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mended. Between 1848 and 1852 he explored the bo-
tanical productions of the Himalayas, and published
" Himalayan Journals," (2 vols., 1854,) and " Flora In-
dica." He accompanied Asa Gray through the western
United States in 1877. In 1855 he became assistant
director at Kew, and succeeded his father as director
in 1865. Of his various botanical works the best
known is " The Student's Flora of the British Islands,"
(1870.) The most important are "Genera Planta-
mm," (with Bentham, 1862-83,) and "Index Kcw-
ensis," (with Jackson, 1893 et seq.)

Hooker, (RICHARD,) an eminent English divine and
author, born at Heavytree, near Exeter, in 1553. After
graduating at Oxford, he took orders in 1581, and in an
unguarded hour married a scolding wife. By the favour
of Sandys, Bishop of London, he became Master of the
Temple in 1585. Here he was involved in a controversy
with Mr. Travers, a Calvinist, who was also a lecturer
in the Temple. One of the consequences of this dispute
was the production of his great argument for the consti-
tution and discipline of the Anglican Church, entitled
"The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity." After he began
this work, desiring a more retired station than the
Temple, he obtained in 1591 the rectory of Boscombe,
to which the prebend of Salisbury was added. From
1595 until his death he was rector of Bishopsbourne.
His work above-named was published from 1594 to
1597. It is regarded as a great bulwark of the Church,
a monument of sound learning, and a noble model of
literary excellence. According to Hallam, "the finest
as well as the most philosophical writer of the Eliza-
bethan period is Hooker. The first book of his ' Eccle-
siastical Polity' is at this day one of the master-pieces
of English eloquence. ... So stately and graceful is the
march of his periods, so various the fall of his musical
cadences upon the ear, so rich in images, so condensed
in sentences, so grave and noble his diction, that I
know not whether any later writer has more admirably
displayed the capacities of our language, or produced
passages more worthy of comparison with the splendid
monuments of antiquity." ("Introduction to the Litera-
ture of Europe.") Died in 1600.

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, Jf, short; a, ?, i, p. obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; nSt ; good; moon




Hooker, (Rev. THOMAS,) one of the founders of Con-
necticut, was born at Marfield, England, in 1586. After
preaching in Holland, he emigrated in 1633 to Boston,
Massachusetts, and was the first pastor of Cambridge.
In 1636, in company with Samuel Stone, he founded the
city of Hartford, where he was minister until his death.
He was a very influential man in the churches, and wrote
many treatises, among which is the "Application of
Redemption." Died in 1647.

See E. W. HOOKER. "Life of Thomas Hooker," 1849.

Hooker, (WILI.IAM JACKSON,) F.R.S., a distinguished
English botanist, born at Norwich in 1785. He pub-
lished in 1811 "A Journal of a Tour in Iceland in 1809,"
and described, with Dr. Taylor, British mosses in
"Muscologia Britannica," (1818.) His "Flora Scotica"
appeared in 1821. He produced an excellent "Flora
Exotica," (3 vols., 1823-27.) For many years he was pro-
fessor of botany in the University of Glasgow. Among
his greatest works are "Icones Filicum," or "Figures
and Descriptions of Ferns," (with Dr. Greville, 2 vols.,
1829-31,) " Flora Boreali-Americana," (2 vols., 1829-40,)
and a "British Flora," (1830; 6th edition, 1850,) which
gives a complete description of British plants, arranged
after the natural method. He was appointed about 1840
director of the royal gardens at Kew, which have been
greatly improved under his superintendence, and are
said to surpass all other gardens in the world in the
number and variety of the plants. He was the father
of Dr. J. D. Hooker, noticed above. Died in 1865.

