se-aN' ; It. LUCIANO, loo-cha'no,] one
of the most witty and original Greek writers, was born
at Samosata, (Someisat,) on the Euphrates, about 120
A.D. He practised law a short time at Antioch, and
exchanged that profession for the more lucrative pursuit
of sophist and teacher of rhetoric, which he followed
with success in Gaul until he was about forty years old.
Again changing his profession, he returned to the East,

eas; {as j; g hjrd; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as \nthis. (S^ = "See Explanations, p. 23.)




and lived many years at Athens, where he was intimate
with Demonax and employed his time in literary com-
position. His principal works are dialogues, written
in pure and elegant Greek, on history, mythology, phi-
losophy, and various other subjects. His object appears
to have been to cure men of their prejudices and super-
stitions and their foolish admiration of philosophic char-
latans. His genius is eminently satirical, and his works
are remarkably humorous ; but some of them are cen- i
sured as offensive to morality and religion. Among the
titles of his dialogues are "Timon the Misanthrope,"
" Charon," " Menippus," and " The Assembly of Gods."
English versions of his dialogues have been published by
T. Franklin (1780) and William Tooke, (1820.) Wieland
produced a good German translation. Good editions of
the Greek text have been published by Dindorf (Paris,
1840) and Bekker, (1853.)

See KARL GSORG JACOB, " Characteristik Lucian's von Samo-
sata," 1832; TIEMANN. " Versuch iiber Lucian's von Samosata_Phl-

January, February, April, May, and June, 1839,

Lucian, [Fr. LUCIEN, lii'se'aN',] SAINT, a Christian
martyr, born at Samosata in the third century, was emi-
nent for piety and learning. He was ordained a priest
or presbyter at Antioch. He prepared a revised edition
of the Scriptures, which, Jerome says, was more correct
than those of Hesychius and Pamphilus. Diocletian
having issued an edict against the Christians, Lucian
luffered martyrdom in 312 A.D.

See SAINT JEROME, " De Viris illustribus ;" EUSKBIUS, " Historia


Luciauus. See LUCIAN.

Lucien, the French of LUCIAN, which see.

Lu'cl-ff r, Bishop of Calaris, (now Cagliari,) in Sar-
dinia, was noted for his intolerance and zeal against
Arianism. About 355 A.D. he was banished by Constan-
tius, who favoured the Arians. He wrote a " Defence
of Athanasius," and other works. He refused to recog-
nize as orthodox those bishops who signed the formula
of Rimini, (359,) or to have fellowship with any who
recognized them, and finally became the author of a
schism. He had many followers, who formed a distinct
sect, called Luciferians. Died about 370 A.D.

Lu-cill-UB, (CAIUS,) a Roman satiric poet, born at
Suessa Aurunca, (now Sessa,) in Italy, about 148 B.C., was
a great-uncle of Pompey the Great In early youth he
served under Scipio Africanus at the siege of Numan-
tia, and became an intimate friend of that general. He
composed thirty satires and various other poems ; but
only fragments of his works have come down to us.
Horace asserts that he was the first writer of satire
among the Romans, (Sat., lib. 2, i. 62.) His satires
were much admired by many ancient critics, including
Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. " He was," says Professor
Sellar, "vehement in invective, because he was thor-
oughly earnest in his purpose to expose vice and base-
ness among the high and low with impartial severity.
Although probably few writers of verse have had less
poetical faculty, yet, by his originality and force of char-
acter, he became the favourite of his own time and coun-
try; and he alone among Roman writers has introduced
a new and permanent form of poetry into the world."
Died about 100 B.C.

See SELLAR, " Roman Poets of the Republic," chap. vi. ; PETER-
MANN, " Dissertatio de C. Lucilii Vita," 1842 : SMITH, " Dictionary
of Greek and Roman Biography."

Lucil'iUB Ju'nior, a Roman poet and naturalist,
lived in the first century, and was a friend of Seneca.
He is supposed to be the author of a poem of six hun-
dred and forty hexameter verses, entitled " jEtna," which
presents some fine passages.

