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Paris in the same capacity. He was made a viscount in
1881. Died December 5, 1887.

Lyra, de, deh le'ri', (NICOLAS,) a French monk and
exegetical writer of high reputation, born at Lyre in
the thirteenth century. He was a good Hebrew and
Greek scholar. He wrote a commentary on the Bible,
" Postillae Perpetuae," which was esteemed and often
reprinted. The first edition appeared at Rome in 1472,
(5 vols.) Died in Paris in 1340.

Lys. See Lis.

Ly-san'der, [Gr. At>oai><ipof ; Fr. LYSANDRE, le'-
eoNdR' ; Ger. LYSANDROS, le-zin'dRos,] one of the ablest
generals and statesmen of ancient Sparta, makes his
first appearance in history near the close of the Pelopon-
nesian war. In 407 B.C. he was chosen commander of
the fleet, with which he gained a victory over the Athe-
nians at Notium in that year. He made himself very
popular with the Persian allies of Sparta, and he de-
feated the Athenian fleet in a decisive battle at ^Egos-
potami in 405. In 404 he captured Athens, and changed
its democracy into an oligarchy ruled by thirty archons,
(usually called the Thirty Tyrants.) He was then the
most powerful man in Greece, but soon found an able
rival in Agesilaus, who became King of Sparta in 398
B.C. and thwarted his ambitious designs. Lysander
meditated a revolution in Sparta by the abolition of

hereditary royalty. Before his design was matured, he
was appointed commander of an army sent against the
Thebans, and was killed in battle at Haliartus in 395
B.C. In Plutarch's " Lives" Lj'sander is brought into
comparison with the Roman Sulla.

Sec XENOPHON, " Hellenica ;" CORNELIUS NBPOS, "Vita Lysan-
dri:" W. VISCHER, " Alcibiades und Lysandros," 1845; PLW-AHCH,
"Life of Agcjilaus:" THIRLWALL, " History of Greece."

Lysandre. See LYSANDER.

Lysandros, the German of LYSANDER, which see.

Lyschanderor Lyscander, lis-kSn'der, (CLAUDIUS
CHRISTOPHORSEN,) a Danish chronicler, born in 1557.
He wrote a " Chronicle of Greenland," in Danish verse,
(1608,) and flattered the national vanity in a fabulous
work on the genealogy of the Danish kings, entitled
"Synopsis of Danish History," ("Synopsis Historic
Danicae," 1622.) Died in 1623.

Lyir, lee'zer, originally Leonhardt, la'on-haRt',
(CAROLINE,) a German authoress, born at Dresden in
1817. Among her works are fugitive poems, " Sketches
of Character for German Matrons and Maids," (1838,)
and "Albert Durer," a drama, (1840.)

Lyser, (MICHAEL,) a German anatomist, born at
Leipsic about 1650. He published a good manual of
anatomy, entitled "Culter Anatomicus," (1653.) He
shares with Bartholin the honour of the discovery of
the lymphatic vessels.

Lyser or Lyserus, (PoLYCARp.) See LEYSER.

Lysias, lish'e-as, [Avoiof,] one of the ten Athenian
orators, was born at Athens in 458 B.C., and was the son
of Cephalus, in whose house Plato placed the scene of
his famous dialogue "On the Republic." From 443 until
411 he lived at Thurium, in Italy, from which he was
expelled by the victorious Spartans at the latter date.
He then returned to Athens, where his property was
confiscated by the Thirty Tyrants, who would have put
him to death if he had not escaped, 404 B.C. Soon after
that date he united with Thrasybulus in the expulsion
of the Thirty, and opened a school of rhetoric in Athens.
His orations, amounting to more than two hundred,
were mostly composed after his return to Athens, (411.)
Thirty-four of these have come down to us. Lysias
died at Athens about 378 B.C., leaving a high reputation
as a writer of orations, only one of which, it is said, was
spoken by him. His diction is eminently graceful, pure,
and perspicuous. " He resembles," says Quintilian,
" rather a pure fountain than a great river," (" puro fonti
quam magno flumini propior.")