Hooiakoo, Houlakou, HtUaktt, hoo'lS-koo', or
Hoolagoo, hoo-la-goo', sometimes very improperly
written Hulakoo, a grandson of Jengis Khan, born in
1217, was the first of the Eel-Khans, (Ilkhans or Ilchans,)
or Mongol kings of Persia. He was commanded by
his elder brother Mangoo (the father of Kooblai Khan)
to complete the conquest of Persia, which he accom-
plished about the year 1255. He exterminated the Is-
maeelians, or Assassins, and afterwards directed his forces
against Bagdad, which he took in February, 1258, and
delivered up to pillage and massacre. If we may believe
the statements of the Moslem historians, nearly 800,000
persons, including Motassem (the last of the Abbasside
caliphs) and his eldest son, perished on that occasion.
As a warrior, Hooiakoo was distinguished for his san-
guinary cruelty : he was nevertheless a patron of science,
and the celebrated Eel-Khanee (or -Khannee) astro-
nomical tables were prepared under his auspices, and
derive their name from his title of Eel-Khan, signifying
the prince or chief of the tribe. He died in 1265, and
was succeeded by his son, Abaka Khan.

See MALCOLM, "History of Persia," vol. i. chap. x. : VON
HAMMER, "Geschichte der Ilchane:" D'OHSSON, "Histoire des

Hoole, hool, (Rev. CHARLES,) born at Wakefield,
England, in 1610, taught school with credit in London,
etc., and was afterwards rector of Stock. He wrote a
" Latin Grammar," and other school-books. Died in 1666.

Hoole, (ELIJAH,) an English Orientalist and Wesleyan
minister, born at Manchester about 1798. He served as
a missionary in India, and published " Madras, Mysore,
and the South of India." Died in 1672.

Hoole, (JOHN,) an English dramatist and translator,
born in London in 1727, was educated in Grub Street.
He was a friend of Dr. Johnson, and was a clerk in the
East India House about forty years. He wrote several
tragedies, and translated into bad or insipid verse the
great poems of Tasso and Ariosto. In reference to his
version of Tasso, (published in 1763,) Sir Walter Scott
called Hoole a " noble transmuter of gold into lead."
His "Orlando Furioso" appeared in 5 vols., 1773-83.
Died in 1803.

See "Biographia Dramatics."

Hooniay oon or Humayflu, hoo'mi'yoon', Emperor
of Hindostan, of the dynasty of the Great Moguls, was
the eldest son of Baber. He was born at Cabool in 1508,
and ascended the throne in 1530. Agra was his capital.
He was defeated by the Afghans in 1540. His brothers
having rebelled against him, he was driven out of his
kingdom, and took refuge at the court of Persia. In
1545 he returned with an army and recovered his throne.

He gained decisive victories over the Afghans, umlei
Sekunder Shah, on the Sutlej, in 1554, and at Sirhind in
'555- He died in 1556, and was succeeded by his son,
the celebrated Akbar. He was versed in astronomy, and
wrote several poems.

See "Private Memoirs of Houmaioon," translated from the Per-
sian by MAJOR C. STEWART; FERISHTA, " History of the Rise of
the Mahomedan Power io India," translated by GENERAL HRIGGS;
W. ERSKINE, " History of India under Baber and Humayun," 2 vols.,
1854; ABOOL-FAUHL, " Akbar-Nameh."

Hoop'er, (GEORGE,) D.D., an English prelate, born
at Grimley in 1640, was educated at Oxford, and was
an excellent classical and Oriental scholar. In 1677 he
was almoner to Mary, Princess of Orange, and in 1691
became chaplain to William and Mary, and Dean of Can-
terbury. He obtained the bishopric of Saint Asaph in
1703, from which he was afterwards transferred to that
of Bath and Wells. He published numerous religious
works. Died in 1727.

Hooper or Hoper, (JOHN,) an English reformer and
martyr, born in Somersetshire about 1495. While a stu-
dent at Oxford, he was converted to the Protestant faith.
In 1539, to escape the Bloody Statutes of Henry VIII., he
retired from England and passed several years at Zurich.
At the death of Henry he settled in London, where he
became an eminent and eloquent preacher. In 1550 he
was made Bishop of Gloucester, and in 1552 received
the bishopric of Worcester in commendam. Soon after
the accession of Mary he was condemned as a heretic,
and, refusing to recant, was burned at the stake in 1553.
He wrote numerous theological works.

See Fox, " Book of Martyrs ;" BUKNET, " History of the Reforma-

Hoop'er, (LuCY,) an American writer, born at New-
buryport, Massachusetts, in 1816, wrote sketches entitled
"Scenes from Real Life," (1840,) "The Poetry of Flow-
ers," and other works. She died in 1841, and her "Literary
Remains" were published in 1842, with a Memoir.

