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greater number of Luther's friends earnestly dissuaded
him from going to Worms. Even Spalatin, the secretary
and confidential adviser of the Elector Frederick, sent
him a pressing message exhorting him on no account to
enter that city. Luther replied, " Were there as many
devils in Worms as tiles upon the roofs of the houses,
still would I enter," (" Wenn so viel Teufel zu Worms
waren als Ziegel auf den Dachern, doch wollt' ich
hinein.") He arrived in the city on the i6th of April,
and appeared before the Diet the following day. When
asked if he was the author of the works produced against
him, containing the passages which had been condemned,
he replied in the affirmative. On being again asked
whether he was prepared to retract the objectionable
doctrines contained in them, he answered that, as this
question concerned the word of God, the Christian faith,
and the salvation of souls, it was of great importance
that he should not speak rashly, lest he should offend
against the word of God : he therefore desired that time
might be allowed him for consideration. The next day
he was again brought before the Diet. While he ad-
mitted that in some instances he might have written
with less humility and more violence than became his
ecclesiastical character, he refused to retract anything
that he had said, unless it could be shown to be con-
trary to the Scriptures ; at the same time, he boldly
repeated and defended several of his positions which
had been objected to. Hereupon Charles and the other
favourers of the Catholic cause refused to hear him any
further. He was commanded to leave Worms. He
accordingly returned to Saxony. As he was journeying
on the borders of the Thuringian Forest, he was sud-
denly seized by a number of warriors in masks, and
hurried off to the solitary castle of Wartburg, where
his ecclesiastical habit was exchanged for the dress
and sword of a knight. This whole proceeding was a
stratagem of Frederick to protect the Reformer against
the designs of his enemies. Luther had previously been
apprised of the scheme. He remarks, in one of his letters,
that he scarcely knew himself in his strange disguise.

Immediately after the departure of Luther, Aleander,
the Papal legate, prevailed on Charles to give the edict
against him the sanction of the imperial signature and
seal. It was declared, in the name of the emperor, that,
as soon as the term of his safe-conduct had expired,
Luther should be seized and held in durance until they
should be informed how to deal with him.

Luther remained in the castle of Wartburg about ten
months. He left it in March, 1522, and returned to Wit-
tenberg in order to rebuke the excesses into which some
of his former disciples had fallen. In 1524 he laid aside
the monastic dress; and in 1525 he married Catharina
von Bora, who had once been a nun. Luther completed
his German version of the Old Testament in 1534; his
translation of the New Testament had appeared in 1522.
These translations, by their extensive circulation, as well
as by the force and beauty of the language, have exerted
a most important influence upon German literature,
which may almost be said to date its origin from thei;

Frederick the Wise, Luther's faithful friend and pro-
tector, died in 1525, and was succeeded by his nephew
John, who was an open and devoted adherent of the
great Reformer. During the latter portion of his life,
Luther was held in the highest consideration by most
of the princes of Germany, where his doctrines continued
to spread, and finally, even during his lifetime, extended
to Moravia, Bohemia, Denmark, and Sweden. He died
at Eisleben, the iSth of February, 1546, in the sixty-third
year of his age. Among Luther's voluminous works,
his translation of the Bible, already mentioned, is the
most important. Besides his controversial writings, he
has left numerous letters, sermons, etc. His " Table-
Talk," ("Tischreden,") which is, says Carlyle, "the
most interesting now of all the books proceeding from
him," consists of sayings and anecdotes collected by
Luther's friends after his death.

; cas-t; g/iard; gas/; G,H,"K.,guttural; N, nasal; n, trilled; sasz; thasinM.

xplanations, p. aj.)