See PLUTARCH, "VitieDecem Oratorum ;" FRANZ, " Dissertatio
de Lytia Oratore Attico," (in Greek,) iSjS; SVIDAS, "Lysias;"
L. HOELSCHER, " Dissertatio de Lysi Vita et Dictione, 1837

Ly-sic'ra-tes, [AvoucpcmK,] an Athenian, who lived
about 335 B.C., and whose name has been preserved by
means of a beautiful choragic monument built for him at
Athens. It has been commonly called "the Lantern of
Demosthenes," from a tradition that he used it as a
place of study.

Ly-sim'a-ehus, [Gr. Avoi/iaxof; Fr. LYSIMAQUE,
le'ze'mSk',] King of Thrace, was born in Macedonia
about 355 B.C. In his youth he was so distinguished
for courage and strength that Alexander the Great
chose him as one of his body-guards. In the division of
provinces at the death of Alexander, (323,) Lysimachus
obtained Thrace and some adjacent districts. In 315
he joined Seleucus, Cassander, and Ptolemy in a coali-
tion against Antigonus. Lysimachus marched into Asia
Minor, formed a junction with Seleucus, and fought a
battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C., where Antigonus was defeated
and killed. By this victory he acquired the northwest-
ern part of Asia Minor. Demetrius of Macedon having
been defeated and dethroned by the allied armies olf
Lysimachus, Pyrrhus, and Seleucus, the first annexed
Macedon to his dominions in 286. He was soon after
involved in a war with Seleucus, and was killed in battle
at Corupedion in 281 B.C.

See ARRIAN, "Anabatis;" JUSTIN, " History," books ziii., .,
and xviii. ; DIODORUS SICULUS, books xviii., xix., and xx.

Lysimaque. See LYSIMACHUS.
Lysippe. See LYSIPPUS.

Ly-sip'pus, a Greek poet of the old comedy, born lu
Arcadia, flourished about 434 B.C.

eas : 9 as s;

/; gas/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinMu.

Explanations, p. 23. %




Lysippus, [Gr. Avoiimof ; Fr. LYSIPPE, le'zep',] a
Greek statuary of great celebrity, was born at Sicyon,
and flourished in the reign of Alexander the Great, about
330 B.C. He formed his style by the imitation of nature,
without much respect to the conventionalities of the
schools. His statues and groups, according to the best
authorities, were some fifteen hundred in number, all or
nearly all of which were of bronze. None of his works
are known to be extant, though several well-authenticated
copies are to be seen. Among his master-pieces, de-
scribed by Pliny, Pausanias, and others, were colossal
statues of Zeus and Hercules, a statue of Time or Oppor-
tunity, (Ktupof,) and several images of Alexander the
Great, who is said to have issued an edict that no one
should make his statue but Lysippus.

See PLINY, "Natural History," book rxxiv. ; PAUSANIAS, i., ii,
vi., and ix ; SILLIG, " Catalogus:" NAGLKR, " Allgemeines Kiinst-
ler-Lexikon ;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Ly'sis, [Aiotf,] an eminent Greek philosopher, born
at Tarentum, lived about 400 B.C. He is said to have
received lessons from Pythagoras. Having been driven
from Italy by persecution, he settled at Thebes, and be-
came the teacher of Epaminondas.

See RITTF.R, " History of Philosophy;" DIOGENES LAEETIUS.

Lysiatrate. See LYSISTRATUS.

Ly-sis'tra-tU8,| Fr. LYSISTRATE, le're'stRit',] a Greek
statuary of Sicyon, was a brother of Lysippus, and flour-
ished about 425 B.C. He is said to have been the first
who used gypsum moulds in the formation of wax

Ly'sons, (DANIEL,) an English physician, practised
at Bath, where he died in 1800. He had published several
medical treatises.

Lysons, (Rev. DANIEL,) an English topographical
writer, born at Rodmarton in 1760, was a nephew of the
preceding. He published a valuable work entitled " The
Environs of London," (1792-96,) and became rector of
Rodmarton. In partnership with his brother Samuel,
he published another excellent topographical work,
"Great Britain," ("Magna Britannia," 1806-22.) Died
in 1834.