See GRISWOLD, " Female Poets of America ;" " Democratic Re-
view" for July, 1842.

Hooper, (Lucv HAMILTON,) an American author,
born at Philadelphia in 1835. Her maiden name was
JONES. She published " Poems," and " Under the Tri-
color," a novel. For a long time she was a newspaper
correspondent in Paris. Died August 31, 1893.

Hooper, (ROBERT,) a British medical writer, was born
in 1773. Among his works are a "Medical Dictionary,"
(1798; 8th edition, by Dr. Grant, in 1839,) and "Sur-
geon's Vade-Mecum," (3d edition, enlarged by Dr.
Dunglison, 1824.) Died in 1835.

Hooper, (WILLIAM,) an American patriot, was born
in Boston in 1742. He graduated at Harvard in 1760,
studied law with James Otis, and rose to eminence in
his profession in Wilmington, North Carolina. In 1774
he was chosen one of the delegates to the first Conti-
nental Congress. Soon after signing the Declaration of
Independence, in 1776, he resigned his seat. Died in 1790.

Hoorn van Vlooswyck, hoRn vSn vlos'wik,(PiETER
NIKLAAS,) BARON, a Dutch nobleman, born at Amster-
dam in 1742, possessed an immense fortune. Having a
taste for art, he formed a splendid collection of gems,
cameos, mosaics, etc. Died in 1809.

Hooinbeek or Hoornbeck, hoRn'bak, (JAN,)
Dutch writer on theology, born at Haarlem about 1616,
was professor at Utrecht. Died in 1666.

Hoorne, COUNT. See HORN.

Hoorne, van, vin hoR'neh, or Home, (JAN,) a Dutcu
anatomist, was born at Amsterdam in 1621. He became
professor of surgery at Leyden about 1650, and gained a
high reputation. He published, besides other works on
anatomy, a " Brief Introduction to the History of the
Human Body," (" Brevis Manuductio ad Historian!
Corporis humani," 1660,) a work of much merit Died
in 1670.

See EsscHundGRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyldopaedie ;" CHARLES
DRELINCOUKT, "Oratiode J. van Home," 1670.

author and connoisseur, son of Thomas Hope, noticed
below, was born in London in 1820. Among his works
are an essay on " Newspapers and their Writers," "The
English Cathedral of the Nineteenth Century," and
"Worship in the Church of England." Died in 1887.

< a.s k, c as s; g hard: g as/V G, H, K,.?uttiir,jl; N, nasal; R, trilled: Bass; th as in this.

See Explanations, p.





Hope, (Rev. FREDERICK WILLIAM,) F.R.S., an Eng
lish entomologist, born about 1800, wrote " The Coleop
terist's Manual." Died in 1862.

Hope, (Sir HENRY,) a British admiral, born in 1787;
died in 1863.

Hope, (JAMES,) a British physician of the present cen
tury, was physician to Saint George's Hospital, London,
and published " Principles and Illustrations of Morbid
Anatomy," (1834,) and a "Treatise on Diseases of the
Heart and Great Vessels," (1839.) Died about 1840.

Hope, (JOHN,) M.D., F.R.S., a Scottish botanist, born
in 1725, was educated at Edinburgh and Paris, and
practised in the former city. In 1761 he was appointed
king's botanist in Scotland, and superintendent of the
royal garden, and in 1786 regius professor of botany in
the University of Edinburgh. He commenced a work
on botany, which he did not live to finish. Died in 1786.

Hope, (JOHN,) Earl of Hopetoun, a British general,
born near Linlithgow in 1766, was a younger son of the
second Earl of Hopetoun. After passing through the
inferior grades, he was made a colonel in 1796, and re-
turned to Parliament. In 1800 he served as adjutant-
general under General Abercrombie in Egypt, and in
1802 obtained the rank of major-general. Having been
made lieutenant-general in 1808, he took part in the
battle of Corunna, in 1809, and at the death of Sir John
Moore succeeded him in the command. He was com-
mander-in-chief in Ireland about 1812. In 1814 he was
raised to the peerage, as Baron of Niddry, and at the
death of his elder brother, in 1816, inherited his title.
Died in 1823.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Hope, (Sir THOMAS,) a Scottish lawyer, born in Edin-
burgh. He was knighted and appointed king's advocate
in 1627, after gaining distinction at the bar. He wrote
valuable legal treatises. His father, Henry Hope, was
related to the wealthy family of Hope in Amsterdam.
Died in 1646.