Lu-ci'na, [Fr. LUCINE, lii'sen',] the name of the god-
dess that brings to light and presides over the birth of
children, was used as a surname of Juno and of Diana,
both of whom were supposed to assist women in partu-
rition, and were sometimes called LUCIN^E. The Greek
goddess ILITHYI'A or EILEITHYIA ['Edti&via] appears to
be essentially the same as Diana (Artemis) in her char-
acter of Lucina.

Lucine. See LUCINA.
Lucius. See Luz.

Lucius, loo'she-us, [Fr. LUCE, liiss,] 1, Bishop of
Rome, succeeded Cornelius in October, 252 A.D., and
died in March, 253. Stephen I. was his successor.

Lucius IL, a native of Bologna, was elected pope in
March, 1144, as successor to Celestine II. He died in
1145, after a pontificate of eleven months, and Eugenius
III. was chosen in his place.

Lucius TTT (Cardinal UBALDO OF LUCCA) was elected
pope in II 81, after the death of Alexander III. His
election was the first that was decided by the cardinals,
the clergy and people being excluded from the right to
vote. A revolt of the people of Rome obliged him to
leave the city, and he retired to Verona. He died in
1185, and was succeeded by Urban III.

Lucius, (CAESAR,) a Roman prince, born 17 B.C., was
a son of M. Agrippa and Julia, who was a daughter of
the emperor Augustus. He and his brother Caius were
heirs-presumptive of the empire, but they died before
Augustus. Lucius died in 2 A.D. The Maison Carrie
at Nimes was a temple dedicated to Caius and Lucius.

Lucius, lu'shejis, [It, Lycio, loo'cho,] (GIOVANNI,)
a historian, born~at Trau, in Dalmatia. He published
in 1666 a " History of Dalmatia and Croatia." Died in

Lucius Verus. See VERUS.

Liicke or Luecke, liik'keh, (GOTTFRIED CHRISTIAN
FRIEDRICH,) an eminent German theologian, was born
at Egeln, near Magdeburg, in 1791. He studied at
Halle in 1810, and subsequently at Gbttingen, where
he formed a friendship with Bunsen and Lachmann.
He became professor of theology at Bonn in 1818, and
soon after published, conjointly with Schleiermacher and
De Wette, the "Theological Journal." His " Commen-
tary on the Writings of Saint John the Evangelist" (4
vols., 1820-32) is esteemed one of the best works of its
kind. In 1827 he succeeded Staudlin in the chair of
theology at Gottingen. Died at Gbttingen in 1855.

Luckner, look'ner, (NiKOLAUS,) a marshal of France,
born at Kampen, in' Bavaria, in 1722. At an early age
he entered the service of Prussia, for which he fought
with distinction in the Seven Years' war, (1756-63.)
About 1763 he accepted the rank of lieutenant-general
in the French army, which for many subsequent years
was not called into active service. Having submitted
to the new re'gime, he was promoted to the rank of mar-
shal in December, 1791. In the spring of 1792 he ob-
tained command of one of the armies which defended the
frontier against the Austrians, and a few weeks later
succeeded Rochambeau as general-in-chief. The domi-
nant party, distrusting both his fidelity and capacity, de-
prived him of the command in 1792. He was guillotined
in January, 1794.

See THIERS, " History of the French Revolution."
Lucotte, liiTcot', (EDME AIM,) COUNT, a French
general, born in Burgundy in 1770. The Bourbons con-
fided to him the defence of Paris in March, 1815. Died
in 1815.

Lucretia, loo-kree'she-a, fit LUCREZIA, loo-kReV-
se-i ; Fr. LUCRECE, lii'kR&s',J a Roman lady, distin-
guished for her beauty, virtue, and tragical destiny, was
the wife of Collatinus, who was related to Tarquin the
Proud, King of Rome. The outrage offered to her honour
by Sextus Tarquin, and the voluntary sacrifice of her
life, (507 B.C.,) have furnished a favourite theme for poets
and painters, and, according to a doubtful legend, caused
the dethronement of Tarquin, and the conversion of the
Roman state into a republic, under the direction of
Junius Brutus.