Although the character of Luther was especially dis-
tinguished by ardent zeal and unconquerable courage,
yet on important occasions he could exercise the greatest
moderation as well as discretion. The intrepidity with
which he faced the dangers that threatened him at Worms
is not more deserving of our praise than the admirable
prudence and tact which he displayed in his defence on
that memorable occasion. The fierce invective and coarse
vituperation for which his controversial writings have
been censured, are palliated by the consideration that
such was the almost universal custom of that age. If
his opposition was violent, it was not malignant or un-
forgiving. When his bitterest enemy, Tetzel, the man
who had excited Luther's fiercest indignation, was in
misfortune and disgrace, forsaken by all his friends, he
received from his generous adversary a letter of con-
dolence and consolation. As a reformer, Luther sought
to introduce such changes only as he deemed to be im-
peratively demanded ; and to the last he clung to some
of the doctrines of his early faith which were rejected
by all or nearly all the other Protestants. He was always
an advocate of peace where peace could be had without
the sacrifice of any great principle ; and, so long as he
lived, he steadfastly opposed, both by his counsels and
by his influence, those religious contests which after his
death desolated Germany.

"Justification by Faith" formed the great central doc-
trine in Luther's system of theology, as unconditional
election and reprobation was the central idea of that of
Calvin. The great aim of the latter would seem to have
been to prove the utter and absolute helplessness of
man ; and, in the march of his inexorable logic, he some-
times appears equally regardless of the hopes of man-
kind and of the justice of God. Luther, while ascribing
everything in the act of conversion to the grace of God,
seems not so completely to close the door to human
aspirations, taking for his motto. " If thou canst believe
all things are possible to him that believeth."

Luther is described as a man of low stature but hand-
some person, with a lively complexion and falcon eyes.
His voice was clear and of great power. On behold-
ing his picture, Melanchthon is said to have exclaimed,
" Each one of thy words was a thunderbolt !" (" Fulmina
erant singula verba tua.") Carlyle says of him, "No
more valiant man ever lived in that Teutonic kindred
whose character is valour : the thing he will quail before
exists not on this earth or under it." " He was," observes
Heine, "not only the greatest, but the most German,
man of our history. In his character all the faults and all
the virtues of the Germans are combined on the largest
scale. He had qualities which are very seldom found
united, which we are accustomed to regard as irrecon-
cilable antagonisms. . . . He was not only the tongue,
but the sword, of his time. Sometimes he was wild
as the storm that uproots the oak, and again he was
as gentle as the zephyr which dallies with the violet."
In a not dissimilar strain, Carlyle contrasts the wild,
unconquerable energy with the affectionate tenderness
of Luther's character: "A most gentle heart withal,
full of pity and love, as, indeed, the truly valiant heart
ever is." Alluding to Luther's fondness for music, he
adds, " Death-defiance on the one hand, and such love
of music on the other, between these two, all great
things had room."

Those who may desire to see a less favourable view of
the great Reformer's character and influence, are referred
to the article " Luther" in the " Nouvelle Biographia
Ge'nerale," from the pen of the editor, Dr. Hoefer.

See D'AUBIGNB, "History of the Reformation;" MICHELHT,
"Me'moires de Luther," 3 vols., 1835; MELANCHTHON, "Life of
Luther," ("Vita Lutheri;") JOHANN MATHESIUS, " Historia von
Dr. M. Luther's Anfimg, Lehr, Leben," etc., 1563 ; IMMANUELVEGA,
" De M. Lutheri Vita et Miraculis," 1586; M. DRESSER, " Historia
M. Lutheri," 1508 ; T. HAYNE, " Life and Death of Martin Luther,"
1641 ; C. JUNCKKR, " Vita Lutheri," etc., 1699 ; C. M. SEIDEL, " Er-
bauliches Leben Dr. M. Luther's," 1718; J. COLERUS, " Lutherus
Redivivus," 1718; J. COCHLAEUS, " Commentaria de Actiset Scriptis
M. Lutheri," 1549: N. TAILLEPIED, " Histoire de la Vie de M. Lu-
ther," 1577 ', GLOCEROS, " Historia von der Lehre, Leben, etc. Dr. M.
Lutheri," 1586: J. D. HERRENSCHMIDT, "Vita Dr. M. Lutheri,"
etc., 1742 : C. J. WAGBNSEIL, " Lebensgeschichte Dr. M. Luther's,"
1782 : TISCHER, " Leben, Thaten und Meinungen Dr. M. Luther's,"
1783; F. G. ZIMMERMANN, " Memoria Dr. M. Lutheri," 1808; A,
BOWER. " Life of Dr. M. Luther." 1813; UKERT. "Dr. M. Luther's

