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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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that nothing is known certainly of his other works.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters," etc

Luiken, loi'ken, (JAN,) a Dutch engraver, born ic
1649; died in 1708. He published in 1671 a noteworthj
volume of poems.

Luini, loo-ee'nee, (AURELIO,) an Italian painter, a
son of Bernardino, noticed below, was born about 1530.
He worked at Milan, and painted scriptural subjects,
among which is "The Adoration of the Magi." He
died, according to Lanzi, in 1593; but some date his
death many years earlier.

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy."

Luini, Luvini, loo-vee'nee, or Lovini, lo-vee'nee,
(BERNARDINO,) an eminent Italian painter, was born at
Luino, on Lake Maggiore. He is called the most ex-
cellent imitator and pupil of Leonardo da Vinci. Lo-
mazzo says he was already a distinguished painter in
1500. Luini worked both in fresco and oil, and painted
at Milan several works which are still in good preserva-
tion. " Few painters," says Lanzi, " deserve to be com-
pared to him." Among his master-pieces in oil are a
"Magdalene," a "Madonna," and a "Saint John with a
Lamb," all at Milan. He excelled in colouring, cAiaro-
scvro, and the expression of feminine grace. He died
after 1530. His sons, AURELIO and EVANGELISTA, were
skilful painters.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters," etc. ; LANZI, " History ol
Painting in Italy."

Luini, (EVANGELISTA,) a decorative painter of Milan,
was a son of the preceding. Died after 1584.

Luini, (ToMMASO,) an Italian painter, born at Rome
about 1597. He was called CARAVAGGINO, because he
imitated Caravaggio. Died about 1632.

Luino, loo-ee'no, or Luini, loo-ee'nee, (FRANCESCO,)
an Italian geometer, born at Milan in 1740. He was
professor of mathematics successively in a college of
Milan and in the University of Pavia. He published a
treatise on " Progressions and Series," (" Sulle Progres-
sion! e sulle Serie," 1767,) "Philosophic Meditation'
and a few other works. Died in 1792.

Luis, the Spanish for Louis, which see.

Luis de Granada. See GRANADA, (Luis DE.)

Luisini, Luisino, or Luisinus. See LUVIGINI,


Luithold von Savene, loitliolt fon sa'veh-ne,h, or
Liitolt von Saven, lii'tolt fon sl'ven, a German minne-
singer of the latter part of the twelfth century.

See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Luitprand, loo'it-prand or lut'prand, written also
Liutprand, King of the Lombards, the son of Ans-
prand, reigned from 712 A.D. until 744. His valour and
wisdom are praised by Sismondi. In 739 he marched
into France to aid Charles Martel against the Saracens.
He died in 744, and was succeeded by his nephew Hil-

See MURATORI, "Annali d'ltalia."

Luitprand or Liutprand, [Lat. LUITPRAN'DUS,] a
historical writer, was one of the most learned men of
the age. He was sent as ambassador to Constantinople
in 946 by Berenger, Marquis of Ivrea. Having been
chosen Bishop of Cremona, he attended in 963 a council
(at Rome) which deposed Pope John. In 968 the em-
peror Otho I. sent him on a mission to Constantinople,
where he was maltreated by the emperor. He was au-
thor of an esteemed " History of Europe from 862 to 964."

See KOEPKE, " De Vita et Scriptis Luitprandi," 1842 ; " Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'nile."

Lukaszewitsch, loo-ka'shi-witch, (JOSEPH,) a Polish
writer, born at Krompkowo, November 30, 1797, pub-
lished works on ecclesiastical history, including a '* His-
tory of the Churches of the Helvetic Confession in
Lithuania," (1842.) Died February 13, 1873.

Luke, [Gr. Amwcof; Lat LU'CAS; Fr. Luc, liik; It
LUCA, loo'ka,] SAINT, one of the Four Evangelists, was a
companion of the Apostle Paul in his mission to the Gen-
tiles, between 50 and 66 A.D. The time and place of his
birth are unknown. That he was liberally educated is
made evident by the classical style of his writings and
by the learned details which he gives on historical and

a, e, I, o, u, y, long: a, e. 6. same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, ?, i, o, obscure; fir. fall, fat; m?t; n6t; good; moon:




geographical subjects. His Gospel contains valuable
accounts which are not found in the others. He also
wrote "The Acts of the Apostles," which, as well as his
Gospel, is in the Greek language. Tradition indicates
that Saint Luke is the same as the physician Luke
mentioned by Saint Paul in Colossians iv. 14, and the
same as Lucas named in Philemon 24. (See II. Tim-
othy iv. n.)

