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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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frees the mind from care ; though some say it is because
he loosens the limbs of his votaries, rendering them un
able to walk. (See BACCHUS.)

Ly'all, (Sir ALFRED COMYNS,) K.C.B., an English
writer, born at Coulston, Surrey, in 1835. He was edu
cated at Eton, and at Haileybury College, was appointee
home secretary in India in 1873, foreign secretary in
1878, Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Prov-
inces in 1882, and a member of the Council of India
in 1888. He published " Asiatic Studies," (1882,)
" Rise of the British Dominion in India," ( 1893,) etc.
and is a singularly able and original writer in prose
and verse.

Ly'all, (EDNA,) the pen-name of Ada Ellen Bay

ley, a novelist, born at Brighton, England. Amon|

her works are "Donovan," (1882,) with its sequel

"We Two," (1884,) " Knight-Errant," (1887,) " T<

Right the Wrong," (1893,) etc.

Lycambes. See ARCHILOCHUS.

Ly-ca'on, [Gr. Awcaui',] a fabulous king of Arcadia

nd a son of Pelasgus. He and his numerous sons wer



otorious for impiety and cruelty The poets feigned
lat Jupiter in disguise once visited Lycaon, who offered
im human flesh to eat, for which offence he was changed
nto a wolf.

Lyciua, lish'e-us, [Ai/uoc,] a Greek sculptor, born in
Bceotia, lived about 425 B.C. According to Pliny, he was
pupil of Myron.
Lycomede. See LYCOMEDES.

Lycomede, le'ko'mad', the assumed name of GlU-
EPPE MARIA ARRiGHi,"(ar-ree'gee,) a Corsican writer,
orn in 1768. He published, in Italian, a "Historical
Lssay on the Civil and Political Revolutions of the
Cingdom of Naples," (3 vols., 1812.) Died in 1834.

Lyc-o-me'des, [Gr. Awca^^jc; Fr. LYCOMEDE, le'-
ko'mid',] a king of Scyros and of the Dolopians, was
he father of Deidamia, who became the mother of
Pyrrhus by Achilles. The poets relate that young
Achilles was committed to his care by Thetis to prevent
lim from going to the Trojan war. Lycomedes is said
o have murdered Theseus, who sought refuge at his
ourt.

Lycomedes, [Gr. Atwco^A/f,] an Arcadian general,
as one of the founders of Megalopolis, (370 B.C.) He
lefeated the Spartans in 369, and took Pellene. He was
murdered about 366 B.C.

Ly'con, [Awcui',] an Athenian orator, who acquired
notoriety as one of the accusers of Socrates. He was
>anished with Anytus for this offence.

Lyoon, a Greek philosopher, born at Laodicea, lived
about 300 B.C. He was the successor of Strato, and for
about forty years was the head of the Peripatetic school
of Athens. He had a high reputation for eloquence.
See RITTER, "History of Philosophy."
Lyc'o-phron, [Av(c6>poi>,] a Greek poet and gram-
marian, born at Chalcis, in Euboea. He lived at the
court of Ptolemy Philadelphus, in AlexanA '*, from 280
to 250 B.C. He was one of the seven poets who were
styled the " Pleiades." The numerous tragedies which
IB wrote have all been lost, but his lyric poem called
Cassandra," or "Alexandra," has come down to us. It
s very obscure and enigmatical, but is admired as a
jrodigy of learning and valued as a treasury of facts
and traditions.

SeeOstANDHR, " Bemerkungen in Lycophron," 1826: FABRICIUS,
Bibliotheca Graeca;" VOLKER, " De Lycophron.s Cassandra,
1810: " Nouvelle Biographic Generale.'

Ly-cor'tas [Awcoprar] of Megalopolis, an Achsan
general, was the father of Polybius the historian, and a
Friend of Philopoemen. He was sent as ambassador to
Rome in 189 B.C. Died after 168 B.C.

Lycosthenes, le-kos'ta-nes, (CONRAD,) the Greek
name of CONRAD WOLFFHART, a scholar, born in Alsaca
in 1518 He became minister of a church in Bale in
1545, and published a curious work on "Prodigies, 1
(" Prodigiorum Chronicon,") a new edition of Gesner s
"Bibliotheca," and other works. Died in 1561.