M. Luther's Leben," 3 vols., 1846 : CARL JURGENS, " M. Luthet'l
Leben," 3 vols., 1847 : R. FERGUSON, " Luther: his Times, Charac-
ter, and Works," 1848; F. W. GENTHE, "Leben und Wirken Dr.
M. Luther's," 1842 : IGNAZ DOLLINGER, " Luther : eine Skizze,"
1851; E. HAAG, "Vie de M. Luther," 1840; JANDER, " Luther'i
Leben," etc., 1853: N. M. PETERSEN, "M. Luther's Levnet," 1840;
J. A. CRAMER, "Luther und Meianchthon," 1817; PAUL SBIDBL,
" Historia und Geschichte des Vaters Dr. M. Lutheri," 1581 ; CARL
R. RICHTER, "Geschichte Dr. M. Luther's," 1817; K. F. A.
KAHNIS, " Lutherische Dpgmatik," 2 vols., 1861-68: DR. C. P.
KRAUTH, "The Conservative Reformation and its Theology," etc.,
iS7o;CARLYLB, " On Heroe and Hero-Worship;" HEDGE, "Prose
Writers of Germany;" "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1839;
and the recent " Life" by KOSTLIN. and that by PUTT.

Luther, (PAUL,) a chemist, son of the preceding, was
bom at Wittenberg in 1533. He became physician to
Augustus, Elector of Saxony, and to his successor, Chris-
tian. Died at Leipsic in 1593.

Luther, (KARL THEODOR ROBERT,) a German as-
tronomer, born April 16, 1822. He discovered twenty
mall planets or asteroids between 1852 and 1875.

Lutherburg. See LOUTHERBOURG.

Luti, loo'tee, or Lutti, loot'tee, (BENEDETTO,) an
excellent Italian painter of history, born at Florence in
1666, was a pupil of Gabbiani. He worked chiefly in
Rome, and was patronized by Clement XI. According
to Lanzi, many connoisseurs designated him the last
master of the Florentine school. Among his merits are
forms delicate and graceful, and a skilful distribution of
colours and shadows. He painted in oil, in fresco, and
in pastel. Among his master-pieces are an "Annun-
ciation," "San Ranieri taking the Habit," and "The
Prophet Isaiah," in the Lateran. Died in 1724.

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy;" Ticozzi, "Diiiona
rio:" WINCKKLMANN, " Neues Mahler- Lexikon."

Lutke, loot'keh, (FEODOR PETROVITCH,) a Russian
navigator and explorer, born at Saint Petersburg in 1797.
In 1821 he was commissioned to explore Kamschatka,
in 1822-24 ne made several voyages in the Arctic re-
gions, and in 1826-28 he commanded an exploring ex-
pedition round the world, in which he was accompanied
by a scientific staff. He was made an admiral in 1856,
and a count in 1866. Died in August, 1882.

Luton, lii'to.s', (Louis,) a French chemist and painter
on glass, born in Paris in 1757 ; died in 1852.

Luttrell, COLONEL See WII.KES, (JOHN.)

Lut'trell, (HENRY,) an English poet, wit, and man of
fashion, born in 1770. He is said to have been a natural
son of Lord Carhampton. He published " Advice to
Julia, a Letter in Rhyme," (1820,) and "Crockford
House," (1827,) but was best known as a brilliant talker
in London society. Died in 1851.

Lut'trell, (NARCISSUS,) an English political writer,
who kept a diary of public events during the Revolution
of 1688 and subsequent years, which Macaulay often
quotes and calls a valuable manuscript Died about
1732. His diary was published in 1857.

s> c "North British Review" for November, 1857.

Lutz, loots, (WlLHELM MEYER,) a German musician
and composer, born at Mannerstadt, Kissingen, in 1829.
In 1848 he went to England, where he has since resided.
He has produced many operas and operettas, chief
among which are "Faust and Marguerite," (1855,)
"Zaida," (1868,) "Legend of the Lys," (1873,) etc.

Lutzelburger or Luetzelburger, lut'sel-bSoRG'er,
sometimes erroneously written Leutzelburger, (HANS,)
also called HANS FRANK, a Swiss wood-engraver, of
whom very little is known, lived about 1520-40. Among
the most important works attributed to him is the
" Dance of Death," (usually ascribed to Holbein,) " Illus-
trations of the Old Testament," a portrait of Erasmus,
and "The Sale of Indulgences."