Lucretius, lu-kree'she^us, [Fr. LUCRECE, luTtRjss';
It, LUCREZIO, loo-kRjt'se-o ; Sp. LUCRECIO, loo-kRa'-
rfe-o,] or, to give his full name, Ti'tus Lucre'tius
Ca'rua, one of the greatest Latin poets, was born in
Italy in 95 B.C., and was contemporary with Cicero.
The records of antiquity throw scarcely any light on his
life, which was probably passed in studious retirement.
It is not known whether he ever visited Greece ; but
it is evident from his writings that he had profoundly
studied the language, philosophy, and manners of that

a, e, I, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e. 1. 6, U, J7, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; m?t; not; good; mooiu



people. A doubtful tradition asserts that he was subject
to insanity caused by a love-potion ; and the statement
that he committed suicide in his forty-fourth year is gen-
erally credited. He left only one work, a philosophic
and didactic poem, in six books, entitled "De Rerum
NaturaV' ("On the Nature of Things,") in which he ex-
pounds and illustrates the physical and ethical doctrines
of Epicurus, of whom he was a disciple. From such
abstruse speculations and intractable subjects he has
produced one of the most admirable poems in the lan-
guage. Although his system is erroneous and incoherent,
his reasoning is remarkably clear and close. Probably
no other work so amply demonstrates the power of the
Latin language to utter the sublimest conceptions with

Prussia made
his works are

him a privy councillor in 1709. Among
"Germama Princeps," (1702,)



the rights, privileges, etc. of the house of Austria
of the Electors, " Writers of German History,"
("Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum," 1718,) and a " Life
of Justinian," (1730.) Died in 1743.

Lfid'low, (EDMUND,) an able English republican
general, born in Wiltshire about 1620. He fought against
the king at Edgehill in 1642, and led a regiment at the
battle of Newbury. Elected to Parliament in 1645, he
voted for the conversion of the kingdom into a republic,
and was one of the judges who condemned Charles L
in 1649. In this year he was chosen a member of the
council of state, in which he opposed the ambitious

sustained majesty and harmony. "A great atheistic designs of Cromwell. In 1650 he went to Ireland as
poet," says Villemain, "is surely a surprising phenom- ij eutenant .general. On the death of Ireton, November,
enon. His genius finds sublime accents to attack all , , the command o f the army devolved on Ludlow.
the inspirations of genius. He renders even nothing- ^ s he re f used to support the government of the Pro-
ness poetic; he insults glory; he enjoys death. Out of tector (,653,) he was deprived of command. After the
the abyss of skepticism he sometimes soars to a height | dea(h of O li ve r (1658) he resumed his seat in Parliament,
of enthusiasm which is rivalled only by the sublimity of and ODta ; ned command of the army in Ireland in 1659.
Homer." Referring to this work, Macaulay remarks, ; At , he restorat j O n (1660) he escaped through France to
"The finest poem in the Latin language indeed, the VevaVi where he resided mostly until his death, in 1693.
finest didactic poem in any language was written in j He ] ft Memoirs of his life, (2 veils., 1698.) Macaulay
defence of the silliest and meanest of all systems of refers to h; m as "almost the only survivor, |in 1689,)
natural and moral philosophy." Ovid appears to be
the only contemporary writer who fully appreciated the
genius of Lucretius.

Lu-culluB, (Lucius LICINIUS,) a celebrated Roman
general, born of a patrician family about no B.C. In
the year 87 he went to Asia as quaestor under Sulla,
who gave him many proofs of his confidence. After an
absence of several years, during which the civil war be-
tween Marius and Sulla raged at Rome, he returned, and

certainly the most illustrious survivor, of a mighty race
of men, the judges of a king, the founders of a repub-
lic. ... There was but a single blemish on his fame,"
i.e. the execution of Charles I.

Lud'low, (FlTZHUGH,) an American author, born at
Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1837, the son of a Congre
gationalist minister. He graduated at Union College in
1856. Among his works are " The Hasheesh-Eater,"

was elected consul in 74 B.C. In this year he obtained ('857,) " Little Brother" (1867,) " What Shall they Do to
the chief command in the war against Mithridates, whom , be Saved ?" (1868,) and " The Heart of the Continent,
he defeated at Cyzicus in 73, and, after other victories. ' (187-) He died at Geneva, Switzerland, September 13.
drove him out of the kingdom of Pontus. He afterwards 1870, a victim of the opium-habit. He wrote several

defeated Tigranes of Armenia, whose capital he took
about 68 B.C. The mutiny of his troops prevented his
final triumph over Mithridates, and he was superseded
by Pompey in the year 66. Cicero expressed the opinion
that so great a war was never conducted with more
prudence and courage. ("Pro Murasna.") Lucullus then
retired from public affairs, and expended part of the im-
mense fortune he had acquired in the East in building
magnificent villas, giving sumptuous entertainments, and
collecting expensive paintings and statues. He was a
liberal patron of learning and the arts. Sulla had dedi-
cated to him his Commentaries. Plutarch, after com-
paring him with Cimon, says it is hard to say to which
side the balance inclines. He was living in 59, but was
not living in 56 B.C.