Lu'kin, (LIONEL,) an English mechanic, noted as the
inventor of the life-boat, was born about 1742 ; died in


Lulli or Lulle, lopl'lee, [Fr. LULLE, lu'l,] (ANTONIO,)
a grammarian, born in Majorca. He corresponded with
Erasmus, and wrote a treatise on rhetoric, called " De
Oratione." Died in 1582.

Lulli or Lully, lu'le', (JEAN BAPTTSTE,) a celebrated
Italian composer, called "the father of French dramatic
music," was born at Florence in 1633. About the age
of fourteen he went to Paris, where he became a skilful
performer on the violin, and was patronized by Louis
XIV. In the fltes which were often repeated at court,
he found occasion to try his talents for operatic music.
In 1672 the king gave him fa&prrvillge or direction of
the Royal Academy of Music, from which time dates
the foundation of the Grand Opera in France. Co-ope-
rating with Quinault the poet, Lulli composed in fifteen
years nineteen operas, which were very successful. He
finally became one of the secretaries of the king. Died
in 1687.

See FBTIS, " Biographic Universelle des Musiciens ;" DE LA
BORDE, " Essai sur la Musique," 1780 : " Nouvelle Biographic Gc'n^-
rale:" LE PRHVOST D'ExMES, "Lulli Musician."

Lulli or Lully, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a son of the pre-
ceding, born in 1665. With his brother Louis he com-
posed an opera called "Orphee," (1690.) Died in 1701.

Lulli, (JEAN Louis,) born in 1667, succeeded his
father, Jean Baptiste, as composer to the king. Died
in 1688.

Lulli, (Louis,) a musician, brother of the preceding,
was born in Paris in 1664. He became composer to the
king in 1688. Died about 1736.

Lulli, written also Lully, Lulle, and Lull, [Lat
LUL'LUS or LUL'LIUS,] (RAYMOND,) a philosopher,
surnamed THE ENLIGHTENED DOCTOR, was born at
Palma, in Majorca, about 1235. He professed to believe
that he was called to convert the Moslems, and he pre-
pared himself for the task by learning Arabic. In order
to prove that the mysteries of faith were not opposed
to reason, he composed a treatise, or method, called
"Ars Lulli," or "Ars Magna Lulli," ("The Great Art
of Lulli,") designed also to systematize knowledge and
facilitate the process of reasoning on all questions.
His method obtained great celebrity; but, according
to Hallam, it was an " idle and fraudulent attempt to
substitute trick for science." " He was one of those
innovators in philosophy who, by much boasting of their
original discoveries in the secrets of truth, gain credit
for systems of science which those who believe in them
seldom trouble themselves to examine." ("Introduction
to the Literature of Europe.") But Hallam's judgment
is much too severe. Luili was full of quixotic and fan-
tastical projects, of which his "Great Art" was one, but
he was honest and generous, and in many ways far in
advance of his times. He wrote many treatises and
tractates in Latin and in the Catalan tongue. He made
several attempts to convert the Moors in Northern Africa,
and was violently persecuted by them. He died in con-
sequence of injuries received from the Moslems in 1315.

See WADDING, "Vie dc R. Lulle ;" SEGCI, "Vie de R. LuJle,"
1605 : COLLETET," Vie de R- Lulle," 1646 ; LOEV, " De Vita R. Lulli
Specimen," 1830; PERROQUET, "Vie et Martyre de R. Lulle, "^1667;
HELFFEREICH, " Raymond Lull," Berlin, 1858 : " Nouvelle Biogra-
phic Ge'ne'rale."

Lullin de Chateauvieux, lii'laN' deh sha'to've-ijh',
(JACOB FREDERIC,) a Swiss agriculturist and writer,
born at Geneva in 1772; died in 1840.