See NAGLER, "Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon."

Liitzow or Luetzow, liit'so, (Luovvic ADOLF WIL-
HELM,) a Prussian general, born in 1782. In 1813 he
commanded a free corps of "black chasseurs" against
the French. Died at Berlin, December 6, 1834.

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n6t; good; moon;




Liitzow, von, Con liit'so, (THERESA VON STRUVE,)
MADAME, a German authoress, born at Stuttgart in
1804. She wrote several novels and books of travel.
Died in Java in 1852.

Luvigini, loo-ve-jw/iiee, Luisini, loo-e-see'nee, or
Luisino, loo-e-see'no JLat. LUISI'NUS,] (FRANCESCO,)
an Italian scholar, bo <i at Udine in 1523. He was pre-
ceptor of the son of Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma.
Among his works is a " Latin Commentary on Horace's
Art of Poetry," (1554.) His poetical talent is praised
by Muret and Giraldi. Died in 1568.

Luvigini or Luisino, (Luici,) a brother of the pre-
ceding, born at Udine, was a physician at Venice. Among
his works is a version of the "Aphorisms" of Hippocrates,
in Latin hexameters, (1552.)

Lux, looks, (ADAM,) a German republican, born at
Mentz about 1770. He was sent to Paris in March, 1793,
to solicit the annexation of his country to France. He
witnessed with sympathy and admiration the conduct of
Charlotte Corday at her execution. A few days later he
published an apology for that heroine. For this and
other offences he was executed in November, 1793.

Luxdorf, Idoks'doRf, (BoLLE WILLUM,) a Danish
writer and lawyer, born in the island of Seeland in 1716.
He cultivated Latin poetry with success. Died in 1788.

Luxembourg, llik'soN'booR', (CHRISTIAN Louis DE
MONTMORENCI,) Prince de Tingri, a French general,
born in Paris in 1675, was the fourth son of the great Mar-
shal Luxembourg. For his services at Oudenarde and
Lille (1708) he obtained the rank of lieutenant-general.
He commanded at Ettlingen in 1734, and was made a
marshal of f ranee in the same year. From that time he
was called MARSHAL DE MONTMORENCI. Died in 1746.

See PINARD, "Chronologic militaire."

Luxembourg, de, deh liik'sfiN'booR', (CHARLES
oorn in 1702, was a grandson of the first Marshal Lux-
embourg. He was aide-de-camp of Louis XV. in the
war of 1741, and, having served with distinction in Ger-
many, became a marshal of France. He gave a home to
]. J. Rousseau at Montmorenci. (See the notice of his
wife, below.) Died in 1764.

See ROUSSEAU, "Confessions."

Luxembourg, de, written also Luxemburg, (FRAN-
C.OIS HENRI DE MONTMORENCI,) Due, a celebrated mar-
shal of France, born in Paris in 1628, was a son of the
Count de Montmorenci-Bouteville, and a cousin-german
of the great Prince de Conde. For his conduct at Lens
in 1648 he was made marechal-de-camp. From devotion
to the Prince of Conde, he served several campaigns
against France between 1653 and 1659, during which
period Cond^ commanded the Spanish army. Having
received a pardon from the king in 1660, he married the
heiress of the house of Luxembourg, and assumed that
name. In 1672 he obtained command of an army which
invaded Holland and took several towns. His skilful
retreat from Utrecht to Charleroi in November, 1673,
raised him to the rank of the first captains of that age.
In 1674 he commanded the right wing of Conde's army
at Senef, and in 1675 received a marshal's baton. He
gained victories over the allies in Flanders in the cam-
paign of 1677, which was followed by a long peace.
Having incurred the enmity of Louvois, he was confined
in the Bastille fourteen months on a charge of sorcery.
In 1690, Louis XIV.. against whom Austria, Spain, and
England had formed a coalition, gave the chief com-
mand of his army to Marshal Luxembourg, who, since
the death of Turenne and Conde, was the ablest of his
generals. He defeated the allies at Fleurus in 1690.
In the campaign of 1691 he defeated William III. of
England at the great battle of Steenkerke. He was victo-
rious over the same enemy and leader at Neerwinden,
or Landen, in 1693. He died in January, 1695, after
which the army of Louis gained few victories. " Even
the admirers of William III.," says Macaulay, "were
forced to own that in the field he was not a match for
Luxembourg," whose "judgment was clearest and surest
when responsibility pressed heaviest on him and when
difficulties gathered thickest around him." "He gained
immense renown at William's expense ; but he had not
the art of improving a victory, while William, of all gen-

erals, was best qualified to repair a defeat." (" History
of England," vol. iv. chap, xix.)