Lysons, (SAMUEL,) an English antiquary, brother
of the preceding, was born at Rodmarton in 1763. He
was one of the directors of the Society of Antiquaries.
About 1804 he was chosen keeper of the records of
the Tower of London. His principal work is "Great
Britain," (" Magna Britannia," 1806-22,) in which he
was aided by his brother Daniel. Died in 1819.

Lyte, (HENRY,) an English botanist, born in Somer-
setshire in 1529. He published, in 1578, an English
version of Dodoen's " History of Plants," with many
engravings. Died in 1607.

Lyte, (HENRY FRANCIS,) a British hymn-writer, born
at Ednam, Scotland, June I, 1793. He was educated at
Trinity College, Dublin, entered the Anglican Church,
and held curacies in Ireland, and at Brixham, in England.
His health was never robust. He died at Nice, Novem-
ber 20, 1847. Among his works are "Tales in Verse,"
(1826,) "Poems, chiefly Religious," (1833,) "The Spirit
of the Psalms," (1834,) and a fine biography of Henry
Vaughan, the Silurist. He is chiefly remembered as the
author of several popular hymns.

Lytle, ll'tel, ("WILLIAM HAINES,) an American gene-
ral, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1826. He served aa
colonel in Western Virginia in 1861, and was wounded
at Perryviile, Kentucky, in October, 1862. He was killed
at the battle of Chickamauga, September 20, 1863.

Lyt'tle-ton or Lyt'tel-tpn, (CHARLES,) an English
antiquary, born at Hagley in 1714, was a brother of Lord
George, noticed below. He became Bishop of Carlisle
in 1762. Died in 1768.

Lyttleton or Lyttelton, (GEORGE,) LORD, an Eng-
lish author and statesman, born in 1709, was the eldest
son of Sir Thomas Lyttleton, of Hagley, in Worcester
shire, and a descendant of the great jurist Littleton.
About 1730 he entered Parliament, where he became a
successful speaker and acted with the opponents of
Walpole. He was afterwards secretary to Frederick,
Prince of Wales, and in 1744 was appointed a lord of
the treasury. In 1747 he published "Observations on
the Conversion and Apostleship of Saint Paul," a work
of superior merit. He was chancellor of the exchequer
for several months in 1756, and resigned that office (for
which he was not well qualified) when Pitt became prime
minister. In 1759 he was created Baron Lyttleton. He
was author of a popular work entitled " Dialogues

Died in 1773.

See JOHNSON, " Lives of the Poets;" PHILLIMORE. " Life of Lord
Lyttleton," 1845: "Quarterly Review" tor June, 1846; "Monthly
Review" fot April and May, 1772, and December. 1774.

Lyttleton, (THOMAS.) See LITTLETON.

Lyttleton, (THOMAS,) LORD, a son of Lord George,
noticed above, was born about 1 744. The day of his
death is said to have been announced to him three days
before it occurred, by means of a dream or vision. Died
in 1779.

Lyt'ton, (EDWARD ROBERT Bulwer-Lytton,) EARL
OF, an English poet, only son of Edward Bulwer, Baron
Lytton, the celebrated novelist. He was born November
8, 1831, and was educated at Harrow and Bonn. He
entered the diplomatic .service in 1849, and did duty at
Washington, Florence, Paris, the Hague, Constantinople,
Vienna, Belgrade, Copenhagen, Athens, Lisbon, and
Madrid. While secretary of embassy at Paris in 1873 ne
succeeded to the titles of his father, and soon after was
made minister plenipotentiary at the French capital. In
1874 he was made minister at Lisbon, in 1880 Viceroy
of India, and in 1887 ambassador to Paris. He pub-
lished, under the pseudonym of Owen Meredith, sev-
eral volumes of verse, including " Lucile," (1860,)
"Orval,"(i869,) " Fables in Song," (1874,) etc. He
also published "The Ring of Amasis," (a romance,
1863,) " Life and Letters" of his father, (1883,) etc.
Died November 24, 1891. After his death were pub-
lished " Marah" and " King Poppy," (1892.)

born in London in 1800, was a nephew of the famous
Rev. Sydney Smith. He represented Northampton as
a Liberal member of Parliament from 1831 to 1859. and
was secretary at war in 1852. Died February 10, 1873.


Maan, moN, (JEAN,) a French historian and eccle-
siastic, born at Mans, became canon ot Tours in 1648.