Lullin de Chateauvieux, (MICHEL,) a Swiss writer
and experimenter on agriculture, born at Geneva in
1695 ; died in 1781.

Lully. See LULLI.

Lulof, lii'lof, (JAN,) a Dutch astronomer, born at
Zutphen in 1711. He wrote several works on astronomy.
Died in 1768.

Lumene van Marck, lu'meh-neh (?) van maRk, [Lat.
and Benedictine monk, born at Ghent about 1570. He
produced many Latin poems. Died in 1629.

Luminaeus. See LUMENE VAN MARCK.

Lum'mis, (CHARLES FLETCHER,) an author and
explorer, born at Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1859. He
graduated at Harvard in 1881, and became a jour-
nalist and explorer, traversing much of the West,
Mexico, and South America, and dwelling for five
years in the Indian pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico,
where he studied the Indian languages and customs.
He wrote a number of books descriptive of his
travels and observations, on the folk-lore of the
Indians, etc.

Lumpkin, (WILSON,) an American statesman, born
in Pittsylvania county, Virginia, in 1783. He was twice
elected Governor of Georgia, and became a United
States Senator in 1838. Died December 28, 1870.

LuniS'den, (MATTHEW,) a distinguished Scottish
Orientalist, born in Aberdeenshire in 1777. He was
chosen professor of Persian and Arabic in the College
of Calcutta in 1805. In 1810 he published an excellent
"Grammar of the Persian Language," and in 1813 an
"Arabic Grammar." About 1820 he returned to Great
Britain. Died in London in 1835.

Lu'na, [Fr. LUNE, liin,] the Moon, a goddess wor-
shipped by the Greeks and Romans.

Luna, loo'nl, (FABRizio,) an Italian lexicographer,
born at Naples, is said to have been the compiler of
the first Italian dictionary, called " Vocabulary of Five
Thousand Tuscan Words," (" Vocabulario di cinque mila
Vocabuli Toschi," 1536.) Died in 1559.

Luna, de, di loo'na, (Don ALVARO,) a Spanish cour-
tier and poet, who became the chief favourite and min-
ister of John II. of Castile. In 1423 he was made Con-
stable of Castile. Through the enmity of the grandees,
he was exiled in 1427, and again in 1439. In 1445 he
was recalled, and obtained command of the army, with
which he defeated the malcontents. Having lost the
favour of the king, he was executed in 1453.

Lund, loond, (CARL,) a Swedish writer on law, born
at Jonkoping in 1638, published, besides other works,
a " History of the Law of Sweden." Died in 1715.

Lund, (DANIEL,) a Swedish professor f Hebrew,
born in 1666 ; died in 1747.

Lfin'din or Lun'den, (Sir ALAN,) an ambitious Scot-
tish politician, was born in Forfarshire. He married a
natural daughter of Alexander II., and in 1243 was
chosen lord justiciar of Scotland. Having opposed the
coronation of the minor son of the late king, he was
dismissed from office about 1250. He was afterwards
pardoned, and held the same office for several years.
Died in 1275.

Lfin'dy\ (BENJAMIN,) an American philanthropist,
born in Sussex county, New Jersey, in 1789. He founded
in 1815 an anti-slavery association, called the "Union
Humane Society," and subsequently became editor of
the " Genius of Universal Emancipation," originally
published at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, but removed to
Baltimore in 1824. He was also active in promoting
lectures on slavery and in advocating abstinence from
the products of slave-labour. Died in 1839.

See the " Life, Travels, etc. of Benjamin Lundy," by THOMAS
EARLB; GRHELEY, "American Conflict," vol. i. pp. 111-115.

Luneau de Boisjermain, lii'no' deh bwa'zh?R'-
maN', (PiERRE JOSEPH FRANCOIS,) a mediocre French
writer, born at Issoudun in 1732. He became a school-
teacher in Paris, and published several educational works
on history and languages. He also edited the works of
Racine, (1768.) Died in 1801.

Lunghi, (LucA.) See LONGHI.