Hope, (THOMAS,) an English novelist and miscellane-
ous writer of rare merit, born about 1770, was a member
of the wealthy family of Hope of Amsterdam. After
traversing Europe, Asia, and Africa, to gratify his pas-
sion for architecture, and retiring from business with an
immense fortune, he settled in London, and distinguished
himself as a patron of the fine arts. He formed galleries
of paintings and statues, and magnificent collections of
lare works of art. In 1807 he published a work on
" Household Furniture," which produced quite a revolu-
tion in upholstery and an improvement in the public
taste. Soon after appeared " The Costume of the An-
cients," and " Modern Costumes," which evince great
antiquarian lore. In 1819 he published, anonymously,
"Anastasius; or, Memoirs of a Modern Greek," which
was attributed to Byron, and made a vivid sensation
by its surprising combination of Oriental romance and
classic learning. " Mr. Hope will excuse us," says Syd-
ney Smith, "but we could not help exclaiming, in read-
ing it, 'Is this Mr. Thomas Hope? is this the man of
chairs and tables ? the CEdipus of coal-boxes ? he who
meditated on muffineers and planned pokers? Where
has he hidden all this eloquence and poetry up to this
hour?' The work before us places him in the highest
list of eloquent writers and of superior men." Byron
said he would have given his two most approved poems
to have been the author of "Anastasius." Hope also
wrote an " Essay on the Origin and Prospects of Man,"
and a "Historical Essay on Architecture," (1835.) which
was received with favour. He married in 1807 Louisa
Beresford, a daughter of W. Beresford, Archbishop of
Tuam. Died in 1831.

See SYDNEY SMITH'S article in the " Edinburgh Review" for
March, 1821, (vol. uocv.,) also for July, 1807; "Quarterly Review,"
rol. xxiv.

Hope, (THOMAS CHARLES,) an eminent teacher of
chemistry, born in Edinburgh in 1766, was a son of John
Hope, the botanist, noticed above. He became profesioi
of chemistry at Glasgow in 1787, and discovered a new
earth, which he named "Strontites," about 1792. In
1798 he succeeded Dr. Black in the chair of chemistry

in Edinburgh, where he lectured until 1843. He was
reputed the most popular teacher of chemistry in Great
Britain. He wrote several short treatises, one of which
is "On the Point of Greatest Density of Water," (1805.)
Died in 1844.

Hope, (Sir WILLIAM JOHNSTONE,) M.P., a British
naval officer, born at Finchley in 1766. As post-captain,
he served with distinction under Lord Howe against the
French in 1794. In 1819 he was raised to the rank of
vice-admiral, and the next year became a lord of the admi-
ralty. He was knighted in 1825. He was a member of
the House of Commons for thirty years. Died in 1831.

Hoper. See HOOPER, (JOHN.)

Hopfner or Hoepfher, hopfner, (ToHANN GEORG
CHRISTIAN,) a German archaeologist, born at Leipsic in
1765. He published, besides other works, a " Manual
of Greek Mythology," (1795.) Died in 1827.

HSpital. See L'HOpiTAL.

Hopken or Hoepken, hop'ken, (ANDERS JOHAN,)
a Swedish statesman and writer of great merit, born
in 1712, became a member of the senate in 1746. He
was one of the first who formed the Swedish language
on the models of Greece and Rome. His Eulogies on
Count Tessin and Ekeblad are greatly admired. Died
in 1789.

See E. M. FANT," Aminnelse-Tal ofver A. J. von Hopken," 1789;
GVLDHNSTOLPK, " Aminnelse-Tal bfver A. J. von Hopken," 1789.

Hop'kini, (CHARLES,) born at Exeter in 1664, was
the son of Bishop Ezekiel Hopkins. He was intimate
with Dryden and Congreve, wrote several tragedies,
and translated Ovid's "Art of Love." Died in 1699.