Lu/cy, (HENRY W.,) an English journalist and
author, born at Crosby in 1845. He became a re-
porter in 1864, joined the staff of " Pall Mall Gazette"
in 1870, and of " Daily News" in 1876, and edited
" Daily News" 1886-87. He continued for " Punch"
the " Essence of Parliament" of Shirley Brooks and
Tom Taylor, his contributions being entitled " The
Diary of Toby, M.P." He wrote a number of works
on parliamentary procedure, history, etc., and several
novels, some of his later works being " Faces and
Places," (1895,) "The Miller's Niece," (1896,) etc.
Iiuden, loo'den, (HEINRICH,) a distinguished Ger-
man historical and political writer, born in the duchy
of Bremen in 1780. He became in 1810 professor of
philosophy at Jena, where he also lectured on history.
His most important work is a " History of the German
Nation," ("Die Geschichte des Deutschen Volkes," 12

very popular student-songs.

Ludlow, (JAMES MEEKER,) an American clergy-
man, born at Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1841. He
was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry, and be-
came pastor of several churches in New York and its
vicinity. He is the author of "My Saint John,"
"Captain of the Janizaries," "A King of Tyre,"
" History of the Crusades," etc.

Ludlow, (JOHN MALCOLM,) a British author, born
at Nimach, India, in 1821. He was a barrister at
Lincoln's Inn, conveyancer, etc., and wrote " British
India," (2 vols., 1858,) "The United States from
Independence to Secession," (1862,) " Popular Epics
of the Middle Ages," (2 vols., 1865,) "The War of
American Independence," (1876,) etc.

Ludlow, (WILLIAM,) an American general, born
at Riverside, Long Island, in 1843. He graduated at
West Point in 1864, served in the engineer corps
during the final year of the civil war, and was after-
wards chief engineer in several Western expeditions
and in operations on the Atlantic coast. From 1883 to
1886 he served as chief engineer of the Philadelphia
water-works, subsequently resuming his engineering
duties under the government. He was president of
the Nicaragua Canal Commission in 1895, and suc-
cessively brigadier-general and major-general of
volunteers in the Spanish-American war of 1898. On
November I, 1899, he was appointed military governor
of Havana. He wrote works descriptive of his ex-
plorations in the Black Hills and the Yellowstone
country, and numerous reports of engineering oper-

vols., 1825-37,) brought down to 1237. He also wrote : atlons -
general histories of the nations of antiquity and of the \ Ludcrfph OF SAXONY, a monk, who died at Mentz
middle ages, a " Life of Hugo Grotius," (1806,) several ; about 1370. He composed, in Latin, a " Life of Christ,"
biographies, etc. Died at Jena in 1847. which was popular and often reprinted.

Ludewig. See LUDOVICI, (KARL GUNTHER.) Ludolphus, loo-dol'fOs, written also Ludolph and

Ludewig, von, fon loo'deh-wio', (JOHANN PETER,) Ludolf, originally Leutholf, loit'holf, (Jos,) an emi-
a learned German jurist and historian, born in Suabia nent German Orientalist, born at Erfurt in 1624.
about 1670. He became professor of philosophy at is said to have acquired twenty-five languages, among
Halle in 1695, and of history in 1703. The King of which was the Abyssinian. The Duke of Saae

as/t; 9. as*; gAard; gas/;G, H,K, guttural; N, nasal; ^trilled; sasz; thasinMw. (Jl^'See Explanations, p. 23.)




employed him to educate his sons, and appointed him
an aulic councillor. Ludolf published, in Latin, an
esteemed " History of Abyssinia," (1681,) an Ethiopian
Grammar, and other works. Died in 1704.