Lunghi, loon'gee, (MARTINO,) an Italian architect,
born in the Milanese. He was employed :n Rome by
Pope Gregory XIII., erected the Campanile of the Capi-
tol, and built the elegant palace of Prince Borghese.

c as k; c as s; g hard: g asj; G, H, Yi,guttural; N, tiasal; R, trilled: s as z: th as in this. (J^ = See Explanations, p. 2 j. i




His last works were built about 1600. His grandson,
MARTINO, was an architect, and worked in Rome,
Naples, and Milan. Died in 1657.

See QUATREMERE DE QuiNCv, " Dictionnaire d' Architecture,"
and "Vies des Architectes celebres."

Lunghi, written also Longhi and Longo, (SlLLA
GIACOMO,) an Italian sculptor, born at Vigiu, in the
Milanese ; died about 1625.

Shaftesbury, October 25, 1807. His best-known work
was " The Practice of the Superior Courts of Law at
Westminster," (1840.) He was appointed one of the
judges of the Queen's Bench in 1865, and in 1875 became
a judge of the High Court of Justice. Died December
27, 1881.

Lfish'ing-ton, (Right Hon. STEPHEN,) D.C.L., an
eminent English civilian and statesman, born in London

Lungo, del, del loong'o, (IsiDORO,) an Italian critic, in 1782, was the son &f sir Stephen Lushington. He
born at Montevarchi, December 20, 1841. He studied was educated at Oxford, and called to the bar in 1806.
at Cortona, Florence, Sienna, and Pisa, and held profes- j Between 1807 and 1841 he represented Yarmouth, II-
sorships in Faenza, Casale, Sienna, and Florence. He ' Chester, the Tower Hamlets, and other places, in Par-
published "Versi," (1858,) "Dino Compagni e la sua liament, voting for the abolition of the slave-trade (1807)

ed "Versi," (1858,) "Dino Compagni e la sua liament, voting for th

a" ("1878-80,) "Dell" Esilio di Dante," and for other liberal measures. He also contributed

* ^ * il__ A. _ i.1 _1 Ilil

(1881,) etc.

Lun'gren, (FERNAND HARVEY,) an artist, born
in Maryland in 1859. He became a figure- and land-
scape-painter and illustrator, working after 1891 among
the Indians of the Southwest. He made a special
study of their ceremonies and folk-lore, and became a
member of the Moquis tribe and a priest of the
Snake-Antelope fraternity for this purpose.

Lunig, loo'nic, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN,) a German com-
piler and publicist, born in 1662. He published valua-
ble works entitled " Archives of the German Empire,"
(24 vols., 1713-22,) " Diplomatic Code of Italy," (" Codex
Italia: Diplomaticus,"4 vols., 1725-35,) and "Diplomatic
" "ex ermanise Dilomaticus"

Code of Germany," ("Codex Germanise Diplomaticus, 1
2 vols., 1733.) Died in 1740.

Lunt, (GEORGE,) an American lawyer and miscella-
neous writer, born at Newburyport, Massachusetts. He
was appointed in 1849 district attorney for Massachu-

greatly to the abolition of slavery. He was one of the
counsel for the defence in the trial of Queen Caroline,
(1821.) In 1838 he was appointed a judge of the admi-
ralty, and privy councillor. Died January 20, 1873.

Lusignan, (Guv DE.) See GUY DE LUSIGNAN.

Lusignan, de, deh lii'zen'yoN' or loo-sen-yin', (STE-
FANO,) a descendant of the royal family of Cyprus, was
born in that island in 1537. He became a priest, and
emigrated to Italy in 1571. He wrote a "History of
Cyprus from the Time of Noah until 1572," and other
works. Died about 1590.

Lussan, de, deh lii'sSN', (MARGUERITE,) a French
novelist, born in Paris in 1682. In 1730 she published
the " Story of the Countess de Gondes," which was suc-

cessful. S'he also wrote " The Life of the Brave Crillon,"
(1757,) and several historical romances. Died in 1758.
Lutatius Catulus. See CATULUS.
Ln'thardt. (CHRisTOPH ERNST,) a German theo-
! logian, born in 1823. He became professor at Mar-
i burg in 1854, and at Leipsic in 1856, and wrote an

died May 17 188? I important commentary on the Gospel of St. John, and

.n American poet and i other theological works ; also " Reminiscences," (ad

iwburyport, Massachu- .i' lfJ 'X

Luthbert. See LUBBERT, (SIBRAND.)
Lu'ther, (MARTIN,) |Ger. pron. maR'tin loo'ter; Lat.
tee'no loo-ta'ro ; Sp. MARTIN LUTERO, maR-teii' loo-
ta'ro,] the great leader of the Reformation in Germany,

He was born in

Lunt, ,

miscellaneous writer, born at Newburypoi
setts, in 1805. He officiated as a Unitarian minister in
New York, and afterwards in Quincy, Massachusetts.
Died March 20, 1857.