See BEAURAIN, " Histoire militaire dn Due de Luxembourg,"
1756: "Memoirs of Marshal Luxemburg," written by himself, 1758;
VOLTAIRE, " Siecle de Louis XIV:" SAlNT-SrMON, "Me'moires;"
DE^ORMEAUX, " Histoire de la Maison de Montmorenci," vols. iv. and
v. ; L. ARTOING, " Le Marshal de Luxembourg," 1853 ; " Nouvellt
Biographic Ge'neVale."

Luxembourg or Luxemburg, de, (Louis,) Comte
de Saint-Pol, an ambitious French general, born in 1418.
He fought against Louis XI. at Montlheri about 1464,
but was soon after won over by the high office of Con-
stable of France, and married the queen's sister, Marie
de Savoie. He was called the pivot of the principal
intrigues of that time. His perfidy provoked Louis XL
and Charles the Bold to declare him their common
enemy. He was beheaded in 1475.

See COMINES, " Me'moires ;" SISMONDI, " Histoire des Frangais ;"
" Nouvelle Biographic G^neVale."

Luxembourg, de, (MADELENE ANGELIQUE de Neuf
ville-Villeroi deh nufvel' vel'Rwa',) MARECHALE-
DUCHESSE, born in 1 707, was a granddaughter of Marshal
Villeroi. She was married to Marshal C. F. de Luxem-
bourg in 1750. About 1758 this couple gave Rousseau
an asylum at Montmorenci. Rousseau has commemo-
rated in his " Confessions" her charming conversation
and liberality. Her rank and talents gave her great
social influence in Paris. Died in 1787.

Luxembourg-Ligni, de, deh luk'sftN'booR' len'ye',
(WALERAN,) Comte de Saint-Pol, was born in 1355, of
one of the most illustrious families of Europe. Whilo
fighting for the French king, he was taken prisoner by
the English in 1374. He married Matilda, a sister of
Richard II. of England. Having been chosen Con-
stable of France in 1412, he defeated the Armagnaca
in battle. Died in 1417.

Luxemburg. See LUXEMBOURG.

Luyken or Luycken, loi'ken, (JAN,) a Dutch en-
graver, born in 1649, lived in Amsterdam. He etched,
after his own designs, many admired works, which dis-
play a fertile invention. The "Death of Coligny" is
called his best production. Died in 1712.

Luynes or Luines, de, deh lii-en', (CHARLES D'AL-
BERT,) Due, the favourite of Louis XIII. of France,
was born in Languedoc in 1578. As the companion
of Louis in youth, he acquired an ascendency over him,
and about 1616 he became his most powerful minister.
His cupidity and ambition excited many enemies, among
whom was the king's mother ; but through his influence
she was sent into exile. In 1621 he was appointed Con-
stable of France, and declared war against the Hugue-
nots. It appears that Louis had resolved to discard him ;
but before that purpose was effected Luynes died, in
December, 1621. He was a brother of Marshal Chaulnes,
noticed in this work.

See BAZIN, "Histoire de Louis XIII:" BASSOMPIERRE, " Me'-
moires;" SISMONDI, "Histoire des Francais;" "Nouvelle Biogra-
phic G^neYale."

D'ALBERT,) Due, a French antiquary, born in Paris in
1802, was a liberal patron of arts and sciences. He was
admitted in 1830 into the Academy of Inscriptions, to
which he contributed many valuable treatises on antiqui
ties and medals. Died at Rome, December 14, 1867.