Ly-cur'gus, [Gr. Avxovpyof ; Fr. LYCURGUE, le kuRg',]
in classic mythology, a king of Thrace, who is said to have
been a persecutor of Bacchus, and to have been punished
with madness. According to another tradition, Jupiter
deprived him of sight.

Lycurgus, [Gr. Avxavp-yof ; Fr. LYCURGUE, le kuRg';
Ger. LYKURGUS, le-kSoR'goos,] a famous Spartan law-
iver who belongs to the period anterior to authentic
riistnry. Plutarch begins his biography with the remark
that nothing certain can be said concerning him. Accord-
ing to Aristotle, he lived more than 850 years B.C. He is
supposed to have been the son of King Eunomus, who was
succeeded by another son, Polydectes. At the death of
the latter, Lycurgus refused the crown, and defended the
right of Charilaus, a posthumous son of Polydectes. He
visited many foreign countries, whose institutions he
studied, and, after a long absence, returned to Sparta,
where he made social and political changes of the most
radical kind. His constitution was considered by the
Greeks as the model of a perfect aristocracy, but con-
tained a strong democratic element The executive
power was divided between two persons called kings. A
remarkable feature in his system was the equal division
or community of property, which existed to an extent
unequalled in any other country in ancient or modem



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LYCURGUS



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LYMAN



times. The interference of the state with domestic affairs
and relations was carried to a great excess. His laws were
based on the idea that men are made for the government,
rather than the government for men. He is said to have
prohibited the use of gold and silver money, and abol-
ished all professions among the Spartans except that of
arms, assigning all mechanical and menial employment
to the slaves, ( Ifelots,) who appear to have been treated
with great severity. Having imposed on the people an
uath final they would not alter his laws during his ab-
sence, he went into voluntary exile, from which he never
returned. Tradition informs us that he vanished myste-
riously from the earth. The Spartans erected a temple
to him., and paid him divine honours. According to one
legend, he ordered his ashes to be cast into the sea after
his death, fearing that if his body were conveyed to
Sparta the Spartans might think themselves absolved
from their oath.

See PLUTARCH, " Life of Lycurgus ;" GROTE, " History of
Greece," vol. ii. chap. vi. ; PLATO. " De Legibus ;" K. O. MOLLKR,
" Die Dorier ;" ARISTOTLE, " Politica ;" THIRLWALL, " History of
Greece;" WHICHBRT, "Questionum Lycurgearum Specimen." 1844;
J. WBGELIN, " Politische und moralische Betrachtungen iiber die
Spartanische Gesetzgebung des Lycurgus," 1763; " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Gine'rale."

Lycurgus, an eminent Athenian orator and an able
financier, was born about 400 B.C. He is said to have
studied philosophy under Plato, and eloquence under
Isocmtes. For about fifteen years he presided over the
public revenue with a high reputation for integrity and
financial ability. In the contest with Philip of Macedon
he supported the democratic party. He was one of the
orators whom Alexander required Athens to deliver up
to him in 335 B.C. This demand was firmly refused.
Fifteen of his orations were extant in the time of Plu-
tarch, and only one (that against Leoctates) has come
down to us. His style is noble rather than elegant
Died in 323 B.C.

Lyd'deker, (RICHARD,) an English naturalist,
born in 1849. He graduated at Cambridge, and was
on the staff of the Geological Survey of India 1874-82,
during which he made a special study of the vertebrate
fossils of the Siwalik Hills. He wrote numerous works
on natural history and geology, and was editor and
chief author of the " Royal Natural History." Among
his works are "Horses and Hoofs," "The Deer of
All Lands," " Phases of Animal Life," etc.

Lyde. See JOYNER, (WILLIAM.)

Lyd'gate, (JOHN,) an old English poet, born about
1375, became a monk of the abbey of Bury Saint Ed-
mund's. He was ordained a priest in 1397, after which
he travelled on the continent. On his return, he opned
at the abbey above named a school, in which he taught
languages, rhetoric, and versification. He acquired a
high reputation as a poet. Among his numerous works
are " The Story of Thebes," " The Fall of Princes," and
the " History, Siege, and Destruction of Troy." Died
about 1460.