Maartens, (MAAKTEN, ) the pen-name of J. M. M.
van der Poerten Schwarz, a Dutch i >rn at

Amsterdam in 1858. He spent part of his boyhood in
England, and writes in English, some of his best-known

works being "The Sin of I V. . lingh, i 1889,)

"A Question of Taste," (189 ool,"

(1893,) and "My Lady Nobody," (1895.)

Maas, (ARNOUI.T VAN AART, i n Dutch painter and
engraver, born at Gouda about 1620, was a pupil of
D. Teniers. Died after 1650.

Maas or Maes, mis, (DlRK or DIEDRIK,) a Dutch
painter, born at Haarlem in 1656, was a pupil of Berg-
hem and Huchtenburgh. He excelled in battle-pieces
and hunting-scenes. Died in 1715.

See PILKINGTON, " Dictionary of Painters;" DKSCAMPS, " Viet
des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc.

Maas or Maes, mis, (GoDFRlED,) a skilful Flemish
painter of history, born at Antwerp in 1660, was a pupil
of his father. He was chosen a director of the Academy
in 1682, and acquired a fair reputation as an artist. He
died in 1722, or, according to some authorities, about

Maas or Maes, (NicoLAAS,) an eminent Dutch paintei

S, e, I, o, ft, y, lAig: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1,5, u, y, short; a, e, j. u, .<, nrc; far, fall, lat : mei; nut; good; moon:




of genre and portraits, born at Dort in 1632, was a pupil
of Rembrandt. In his youth he imitated the manner
of that master with success. He afterwards adopted a
different style. About 1678 he removed to Amsterdam,
where he applied himself chiefly to portraits and became
a fashionable artist. Died in 1693.

See DKSCAMPS, " Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc.

German philosopher and savant, born near Halberstadt
in 1766. He became professor of philosophy at Halle
in 1798, and published, besides other works, "Essays on
the Imagination," (1792,) the " Passions," (1805-07,) and
the "Sentiments," (iSn.) Died in 1823.

Ma'bie, (HAMILTON WRIGHT,) an American au-
thor, born at Cold Spring, New York, in 1845. He
graduated at Williams College and Columbia Univer-
sity, and became an associate editor of "The Out-
look." His works include several volumes of essays,
" Under the Trees and Elsewhere," " Short Studies in
Literature," " Norse Stories Retold from the Eddas,"

Mabil or Mabille, mS-beel' or miliel', (PiERRE
Louis,) a learned writer, of Italian extraction, was born
in Paris in 1752. He made a good translation of Livy
into Italian, and published " Mabiliania," " The Influence
of Poetry on the Customs of Nations," (1804-,) and othei
works. Died in 1836.

Mabillon, m^'be'voN', (JEAN,) a very learned French
author, born in the diocese of Rheims in 1632, became a
Benedictine monk. In 1685 he visited Italy, by order of
the king, to collect manuscripts and historical documents,
and on his return published his " Museum Italicum,"
(1687-89.) His "Treatise on Monastic Studies" (1691)
was received with favour. Among his most important
works is a treatise on Diplomatics, (1681.) Died in 1707.

Mably. de, deh mS'ble', (GABRIEL BONNOT,) AsnS,
a French historical writer, born at Grenoble in 1709,
was a brother of fitienne Bonnot de Condillac. He
became a resident of Paris in his youth, and produced
in 1740 his "Parallel between the Romans and French
in Respect to Government," which was very successful.
In 1743 he negotiated a secret treaty with Prussia against
Austria. Among his numerous works are " Observations
on the Romans," (1751,) and "Observations on the His-
tory of France," (1765.) Died in 1785.

Maboul, mS'bool', (JACQUES,) a French pulpit orator,
Bishop of Alet, born in Paris about 1650 ; died in 1723.

Mabuse, mf'biiz', or Maubeuge, mo'buzh', (JAN,)
a famous Flemish painter, whose family name was GES-
SART or GASSAERT, was born at Maubeuge in 1499. He
is said to have studied in Italy. He worked in Middel-
burg and in London, where he painted portraits of the
royal family in the reign of Henry VIII., and historical
pictures, which are still admired. Among his master-
pieces was a "Descent from the Cross," which was de-
stroyed by lightning at Middelburg, and "The Wise
Men's Offering," now owned by the Earl of Carlisle.
His habits were very intemperate and prodigal. Died
about 1562.