Lupercalia. See PAN.

Luperci. See PAN.

of fifteen he was sent to the Latin school at Eisenach,

Lupl, loo'pee, (ANTONIO MARIA,) a learned Italian
Jesuit and antiquary, born at Florence in 1695 ; died in

Lupi, (MARIO.) an Italian historian, born at Bergamo
in 1720; died in 1789.

Lupin, von, fon loo-peen', (FRIEDRICH,) BARON, a
German writer and mineralogist, born at Memmingen in
1771 ; died in 1844.

See his Autobiography, (" Selbstbiogtaphie,") 2 vols., 1844-47.

Lup'set, (THOMAS,) an English scholar, born in Lon-
don about 1496. He obtained the chair of rhetoric at
Oxford, and corresponded with Erasmus and Sir Thomas

then under the direction of Trebonius. In 1501 he en-
tered the university at Erfurt. While here, he found
in the university library a rare and precious book, a
Latin Bible, which became an object of extraordinary
interest to him. About this time a severe attack of ill-
ness, and, soon after, the sudden death of one of his
intimate friends, (caused, as some historians state, by a
stroke of lightning,) produced such an impression on
the mind of young Luther, that he made a solemn vow
to become a monk, and in July, 1505, he entered the
Augustine convent at Erfurt. In 1507 he was ordained
a priest, and in the following year, through the influence

-1 I t /-_ n J U I K 1C3L "** ' UllS USAlUnUlK J"W| liiiwu^" *

More. He published a "Treatise on Charity, a otner . o f Staupitz (the provincial of his order, and subsequently
religious works, and translated parts of the writings of yjc^.genera],) he was appointed professor of philosophy
Cyprian and Chrysostom. Died in 1532. : - L - T_: :i_. _ntr: i T ...t.^-v .,; r ;* *n i?nma

Lupus Servatus. See LOUP., da loo'ki, (HERNANDO,) a Spanis'i bishop
of Peru. He was a priest of Panama when, in 1525, he
associated himself with Pizarro and Almagro in an ex-
pedition for the conquest of Peru. De Luque furnished
the money for this enterprise. Died in 1532.

See HERRHRA, " Historia general de los Viajes en las Indias Ooci-
dentales ;" PRESCOTT, " History of the Conquest of Peru." vol. ii.

Lurine, lii'ren', (Louis,) a French writer of fiction,
satire, etc., born in 1816. He contributed many articles
to the public journals. Died November 30, 1860.

Luscinius, 15os-see'ne-ns, (OTHMAR,) a litttrateiir,
whose proper name was Nachtigall, (nJK'te-gal.) was
born at Strasburg about 1480. He removed from Augs-
burg to Bale in 1526, and afterwards lodged with Eras-
mus at Freyburg. He edited some works of Lucian and
Martial, and published various other works. Died about

Lush, (Sir ROBERT,) an English legal writer, born at

in the University of Wittenberg. Luther's visit to Rome,
made in 1510, in fulfilment of a previous vow, opened to
him new views of the character and condition of the
Romish Church. In 1512 he was made licentiate and
doctor of divinity, and began about this time to declare
openly his views of scriptural theology, which he ex-
plained according to the system of Saint Augustine,
resting the doctrine of justification solely on faith in the
sacrifice of the Saviour. In 1517, Tetzel, a Dominican
monk, received from the pope, (Leo X.,) through the
Archbishop of Magdeburg, a commission for the sale of
indulgences. With a view to increase the demand for
his merchandise, Tetzel asserted, what few or none of
the other Catholics appear to have ever claimed, that
the indulgences not only released the purchasers from
the necessity of penance, but absolved them from all the
:onsequences of sin both here and hereafter. Indignant
at what he regarded as an insult to reason and religion,
Luther drew up his celebrated ninety-five propositions,
in which he set forth in the strongest language the thec-