His brother JOHN, born in 1675, was the author of a
collection of poems entitled "Amasia," (3 vols., 1700,)
and other poems, among which is "The Triumphs of
Peace, or the Glories of Nassau," (1698.) Died after

Hop'kin, (EDWARD,) Governor of Connecticut, born
in London in 1600, emigrated to Boston, Massachu-
setts, in 1637. He was chosen Governor of Connecticut
in 1640, and was re-elected every other year until 1654.
Soon after this he returned to England, where he was
appointed warden of the fleet and commissioner of the
admiralty, and was elected to Parliament. Died in 1657.

Hopkins, (EDWARD JOHN,) an English musician
and composer, born at Westminster, June 30, 1818.
Since 1843 he has been organist of the Temple Church
in London. He published "The Organ, its History and
Construction," and has composed anthems, chants, and
psalm-tunes. His brother, JOHN HOPKINS, born in
1822, has also distinguished himself as a composer of
sacred music.

Hopkins, (EsEK,) an American naval officer, born
in Scituate, Rhode Island, in 1718. He was appointed
commander-in-chief of the navy in 1775. He captured
a British fort at New Providence, and several vessels of
war, in 1775 or 1776. Died in 1802.

Hopkins, (EztKlEL,) an English Calvinistic divine,
born at Sandford, Devonshire, in 1633, was a popular
preacher, and one of the standard theologians of Eng-
land. He became Bishop of Raphoe in 1671, and Bishop
of Londonderry in 1681. He was driven from this place
by the Catholic insurgents in 1688. Among his works
(which are admired even by many who are not Calvinists)
are a "Treatise on the Vanity of the World," (1663,)
" Sermons," (4 vols., 1691-96,) the "Doctrine of the Two
Covenants," and " Exposition on the Lord's Prayer,"
(1692.) His style is remarkable for sententious brevity.
Died in 1690.

Hopkins, (JoHN,) an English teacher, who graduated
at Oxford in 1544, is chiefly noted for his share in the
poetical version of David's Psalms by Sternhold and
Hopkins. He is supposed to have been a clergyman.

Hopkins, (JOHN HENRY,) an Episcopal theologian,
born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1792, came to the United
States in 1800. He became rector of a church at Pitts-

rg in 1824, and was chosen Bishop of Vermont in
1832. Among his numerous works are "The Primitive
Creed Examined and Explained," (1834,) a "Scriptural,
Ecclesiastical, and Historical View of Slavery," (1864,) in
which work he advocates the Southern view of slavery,
and "The Law of Ritualism," (1866.) Died in 1868

, e, i, 6, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, o, obscure, far, (311, fat; mit; not; good; moon



Hopkins, (JOHN HENRY,) D.LI., an American clergy
man, a son of Bishop J. II. Hopkins, already noticed
was born at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, October 28, 1820
He graduated at the University of Vermont in 1839, anc
at the General Theological Seminary (Episcopal) in
1850, took priest's orders in 1872, founded the "Church
Journal," (New York,) and edited the same, 1853-68
He published a "Manual of Matrimony," (1845,) "Carols
Hymns, and Songs," (1863 ; 3d edition, 1882,) "Canticles
Noted," (1866,) "Life of Bishop Hopkins," (1872,
" Poems by the Wayside," (1883,) etc. He also editec
the writings of Dr. Milo Mahan, and wrote his memoir
Hopkins, (JOHNS,) an American philanthropist, born
in Anne Arundel county, Maryland, May 19, 1795. He
acquired a large fortune as a wholesale grocer of Balti-
more. He founded a noble free hospital, a convalescent
hospital, a coloured orphanage, and the Johns Hopkins
University, endowing these institutions with more than
eight millions of dollars. He was a member of the
Society of Friends, and lived and died a bachelor. Diec
at Baltimore, December 24, 1873.

Hopkins, (LEMUEL,) M.D., born at Waterbury, Con-
necticut, in 1750. He practised medicine at Litchfielc
from 1776 to 1784, and at Hartford until 1801. He wrote
"The Hypocrite's Hope," and other poems. He was
associated with Barlow and Trumbull in writing "The
Anarchiad," a poem. Died in 1801.