Mac-ad'am, (JoHN LOUDON,) a Scottish surveyor,
noted for his improvement in roads, born September 21,
1756. He lived in America, 1770-83, taking an active part
against the colonies, and making and losing a fortune in
the war. He constructed the first macadamized roads,
near Bristol, about 1815, and explained his system in his
"Es>ay on the Scientific Repair and Preservation of
Public Roads," (1819.) In 1827 he was made general
surveyor of the metropolitan roads, and afterwards re-
ceived a grant of ,10,000 for his services. Died in 1836.

Macaire. See MACARIUS.

Mac-al'ister, (ALEXANDER,) anatomist, born at
Dublin, Ireland, in 1844. He was professor of zoology
at Dublin in 1869, of anatomy in 1873, and of anatomy
at Cambridge in 1883. He published "Morphology
of Vertebrate Animals," (1878,) "Some Morphologi-
cal Lessons taught by Human Variation," f 1894,) etc.

Mac-Al'ister, (JAMES,) an American educator,
born at Glasgow, Scotland, in 1840. He was super-
intendent of public schools at Milwaukee 1874-81, at

Philadelphia 1883-91, and president of the Drexel
Institute, Philadelphia, after 1891.

Mac-Ar'dell, (JAMES,) an excellent English engraver
in mezzotinto, born about 1710. He engraved portraits
i of many eminent contemporaries, and subjects after Rem-
brandt, Van Dyck, Murillo, and other masters. Among
his works are " Moses on the Nile," after Van Dyck, and
.in "Assumption," after Murillo. Died in 1765. Of
MacArdell Basan observes that he "was one of the best
engravers in mezzotinto that England ever produced."

Macarel, mfkfrel', (Louis ANTOINE,) a French
jurist, born at Orleans in 1790. He published, besides
other works, "Elements of Administrative Jurispru-
dence," (1818.) Died in 1851.

Ma-ca'rl-us, [Gr. Maxopiof / Fr. MACAIRE, mi'kiR',]
an eminent ascetic or hermit of Egypt, born about 301
A.D., has been canonized as a saint by the Catholic
Church. Fifty extant Greek homilies are ascribed to
him. Died about 390 A.D.

Another SAINT MACARIUS, called Junior, lived at
Alexandria in the fourth century, and was noted for
his ascetic piety. He is supposed to be the author of a
work called the "Rule of Saint Macarius."

Mac-Ar'thur, (ARTHUR,) an American general,
born in Massachusetts, and served in the civil war,
advancing from first lieutenant to brevet colonel. After
the war he entered the regular army as first lieutenant,
reaching the rank of lieutenant-colonel in May, 1896.
In the war with Spain he was made successively briga-
dier- and major-general of volunteers, took part in the
conflict in the Philippines, and in the spring of 1900
succeeded General Otis as military governor of the
Philippine Islands.

Mac-ar'thur, (DUNCAN,) an American soldier and
statesman, born in Dutchess county, New York, in 1772.
He served in the war of 1812, and rose to the rank of
brigadier-general. He was elected Governor of Ohio
in 1830. Died in 1840.

MacArthur, (JOHN,) a distinguished architect, born
at Bladenoch, in Wigtonshire, Scotland, May 13, 1823,
came to Philadelphia when only ten years of age. He
learned the business of a carpenter, and studied drawing
and architecture in the evenings. In 1848 he was
awarded the first premium for his plan of a new House
of Refuge, besides which, among the prominent build-
ings erected by him in Philadelphia, are the Continen-
tal Hotel and Jayne's splendid mansion at Nineteenth
and Chestnut streets. He was architect for the war de-
partment during the war, and after its close for the navy
department, for which he built the Naval Hospital at
Philadelphia, but he regarded the new City Hall there
as the crowning work of his life. Died January 8, 1890.

