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to the imperial crown, his code has been made the basi
of the legal system of the country. His sojourn in Indi
(from 1835 to 1838) had made him acquainted with its
history and with the character of its various peoples
and to the knowledge thus acquired in a field hithert
untrodden by him, we are indebted for two of his mos
effective and most brilliant essays, those on Clive an
Warren Hastings.

Hiving returned to England in 1838, he again enterc
Parliament, as a representative of the city of Edinburgh
and soon after received the appointment of secretar
at war in the Melbourne ministry. On the fall of th
Whigs in 1841, he went into the opposition. When the
returned to power in 1846, he was made paymaster-gent
ral. He had been regularly re-elected from Edinburg
until 1847, when, owing to an unusual combination o
different party elements, he was defeated. The moi

fication of this repulse stung him very deeply. _ He
esolved to devote the remainder of his life to studious
etirement He seems to have felt, indeed, that his
roper vocation was the pursuit of literature, apart from
le excitements of the political arena. One of the im-
ortant results of his withdrawal from public life was his
eing able to apply himself without interruption to the
omposition of his great work, the " History of Eng-
and," the first two volumes of which made their appear-
nce near the close of 1848. Never before in the annals
f literature was any work of history welcomed by the
ublic with such enthusiastic admiration. His work was
ead by tens of thousands with as much eagerness and
elight as a fresh novel by Scott or Bulwer would have
een. In 1849 Macaulay was chosen lord rector of the
Jniversity of Glasgow. Not long after, in a speech which
e made in that city, he took a formal leave of political
fe, explaining at the same time the principles by which
e had sought to guide his course while he was con-
.ected with the government. Among other things, he
aid on that occasion, " I cannot accuse myself of having
ver been untrue either to the cause of civil or religious
iberty, or to the cause of property and law. I reflect
ith pleasure that I bore a part in some of those reforms
hich corrected great abuses and removed just discon-
ents. I reflect with equal pleasure that I never stooped
o the part of a demagogue, and never feared to confront
vhat seemed to me to be an unreasonable clamour." In
852 the people of Edinburgh, as some atonement for
he injustice which they felt had been done him five years
oefore, again returned Macaulay to Parliament, without
lis having io much as offered himself as a candidate or
laving made the smallest effort to procure his re-elec-
ion. Although he took his seat in the House of Com-
mons, his declining health did not permit him to lake
my active part in the debates. During the whole time
hat he was in the House he spoke but twice : on both
occasions he was listened to with the most respectful
and eager attention. An imperfect and extremely in-
accurate collection of his speeches having been printed
without his sanction, a correct edition was by his au-
hority issued in 1854. In 1856, on account of ill health,
ic resigned his seat in Parliament. In 1855 the third
and fourth volumes of his History made their appearance.
They were welcomed as warmly and read as eagerly as
the two former had been. It was his original purpose
to bring his History from the accession of James II.
down to a time within the memory of persons still living.
But in the last volume he had only reached the peace
of Ryswick, in 1697. After his decease another frag-
mentary volume was published, including an account
of the death of William III.

In 1857 Macaulay was raised to the peerage, with the
title of Baron Macaulay of Rothley. Although his
health continued to decline, he still applied himself to
his literary labours until very near the time of his death.
His disease was an affection of the heart, of which he
died suddenly on the 28th of December, 1859.

Besides the various productions of his pen already
referred to, he contributed a series of valuable biogra
phies to the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." Not content
with his acknowledged mastery in the different depart-
ments of prose, he became again in 1842 a candidate for
poetic laurels, and gave to the world his "Lays of Ancient
Rome," of which it is scarcely too much to say that,
for a combination of picturesqueness, simplicity, and
power, there is nothing of the kind superior to them in
the English language.

It is, however, as a writer on history that the name
of Macaulay is destined to take its most distinguished
place and descend to the remotest posterity. Already,
in his essays, he had proved his mastery in this depart-
ment of composition. A perfect history, according to
his ideal,* would not be content with merely recording
wars and revolutions, the lives of kings and heroes, but
would include literature and the arts, manners and
usages, the progress of civilization, in short, the whole
life of the nation ; not of the aristocracy only, but of the
people in every rank and condition Referring to Mac-

See his essay on " History." in the " Edinburgh Review," 1828

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, ?, i, 0, obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; n&t; good; moon




smlay's historic essays, Dean Milman well observes, " The
variety of topics is almost as nothing to the variety of
information on every topic." Of the style he remarks,
" It was eminently his own. ... Its characteristics were
vigour, animation, copiousness, clearness, above all,
sound English, now a rare excellence. . . . His English
was pure both in idiom and in words ; pure to fastidious-
ness ; not that he discarded or did not make free use
of the plainest and most homely terms, . . . but every
word must be plain English, nothing that approached
real vulgarity, nothing that had not the stamp of popu-
lar use or the authority of sound English writers."