See WARTON, " History of English Poetry."

Lydl-at, (THOMAS,) an English chronologer and
mathematician, was born at Okerton in 1572. He be-
came rector of Okerton about 1612. During the civil
war he suffered persecution for his loyalty to Charles I.,
and he died very poor in 1646. His adversities are
commemorated in these verses of Dr. Johnson :

" If dreams yet flatter, once again attend:
Hear Lydiat's life and Galileo's end."

Among his works (in Latin) are a Censure of Scaliger's
Chronology, ( " Emendatio Temporum contra Scalige-
rum," 1609,) "The Period of the Sun and Moon," and
"The Measurement of the Solar Year."

Ly>'dUB, a son of Atys and Callithea, was the sup-
posed ancestor of the ancient Lydians.

Lydus, [Gr. AwSnc,] the surname of JOANNES LAU-
RKNTIUS, ['[(joww Aat/pfi'riof,] a Greek historical writer,
born at Philadelphia, in Lydia, about 490 A.D. He was
employed many years in various official functions in the
imperial palace at Constantinople. He resigned his
offices about 550, and afterwards wrote many works,
some of which are lost. An important treatise, " On the
Magistrates of the Roman Republic," is still extant.



Lye, II, (EDWARD,) an English philologist and clergy-
man, born at Totness in 1704. Soon after he left college
he obtained the living of Houghton Parva, and in 1750
became vicar of Yardley Hastings. He acquired dis-
tinction by his researches into the Saxon language and
literature. In 1743 he published the " Etymologicon
Anglicanum," which Francis Junius had left in manu-
script. His chief work is his "Anglo-Saxon and Gothic
Dictionary," (1772.) Died in 1767!

Lyell, (Sir CHARLES,) an eminent British geologist,
son of a botanist, was born at Kinnordy, in Forfar-
shire, in November, 1797. He graduated at Oxford in
1821, and studied law, but soon relinquished the prac
tice of that profession in order to devote his time to
geology. About 1826 he began to contribute to the
"Transactions of the Geological Society" a series of
papers which display superior powers of observation
and comparison, and in 1830 published the first volume
of his important work, " Principles of Geology," (3
vols., 1830-33,) which was very favourably received. It
reached the fifth edition in 1837. He afterwards divided
the work into two parts, one of which was published
under the title of "Elements of Geology," (1838.) In a
subsequent edition the name was changed to " Manual
of Elementary Geology." It is generally admitted that
his work contributed much to place geology on a philo-
sophical basis as an inductive science. Having visited
the United States in 1841, he lectured on geology at Bos-
ton, and after his return published " Travels in North
America, with Geological Observations on the United
States, Canada, and Nova Scotia," (2 vols., 1845.) He
also wrote many treatises on the geology of America,
which were printed in the " Transactions" of the Geo-
logical Society, and in other journals. In 1845 he made
another excursion to the United States, the result of
which was a "Second Visit to the United States," (2
vols., 1849.) Both of these books of travel contain much
to interest the general reader. Mr. Lyell was knighted
in 1848. He was elected president of the Geological
Society in 1836, and again in 1850. He published in
1863 "The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of
Man, with Remarks on Theories of the Origin of Species
by Variation." He was formerly prominent among the
opponents of the "development" or Darwinian theory;
but later in life he changed his views in that respect.
Died February 22, 1875.

Lykurgos, le-koor'gos, (LOGOTHETIS,) a modern
Greek patriot, born in the island of Samoa in 1772.
Soon after the breaking out of the war of independence
in Greece, (1821,) he was chosen commander-in-chief of
the army in Samos. He was also appointed civil and
military governor of the island, which office he held till
1826. He afterwards became a senator under the new
monarchy of Greece. Died in 1850.

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations- Lerikon."

Lykurgus or Lykurgos. See LYCURGUS.

Lyle, (THOMAS,) a Scottish poet, born at Paisley in
1792. He is remembered for the song " Kelvin Grove,"
which is still popular. Died in 1859.

Lyly, (JOHN.) See LILLY, (JOHN.)