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; moon :





logical unsoundness as well as the pernicious effects of
Tetzel's doctrine of indulgences. This publication in-
volved Luther in violent controversies. Among the
most conspicuous of his opponents was Dr. Eck, (in
Latin, Eckius or Eccius,} professor of divinity at Ingol-
stadt. But the cause of the Reformer steadily gained
ground, and among the number of his favourers was
Frederick the Wise, the Elector of Saxony, one of the
most powerful princes of Germany. Leo having sum-
moned Luther to plead his cause at Rome, the Elector
interposed, and it was arranged that the examination or
trial should take place at Augsburg, before Cardinal
Cajetan, (Caietano,) the legate of the pope. The car-
dinal having refused to enter into any discussion with
Luther, at the same time insisting that the latter should
submit himself unreservedly to the authority of the
papal see, Luther, fearing perhaps with too much
reason the fate of John Huss, secretly withdrew from
Augsburg, leaving an " appeal to the pope when he
should be better informed." Soon after Leo issued a
bull in support of the doctrine of indulgences ; where-
upon Luther appealed from the pope to a general council
of the Church.

With a view to restore tranquillity to the Church, Leo
sent his chamberlain Miltitz a Saxon by birth, and a
man of great tact and intelligence as nuncio into Ger-
many. By kindness and flattery, Miltitz obtained from
Luther (March, 1519) a promise that he would submit
to the authority of the pope and discontinue the con-
troversy respecting indulgences, on condition that his
adversaries should also preserve silence on the subject.
Dr. Eck, however, would not permit the controversy to
slumber. He soon after challenged Carlstadt, one of
Luther's disciples, to a public dispute at Leipsic ; so that
Luther himself was again almost unavoidably involved
in the contest. The result was a confirmation of his
fbrmer views of the fallibility of the pope and the errors
of the Church, which found expression in several publi-
cations, and especially in a work entitled " De Captivi-
tate Babylonica Ecclesiae," (" On the Babylonian Cap-
tivity of the Church.") Leo had, a short time previously
to this publication, issued a bull condemning forty-one
propositions which had been selected from the works of
Luther, and directing the bishops to search diligently
for the writings in which those errors were contained,
and to have them publicly burned. Luther resolved to
anticipate the blow, and at the same time to render the
breach between himself and Rome forever impassable.
Attended by a crowd of doctors, professors, and students,
he proceeded to a spot fixed on for the purpose, without
the walls of Wittenberg, near the east gate, and there
burned before the assembled multitude the bull, with
the accompanying decretals and canons relating to the
pope's supreme authority.

Up to this period, it would appear that the reverence
for the Church in which Luther had been educated had
always exercised a controlling influence upon his mind ;
for, although he denounced in the boldest manner the
abuses of the ecclesiastical power, he had ever mani-
fested a profound respect for the sovereign pontiff him-
self. But now he broke through all restraint, and not
only denied the authority of the pope, but he assailed
him with all the fierce invective and vituperation which
were so common in that age.

After this additional provocation, it was not to be ex-
pected that the thunders of the Church should slumber.
Not content with merely excommunicating Luther and
laying every place which should harbour him under an
interdict, Leo urged the newly-elected emperor, Charles
V., to come forward as the champion of Catholicism
and inflict upon the arch-heretic and his adherents the
punishment due to their apostasy. But the Elector of
Saxony, to whom Charles had been indebted for his new
dignity, interposed a second time, and so far prevailed
that it was determined the cause of Luther should be
tried before the Diet of the empire. The Diet assem-
bled at Worms early in the year 1521. It was the wish
and intention of the legate Aleander and the other
advocates of the papal cause that Luther should not be
present at his own trial. But the majority of the Diet,
whether influenced by friendship for the Reformer or by

the desire to preserve the appearance of justice in their
proceedings, insisted that Luther should not be con-
demned unheard. The emperor was prevailed upon to
grant him a safe-conduct, (dated March 6, 1521.) The

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 107 of 425)