That Macaulay possessed in a pre-eminent degree
many of the highest attributes of a great historian, none
will deny. In that power of imagination by which he
was enabled to clothe the dead past with all the activity
nd fulness of life, he was scarcely, if at all, inferior to the
most gifted writers of fiction. In the extent and variety
of his knowledge, in the quickness and strength of his
intellect, by which he was able to grasp with facility the
most difficult political and moral problems, in his thor-
ough acquaintance with all the springs of human action,
in the vividness of his descriptions, in the animation
and sustained interest of his nairative, in the clearness,
force, and brilliancy of his style, in his command, in
short, over every species of eloquence, whether declama-
tory, argumentative, or poetical, he has, even among the
greatest masters of historical composition, few, if any,
superiors. He is, however, it must be confessed with
regret, deficient in one important or rather essential
qualification, impartiality. His feelings were so intense,
his attachments and aversions so strong, that, where
these chanced to enter into the subject to be weighed,
the balance was too seldom held with an equal hand.

Macaulay's great work has been compared to a vast
painting, in which the different figures correspond to
prominent historic characters. It may be said that as
in his style he too often sacrifices simplicity to his love
of antithesis, so in his history he is too apt to exagger-
ate, for the sake of effect, the lights and shadows of his

In relation to his conversational powers, Dean Milman
observes, "In the quiet intercourse with the single
friend, no great talker was more free, easy, and genial
than Macaulay. There was the most equable interchange
of thought ; he listened with as much courtesy as he
spoke with gentle and pleasant persuasiveness. In a
larger circle, such as he delighted to meet and assemble
around him to the close of his life, a few chosen in-
timates, some accomplished ladies, foreigners of the
highest distinction who were eager to make his acquaint-
ance, his manners were frank and open. In conversation
in such a circle, a commanding voice, high animal spirits,
unrivalled quickness of apprehension, a flow of language
as rapid as inexhaustible, gave him, perhaps, a larger
share, but a share which few were not delighted to yield
up to him. His thoughts were like lightning, and clothed
themselves at once in words. . . . And the stores which
his memory had at instantaneous command ! . . . With
these came anecdotes, touches of character, drollery, fun,
excellent stories excellently told."

" Lord Macaulay," observes the same writer, " was
never married ; his strong domestic affections were
chiefly centred in his sister happily married to his
frienrf Sir Charles Trevelyan and her family. Her
children were to him as his own, and cherished with
almost parental tenderness. As a friend he was singu-
larly steadfast He was impatient of anything dispar-
aging of one for whom he entertained a sincere esteem.
In the war of political life he made, we believe, no lasting
enemy ; he secured the unswerving attachment of his po-
litical friends, to whom he had been unswervingly true."

All Macaulay's works have been reprinted in Germany.
His " History" has been translated into French, the first
two volumes by M. Jules de Peyronnet, the second and
third by M. Amedee Pichot,

See a " Memoir of Lord Macaulay," written for the Royal Society
far DEAN MILMAN ; the excellent article in ALLIBONH'S " Dictionary
of Authors;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" "Biographical
Sketches," by HARRIBT MABTINKAU, 1869; WHIPPLK'S "Essays
and Reviews," 2 vols., 1852 : " Edinburgh Review" for July, 1849,
October, 1854, January. 1857, and October, 1861 ; " Quarterly Review"

1859; North British Review for May, 1856, and Novembe

" Kraser's Magazine" for February, 1856 ; J. PAGKT, "New Ex*.

TRKVELVAN, "Life of Lord Macaulay."

Macaulay, (ZACHARY,) F.R.S., an English philan-
thropist, of Scottish descent, born about 1768, was the
father of Lord Macaulay, the historian. He was a
zealous coadjutor of Wilberforce in the abolition of
the slave-trade, in which cause he laboured many years.
Died in 1838. His father, John Macaulay, minister at
Inverary, is mentioned in Dr. Johnson's "Tour to the

Mac-Auley, (CATHERINE E.,) an Irish lady, eminent
for benevolence and piety, born in the county of Dublin
in 1787. She was educated a Catholic. Having lost
her parents in early life, she was adopted by Mr. Cal-
lahan, a wealthy gentleman, who at his death, in 1822,
left her his entire fortune. She founded in 1827, in
Baggot Street, Dublin, an institution designed as a
temporary home for poor women out of employment,
and a school for children. It was afterwards called the
Institute of Our Blessed Lady of Mercy, having for its
object the care of the sick. She became in 1831 superior
of the Order of the Sisters of Mercy. This order has
been introduced into Great Britain, the United States,
Australia, and South America. Died in 1841.

See " Life of Catherine MacAuley," by a member of the Order
of Mercy, New York, 1866.

Mac-bgth' or Macb6da, mak-ba'tha, a king of
Scotland, who, according to the common tradition, was
a cousin of King Duncan, and originally Thane of Gla-
mis. About 1040 Macbeth assassinated Duncan and
usurped the throne. Malcolm, the lawful heir, fled to
England, and, having returned with an army, defeated
Macbeth, who was killed in 1056 or 1057.