Ly'man. (BENJAMIN SMITH,) an American geolo-
gist and mining engineer, was born at Northampton,
Massachusetts, in 1835. He became an assistant on
the Iowa State Geological Survey in 1858, was mining
engineer for the government of India in 1870, chief
geologist and mining engineer for the government of
Japan 1873-79, and assistant on the Pennsylvania
Geological Survey 1887-95. For many years he has
resided in Philadelphia as consulting mining engi-
neer. He has written numerous papers and reports,
chiefly on his explorations.

Ly'man, (PHINEAS,) an American officer, bom at
Durham,'in Connecticut, in 1716. He served with dis-
tinction against the French in Canada under General
Johnson, Abercrombie, and others, and attained the
rank of major-general. Died in 1775.

Lyman, (THEODORE,) an American naturalist, born
in Waltham, Massachusetts, August 23, 1833. He grad-
uated in arts at Harvard College in 1855 and in the sci-



i as A; 5 as /; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

101



Explanations, p.



LYMAN



1602



LYON



entlfic school in 1858, was a lieutenant-colonel and aide
on the staff of General MeaJe, 1863-65, and fishery com-
missioner of Massachusetts, 1865-82. He published the
" Reports" of the Massachusetts Fishery Commission,
1865-82, "The Ophiuroidea of the Challenger Expe-
dition," (410, 1882,) and numerous papers, chiefly on
the lower orders of marine zoology. In 1883 he was
elected to Congress as an Independent. Died in 1807.

Lyman, (THEODORE BENEDICT,) D.D., an American
bishop, born at Brighton, Massachusetts, November 27,
1815. He graduated at Hamilton College, Clinton, New
York, in 1837, and at the General Theological Seminary,
New Vork, in 1840. He lived in Europe from 1860 to
1870, being founder and incumbent of an Episcopal
church in Rome, was consecrated Assistant Bishop of
North Carolina in 1873, and succeeded Dr. Atkinson 70
diocesan in 1881. Died December 13, 1893.

Lyna. See HLIN.

Lynacer. See LINACRE.

Lynar, von, fon lee'naR, (FRiEDRiCH,) COUNT, a
German statesman and scholar, born in Lower Lusatia
in 1708. He held several high offices in Denmark
oetween 1740 and 1749. He wrote political treatises,
' Travels in Germany," etc. Uiid in 1781.

Lync6e. See LYNCEUS.

Lj?n'9eus, [Gr. AvyitEio; Fr. LYNCEE, liN'si', J a
king of Argos, was a son of yEgyptus, and married
Hypermnestra, one of the Danaides. She saved his life
when her forty-nine sisters killed their husbands. (See
DANAIDES.)

Lynceus, one of the Argonauts, was a son of Apha-
rens, and celebrated for his keenness of sight He was
killed by Pollux.

Lynch, (JoHN,) a learned Irish priest and writer,
born at Galway about 1600. He took refuge in France
in 1652, and returned to Ireland after the restoration,
(1660.) He wrote a historical work in Latin, entitled
"Cambrensis Eversus," (1662,) and other works. Died
in 1674.

Lynch, (PATRICK NIESON,) D.D., an American
bishop, born at Cheraw, South Carolina, March 10, 1817.
He studied in the Catholic seminary at Charleston, South
Carolina, was trained in theology (1834-40) at the Propa-
ganda in Rome, became a priest and a divinity-professor
of Charleston, and was made vicar-general under Bishop
Reynolds in 1850. In 1858 he was consecrated Bishop
of Charleston. Died February 26, 1882.

Lynch, (THOMAS,) one of the signers of the Declara-
tion of American Independence, was born in Prince
George's Parish, South Carolina, in 1749. He gradu-
ated at Cambridge, England, and soon after his return
was appointed to the command of a company in the first
South Carolina regiment of provincial regulars. He
was elected to the Congress of 1776. While on a voyage
for his health, he was lost at sea in 1779.

Lynch, (WILLIAM F.,) an American naval officer,
born in Virginia about 1805. He set out in 1847 on
an expedition to explore the shores of the Dead Sea,
of which he published an interesting account, entitled
" Narrative of the United States Expedition to the River
Jordan and the Dead Sea," (1849.) Died in 1865.