Hopkins, (MARK,) a Presbyterian theologian, born in
Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in 1802, graduated at Wil-
liams College in 1824. He became professor of moral
philosophy in that college in 1830, and was president of
the same from 1836 to 1872. He published " Lowell Lec-
tures on the Evidences of Christianity," "Miscellaneous
Essays and Discourses," (1847,) "Lectures on Moral
Philosophy," (1858,) "The Law of Love and Love as a
Law, or Christian Ethics," (1869,) "Outline Study of
Man," (1873,) and " Strength and Beauty," (1874.) He
received the degree of D.D. from Dartmouth College in
1 837, and that of LL. D. from the University of New York
in 1857. Died June 17, 1887.

Hopkins, (SAMUEL,) an American divine, born at
Waterbury, Connecticut, in 1721, is called the founder
of the Hopkinsian school. He studied theology under
Jonathan Edwards, was ordained a minister in 1743, and
began in that year to preach at Housatonnoc, now
Great Barrington. In 1769 he removed from that place
to Newport, Rhode Island. " Dr. Hopkins," says Allen,
"was a very humble, pious, and benevolent man. . . . His
life was spent chiefly in meditation ; his preaching had
but little effect." He published a " System of Doctrines
contained in Divine Revelation Explained and Defended,"
(1793,) and also wrote a " Dialogue against Slavery,"
(1776,) etc. He forms a prominent character in Mrs.
Stowe's " Minister's Wooing." Died in 1803.

Hopkins, (STEPHEN,) an American statesman, born
at Scituate, Rhode Island, in 1707, was a farmer in his
youth, and afterwards a merchant. He was chief justice
of the superior court from 1751 to 1754, and subsequently
Governor of Rhode Island. In 1774 he was elected to
Congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence
in 1776. The unsteadiness of his hand indicated by his
signature was occasioned not by fear, but by a nervous
affection. He continued in Congress until 1779. Died
in 1785.

Hopkins, (Rev. WILLIAM,) a learned antiquary, born
at Evesham, England, in 1647, was made prebendary of
Worcester in 1675, and vicar of Lindridge in 1686. Died
in 1700.

Hopkins, (WILLIAM,) an English Arian writer, born
*t Monmouth in 1706, became vicar of Bolney in 1731.
He wrote a treatise in favour of Arianism, and translated
the book of Exodus, (1784.) Died in 1786.

Hop'kin-son, (FRANCIS,) an eminent author, wit, and
patriot, born in Philadelphia in 1737. He graduated at
the college of his native city, and chose the profession
of the law. Having visited England in 1765, and passed
two years there, he returned home, settled at Borden-
town, and married Miss Ann Borden. From 1774 to
1 777 he published " The Pretty Story," " The Prophecy,"
tnd the " Political Catechism," three humorous and

popular essays, which contributed to foment f.,e spirit
of freedom and to prepare the people for national inde-
pendence. He represented New Jersey in the Conti-
nental Congress of 1776, and signed the Declaration of
Independence. He was appointed judge of the admi-
ralty of Pennsylvania in 1779, and in 1790 judge of the
district court of the United States. Besides the above
essays, he wrote the " Battle of the Kegs," a ballad, and
other works, in prose and verse. Died in 1791.

See SANDERSON, " Biography of the Signers to the Declaration
of Independence;" "National Portrait -Gallery of Distinguished
Americans," vol. iii.

Hopkinson, (JOSEPH,) LL.D., an American jurist,
author of " Hail Columbia," and son of the preceding,
was born in Philadelphia in 1770. He was educated at
the University of Pennsylvania, studied law, and rose to
eminence in his profession in his native city. He was
the leading counsel for Dr. Rush in his famous libel
suit against William Cobbett in 1799, and was also em-
ployed in the trials under the alien and sedition laws
before Judge Chase in 1800, and in the impeachment of
the latter for alleged misdemeanour in office during these
trials, before the United States Senate, in 1805. From
1815 to 1819 he was a representative in Congress, in
which he distinguished himself as a speaker, particu-
larly in opposition to the United States Bank, and on

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 11 of 425)