See C. JUNCKER, " Commentarius de Vita J. Ludolfi," 1710;
VUCKEIIODT, "Memoria J. Ludolfi renovatV' 1723: NICKRON,
'Memoires;" " Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale."

Ludovici, loo-do-veet'see, or Ludwig, lood'wio,
(GOTTFRIED,) a German philologist, born at Baruth, in
Prussia, in 1670. He published, besides other works,
a " Universal History," (2 vols., 1716.) Died in 1724.

Ludovici, (KARL GUNTHER,) a learned German pro-
fessor, born at Leipsic in 1707. He wrote a " Dictionary
of Commerce," (5 vols., 1752-56,) and a "Plan of a
History of the Philosophy of Leibnitz," ( 1 737.) Died in
1778. He spelled his name LUDEWIG in his latter years.

Ludovisio. See GREGORY XV.

Ludwig. See LEWIS, Louis, and LUDOVICI.

Ludwig, (Kings of Germany.) See LEWIS.

Ludwig, lood'wic, (CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB,) a German
botanist, born at Brieg, Silesia, in 1709. About 1732 he
made a botanical excursion to Africa. He was chosen
professor of medicine at Leipsic in 1 747. He contributed
to reform botanical science by his writings, among which
are works " On the Sexes of Plants," " Definitions of
Plants," (1737.) and " Botanical Aphorisms," (1738.) J-
J. Rousseau expressed the opinion that Ludwig was the
only botanist besides Linnaeus that viewed botany like a
philosopher. Died in 1773.

See HIRSCHING, " Historisch-literarisches Handbuch;" " Noli
Telle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Ludwig, (DANIEL,) a German writer on materia
medica, born at Weimar in 1625 ; died in 1680.

Ludwig, (JOHANN,) a self-taught German peasant,
born near Dresden in 1715, became a proficient in as-

biologist, born at Witzenhausen, Hesse, December 29,
1816. He was educated at Marburg and Erlangen, and
held professorships at Marburg, Zurich, Vienna, and
Leipsic. Among his works is a valuable "Text-Book
of Physiology," (1852-56.) Died in 1895.

Ludwig, (OTTO,) a German novelist and tragedy-
writer, born at Eisfeld, Saxe-Meiningen, February n,
1813. His tragedies (" The Hereditary Forester," " The
Maccabees," " Agnes Bernauer") were generally suc-
cessful, and some of his novels, though severely criti-
cised, were well received by the public. Died at Dresden,
February 25, 1865.

Luecke. See LUCRE.

Luers, liiRs or lu'er*. (JoHN HENRY,) D.D., a bishop,
born near Miinster, Germany, September 29, 1819, of
humble parentage. He came to New York in 1833,
studied in the Lazarist Seminary of Saint Francis Xavier
at Saint Martin's, Ohio, and became a Roman Catholic
priest in 1846. In 1858 he was consecrated Bishop of
Fort Wayne, the first of that title. Died at Cleveland,
Ohio, June 29, 1871. He was a laborious pastor, and
was distinguished as an advocate of total abstinence.

Luetzelburger. See LUTZELBURGER.

Luetzow. See LUTZOW.

Lufit, looft, (HANS,) a German printer and bookseller,
born in 1495, resided at Wittenberg, where he published
the first editions of Luther's translation of the Bible.
This work appeared complete in 1534. Within fifty

Cars one hundred thousand copies were issued from
ifft's office ; and he his been surnamed THE BIBLE
PRINTER. Died in 1584.

Lugo, de, da loo'go, (JuAN,) a Spanish Jesuit, born
at Madrid in 1583. He taught theology at Rome twenty
years, was made a cardinal in 1643, an d wrote several
theological works, which were often reprinted. Died in
1660. His brother FRANCISCO (1580-1652) was also a
Jesuit, and author of several works on theology.

Luigi, loo-ee'jee, (ANDREA,) an Italian painter,
surnamed L'lNGEGNO, (len-je'n'yo,) and sometimes called
ANDREA r>i Assist, was born at Assisi about 1470. He
assisted Perugino in adorning the Cambio at Perugia,
and worked mostly at his native place. He painted a

coat of arms for the town-hall of Assisi. It appear!

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 106 of 425)