Lyncker, von, fon Hnk'er, (NlKOLAUS CHRISTOPH.)
a German jurist, born at Marburg in 1643. He was a
member of the aulic council at Vienna, and wrote many
legal works. Died in 1726.

Lynde, lind, (Sir HUMPHRY,) an English author, born
in Dorsetshire in 1579. He was a member of Parliament
for several years. He published "Ancient Characters
of the Visible Church," and "Via Tula, or the Safe
Way," which was often reprinted. Died in 1636.

Lynd'hurst, (JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY,) LORD, an
eminent English statesman, born at Boston, Massachu-
setts, in 1772, was the son of the distinguished painter
John S. Copley, who took him to England about 1775.
He was educated at Cambridge, and chose the profes-
sion of law. Having gradually risen to be the leader
of the Midland circuit, he was elected to Parliament as
a Tory in 1818, and appointed solicitor-general in 1819,
vhen he was also knighted. Sir John became attorney-
general in 1824, and was returned to Parliament by the
University of Cambridge in 1826. After opposing the bill



for Catholic emancipation, he accepted the office of lord
chancellor in the Liberal ministry of Canning in April,
1827, and was raised to the peerage, as Baron Lyndhurst.
Having been retained in his office by the Duke of Wel-
! lington, he voted in concurrence with his colleagues for
Catholic emancipation in 1829. In November, 1830, the
Liberal party, under Earl Grey, came into power, and
Lord Lyndhurst was deprived of the great seal ; but
in 1831 he was appointed chief baron of the exchequer.
He made an able speech against the Reform bill in 1832.
In the court of exchequer he displayed eminent judicial
qualifications. He was again lord chancellor during the
brief ministry of Sir Robert Peel in 1834. In August,
1841, Sir Robert became premier, and Lord Lyndhurst
lord chancellor, of a new Conservative ministry, which
was deprived of power by the triumph of :he Whigs in
1846. After that date, until near his death, he was one
of the most prominent orators of his party in the House
of Lords. He advocated the prosecution of the Russian
war (1854-56) in several eloquent speeches. Died in 1863.
See LORD CAMPBELL, "Life of Lord Lyndhurst," 1869; Foss,
' The Judges of England," vol. ix. ; " Biographical Sketches from
the Note-Book of a Law Reporter," by W. H. BKNKBTT, London
1867.

Lyndsay. See LINDSAY.

Lyne, (JOSEPH LKYCESTER,) an English clergyman,
born in London, November 23, 1837, best known as
FATHER IGNATIUS. He was educated at Trinity College,
Glenalmond, and in 1860 was ordained in the Established
Church, and occupied various curacies. After 1863 he
\ assumed the name of " Ignatius of Jesus," and founded
Llanthony Abbey (Anglican) in Wales, adopting a
Benedictine rule for the monks and nuns of his com-
munity. He published hymns, poems, "Tales of
Llanthony," "brother Placidus," " Leonard Morris,"
"Tales of the Monastery," etc., and in 1893 became
a vigorous opponent of the " Higher Critics" and other
assailants of orthodoxy within the Church of England.

Lynedoch, Hn'dgK, (THOMAS GRAHAM,) BARON, a
British general, born in Perthshire in 1750. Having
obtained the rank of general, he served under Sir John
Moore in Portugal in 1808-9. He gained a victory at
Barossa in 1811, and commanded the left wing at the
battle of Vitoria, in 1813. He was raised to the peerage
in 1814. Died in 1843.

Lyn'wood, Lyud'wood, or Lin'wood, (WIL-
LIAM,) an English canonist, and Bishop of Saint David's.
I Died in 1446.

Ly'on, (GEORGE FRANCIS,) an English navigator
born in Sussex in 1795, entered the navy in his youth.
In 1818-19 he was the companion of J. Ritchie in an
expedition into the interior of Africa, of which he pub-
lished an account in 1821. Captain Lyon commanded
one of the ships in Parry's voyage to the Northern
Ocean, (1821-23,) ar >d kept a journal, which was pub-
lished. Both of the works above named are commended
Died in 1832.