Luyts, loits, 'JAN,) a Dutch philosopher and astrono-
mer, born at Horn about 1660, became professor of
physics at Utrecht. He was an opponent of the Cartesian
philosophy. Died in 1721.

Luz, liiz, ? [Lat. Lu'cius,] (Louis,) a Swiss Protest-
ant theologian, born at Bale in 1577. He wrote a " His-
tory of the Jesuits," (1626,) and other works. Dieil in

Luzac, lii'zak', (ELIAS,) a Dutch philosopher and
jurist, born near Leyden in 1723. He published in 1756
" Researches into the Principles of Human Knowledge."
His "Riches of Holland," (1778,) a history of Dutch
commerce, is highly esteemed. Died in 1796.

Luzac, (JAN,) a philologist and publicist of great
merit, born at Leyden in 1746. He practised law in his
native place. In 1775 he became chief editor of the
"Gazette de Leyde." From 1785 until 1796 he was
professor of Greek in Leyden University. He corre-

,' cas.r; ghard; gasy; G,H,K,piittural; N, nasal: R, trilled; sasz; th as in this.

Explanations, n. 21.)




ponded with Washington and Jefferson, the former of
whom wrote, "America is under great obligations to the
writings and actions of such men as you." Among his
works are " Socrates as a Citizen," ("De Socrate Give, )
dedicated to John Adams, of Massachusetts, and "Attic
Readings," ("Lectiones Atticae," 1809.) He was killed
by an explosion of gunpowder at Leyden in 1807.

Luzac, (STEVEN,) the uncle of the preceding, was born
at Leyden in 1706. He became in 1738 proprietor and
editor of the " Gazette de Leyde," which is described
as a model of accuracy and wisdom, and possessed much
historical va'ue. Died in 1787.

Luzan, loo-than', (Don IGNACIO,) a Spanish critic,
poet, and literary reformer, born at Saragossa in 1702.
About 1750 he was appointed director of the mint, a
councillor of state, and minister of commerce. To coun-
teract the vicious poetical style of Gongora, he wrote
his celebrated " Art of Poetry," (" La Poetica, o Reglas
de la Poesia en general," 1737.) which is said to have
been effectual in rectifying the national taste. He pro-
duced several admired poems, one of which is " The
Judgment of Paris." Died in 1754.

See TICKNOR. " History of Spanish Literature:" LoNCreLLOw,
' Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Generale.

Luzarches, de, deh lii'ztRsh', (ROBERT,) a French
architect, designed the magnificent cathedral of Amiens,
which was commenced in 1220 and finished in 1269.

Luzerne, de la, deh It lii'ziRn', (ANNE CESAR,)
CHEVALIER, a French diplomatist, born in Paris in 1741.
In 1779 he was sent as minister to the United States,
where he had much influence, and performed with credit
the duties of a position which the absence of instructions
made more responsible. He left the United States in
1783. He was ambassador from France to London from
1788 until bis death, in September, 1791.

Luzerne, de la, (CESAR GUILLAUME,) a learned prel-
ate, born in Paris in 1738, was a brother of the pre-
ceding. He became Bishop of Langres in 1770, and was
elected to the States-General in 1789. He emigrated in
1791, returned in 1814, and was made a cardinal in 1817.
Among his numerous works is " Considerations on
Divers Points of Christian Morality," (5 vols., 1795.)
Died in 1821.

Luzzatto, loot-sat'to, (PHILOXENE,) a Jewish linguist,
a son of S. D. Luzzatto, was born at Triest, July 10,
1829. He mastered twelve or more languages, and pub-
lished various treatises, chiefly on Sanscrit, Assyrian,
and other ancient tongues. Died January 25, 1854.

Luzzatto, (SAMUEL DAVID,) a Jewish scholar, born
at Triest, in Austria, August 22, 1800. In early life he
wrote against the Cabbalists and published some vol-
umes of Hebrew verse. In 1829 he was made professor
of biblical literature in the Rabbinical College of Padua.
He wrote various theological treatises, commentaries
etc., and left a nearly complete Italian version of the Olc
Testament. Died at Padua, September 30, 1865.

Lyaeus, li-ee'us, [Gr. \valof, from Aiu, to " free" 01
" loosen,"] a surname given to Bacchus, because he (wine

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 108 of 425)