Mac-art'ney, (GEORGE,) EARL OF, a statesman, of
Scottish descent, born near Belfast, Ireland, in 1737. He
was elected to Parliament in 1768, and appointed chief
secretary for Ireland in 1769. In 1775 he was chosen
Governor of the island of Granada, which the French
captured from him in 1779. From December, 1780, to
1786, he was Governor of Madras. He was appointed
Governor-General of India, as successor to Warren
Hastings, but declined on account of ill health. His
most remarkable public service was his embassy to
China, where he arrived in August, 1793, being the first
English ambassador to that court. He refused to pros-
trate himself before the emperor, according to Chinese
etiquette. Though he failed to obtain a commercial
treaty, he maintained his reputation as an able negotiator.
He was raised to the peerage as a baron in 1776, and
was made Earl of Macartney in 1794. He died in 1806,
after which appeared a "Journal of the Embassy to China
in 1792-94."

Macaulay, ma-kaw'le, (CATHARINE,) an English
authoress, whose maiden name was SAWBRIDGE, was
born in Kent in 1733. She was married to Dr. George
Macaulay, of London, about 1760, and published a
" History of England from the Accession of James I. to
the Elevation of the House of Hanover," (1763,) which
is favourable to republicanism. In 1785 she visited
Washington at Mount Vernon. She wrote several po-
litical treatises. " Her history," says T. B. Macaulay,

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 23. )




" is more distinguished by zeal than either by candour
or skill." Died in 1791.

See WILKHS, " Life and Letters ;" " Monthly Review" for March
1765, May, 1769, and August, 1771.

Macaulay, (THOMAS BABINGTON,) BARON, an emi-
nent English scholar, critic, and historian, was born at
Rothley "Temple, in Leicestershire, October 25, 1800,
His father, Zachary Macaulay, was a native of Scotland,
of Highland descent ; his mother, Selina Mills, the
daughter of a bookseller of Bristol, was of a Quaker
family. His home education was religious and somewhat
austere. Mrs. Hannah More, who was intimate with
his parents, has given in her letters many interesting
particulars of the future historian. From his earliest
childhood he was passionately fond of poetry, so much
so that he could hardly be prevailed on to read prose.
Later, however, we find him deeply interested in history,
and warmly discussing with a friend of his own age the
respective merits of Marlborough and other eminent
commanders. (See " Letters of Hannah More to Zach-
ary Macaulay, containing Notices of Lord Macaulay'
Youth," 1860.)

When about twelve years of age, he was placed under
the instruction of Mr. Preston, with whom he laid the
foundations of his acquaintance with the classics. At
eighteen he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where
he greatly distinguished himself, having twice won the
chancellor's medal for English verse, the first time for
a poem on " Pompeii," in 1819, the second for one on
"Evening,"in 1820. He graduated as B.A. in 1822, and
soon after was chosen a Fellow of his college. H
studied law at Lincoln's Inn, and was admitted to the
bar in 1826. "The Battle of Ivry," one of the mosl
universally admired of his shorter poems, was published
in "Knight's Quarterly Magazine" in 1824. In 1825 he
contributed to the " Edinburgh Review" an article on
Milton, which at once placed him in the foremost rank
of the most distinguished essayists of the age. This
was the commencement of that splendid and fascinating
series of review-articles, the publication of which maybe
said to form an era in the history of literature, when for
the first time the critical or historic essay threatened to
bear away the palm of popularity from the most brilliant
works of fiction.

Macaulay entered Parliament in 1830, as a represents
live of the borough of Calne. While at Cambridge he
had distinguished himself as an orator, and he now more
than justified the high expectations which his friends
had formed of his parliamentary career. His speeches
on the Reform bill (in 1830-32) established his fame as
an able and eloquent speaker. It is said, however, that
owing to his rapid and somewhat monotonous delivery
his speeches were more effective and convincing when
they appeared in print than when spoken in the House
of Commons. One of his most remarkable efforts was
his great speech (1833) on the bill for the renewal of the
charter of the East India Company. He was soon afte
made a member of the supreme council of India, ant
placed at the head of the law commission to prepare
new code for the government of that country. Althoug
it was found impossible to carry into immediate effec
many of the reforms which he sought to introduce, hi
efforts in this cause have not been without importan
results. Since the government of India was transferre(

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 110 of 425)