Ly'on, (MARY,) a meritorious teacher, born at Buck-
land, Massachusetts, in 1797, was the founder of the
Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in that State. It was
opened in 1837, and soon acquired a very high reputa-
tion and extensive patronage. " She presided for years
over an admirable school," says Allen. Died at South
Hadley in 1849.

Lyon, (MATTHEW,) born in Wicklow county, Ireland,
in 1746, emigrated to America, where he served in the
Revolutionary war and distinguished himself as a poli-
tician of the Democratic party. Died in 1822.

Lyou, (NATHANIEL,) an able American general, born
at Ashford. \Vindham county, Connecticut, in July, 1819,
graduated at West Point in 1841. He served in the
Mexican war, (1846-47,) and became a captain in 1851.
Early in 1861 he was placed in command of the United
States Arsenal at Saint Louis, where he rendered im-
portant services to the cause of the Union. He captured
a large band of secessionists at Camp Jackson, Missouri,
in May, and was appointed commander of the depart-
ment of Missouri in June, 1861. He defeated the insur-
gent at Booneville, June 17, after which he marched to
Springfield. He commanded an army of about 6000



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160.1



LYSIPPUS



men which engaged a superior force at Wilson's Creek,
where he was killed, August 10, 1861. His loss was
deeply lamented as a national disaster. He left by will
about thirty thousand dollars to the public treasury.

See TENNEV, " Military History of the Rebellion;" "Last Po-
litical Writings, etc. of Nathaniel Lyon," New York, 1861.

Lyonnet, le'o'nj', (PIERRE,) a skilful anatomist, natu-
ralist, and engraver, of French origin, was born at Maes-
tricht in 1707. He studied law, and was employed at
the Hague as secretary and translator for Latin and
French by the government. About 1760 he published
an "Anatomical Treatise on the Caterpillar which eats
the Willow," which, says Cuvier, "is among the master-
pieces of human industry." The engravings are ex-
quisitely neat and delicate. Died in 1789.

See P. H. MARRON, "Notice biographique sur P. Lyonnet,'
'795; JOURDAN, in the " Biographic Medicale," vol. vi. ; "Nou-
Telle Biographic Ge"nerale."

Lyonnet, (ROBERT,) a French physician, born at
Puy-en-Velay. He became physician to Louis XIII.,
and published a treatise on the Plague, (1639.)

Ly'pns, (EDMUND,) LORD, a British admiral, born
near Chnstchurch, Hants, in 1790. He entered the
navy about 1801. In 1811 he performed a daring exploit
when he captured by storm the Dutch fort Marrack in
the island of Java. He became a post-captain in 1814,
after which a long peace followed. In 1828 he com-
manded a vessel at the blockade of Navarino. He was
knighted in 1835, and appointed minister-plenipotentiary
to the court of Athens, where he remained until 1849.
At the beginning of the war against Russia, (1853,) Sir
Edmund was appointed second in command in the Black
Sea. His ship, the Agamemnon, was engaged with the
enemy on the shore at the battle of Alma, in September,
1854. He planned a successful expedition against the
forts on the Sea of Azov, and became commander-in-
chiefof the fleet in June, 1855. He was raised to the
peerage, as Baron Lyons of Christchurch, in 1856. Died
in 1858.

Lyons, (ISRAEL,) a Polish Jew, taught Hebrew in the
University of Cambridge, and published a Hebrew
Grammar. Died in 1770.

Lyons, (ISRAEL,) an English botanist and mathema-
tician, born at Cambridge in 1739, was the son of the
preceding. He published a "Treatise on Fluxions,"
and a work on the plants growing near Cambridge. At
the invitation of Sir Joseph Banks, he went to Oxford
about 1762, and lectured there on botany. The bureau
of longitude selected him to accompany Captain Phipps
towards the North Pole in 1773. Died in 1775.

Lyons, (RICHARD BICKERTON PEMELL,) LORD, a
son of Edmund, noticed above, was born in 1817, and
inherited the title of baron in 1858. He was ambassador
to the United States from 1859 to 1865, and to Con-
stantinople from 1865 to 1867, when he was sent to


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 109 of 425)