The story of Macbeth's usurpation would seem to
possess scarcely any positive historic basis. " However
he may have gained his power," says Burton, " he exer-
cised it with good repute, according to the reports nearest
to his time. It is among the most curious of the an-
tagonisms that sometimes separate the popular opinion
of people of mark from anything positively known about
them, that this man, in a manner sacred to splendid in-
famy, is the first whose name appears in the ecclesiastical
records both as a king of Scotland and a benefactor of
the Church. . . . He had a wider dominion than any
previous ruler, having command over all the country
now known as Scotland, except the isles and a portion
of the western highlands." (" History of Scotland," vol.
"i. chap, x.) The legend of Macbeth forms the subject
of one of Shakspeare's most celebrated tragedies.

See HOLINSHED, "Chronicles of Englande, Scotlande." etc:
BUCHANAN, "Historia Scotica."

Mac-Bride', (DAVID,) an eminent surgeon, born in
the county of Antrim, Ireland, in 1726, settled in Dublin
in 1749. Besides other works, he published an "Intro-
duction to the Theory and Practice of Medicine," (1772,)
which is much esteemed. Died in 1778.

Maccabaeus, (JUDAS.) See JUDAS.

Mac-Cabe', (EDWARD,) an Irish cardinal, born at
Dublin, February 14, 1816, was bred at Maynooth, and
made a priest in 1839. In 1877 he became bishop and
assistant to Cardinal Cullen, to whom he had for several
years been a vicar-general. In 1879 he became Arch-
bishop of Dublin, and in 1882 he was created a cardinal-
priest. Died at Kingstown, Ireland, February 10, 1885.

MacCabe, (WILLIAM BERNARD,) an Irish journalist,
born in Dublin, November 23, 1801. For many years
he was connected with the press of Dublin and London,
and was (1847-51) Uruguayan consul at London. Be-
sides various books translated from the Italian and Ger-
man, he published a " Catholic History of England,"
(1848-54,) novels entitled "Bertha," (1851,) " Florine,"
"Agnes Arnold," (1860,) "Adelaide," etc., and other
works. Died December 14, 1891.

Mac'ca-bees, [Gr. MaxKataioi; Fr. MACCABEES, mf
ki'ba',] a celebrated Jewish family, which attained the
royal dignity in Judea. The surname MACCABEUS, from
the Hebrew Makkab, a " hammer," was first given to
Judas for his victories over the King of Syria, about 165
B.C. His family and descendants were also called Mac-

as/6; <;ass; %/iaril; gas/; G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilled; sas; thasinMu. (jySee Explanations, p. 23. i




cabees or Asmonaeans. Judas, who was the son of
Mattathias, had three brothers, John, Simon, and Jona-
than, noticed in this work.

See Apocryphal Book of Maccabees: JOSEPHUS, " Antiquitates

Mac-Call', (GEORGE A.,) an American general, born
in Philadelphia in 1802, graduated at West Point in 1822.
He took command of a division or corps called the Penn-
sylvania Reserves, about May, i86i,and commanded the
same at Mechanicsville and Gaines's Mill, June 26-27,
1862. He was taken prisoner June 30 of that year.
Died in February, 1868.

Mac-Car'thy, (L>ENis FLORENCE,) an Irish author,
born at Cork in 1820. He was appointed professor of
poetry in the Catholic University of Dublin, and in 1871
was made the recipient of a literary pension of one hun-
dred pounds per annum. Among his works are trans-
lations from Calderon's dramas, (1853,) " Ballads, Poems,
and Lyrics," (1850,) " Under-Glimpses," (1857,) "The
Bell-Founder, and other Poems," (1857,) "Shelley's
Early Life," (1872,) etc. He also edited a "Book of
Irish Ballads," (1846.) Died April 7, 1882.

MacCarthy, (JUSTIN,) an Irish author, born at Cork-
November 22, 1830. He received a good education, and
became a journalist of Liverpool (1853) and London,
(1860.) He passed several years in the United States.
In 1879 he was returned to Parliament as a Home-Ruler,
representing the county of Longford, and in 1880 was
re-elected with no opposition. Among his works are
"The Waterdale Neighbours," (1867,) "My Enemy's
Daughter," (1869,) "Lady Judith," (1871,) "A Fair
Saxon," (1873,) "Linley Rochford," (1874,) "Dear Lady
Disdain," (1875.) "Miss Misanthrope," (1877,) "Con
Amore," (iSSi,) " A History of Our Own Times," a work
of much merit (1878-80,) "History of the Foui
Georges," (1884,) "Sir Robert Peel," (1891,) "The
Riddle Ring," (a novel, 1896,) and "Mr. Gladstone,"

MacCarthy, (Jusrix HUNTLY,) son of the pre-
ceding, was born in 1862. He was a Nationalist
member of Parliament 1884-92, and the author of
" England under Gladstone," (1884,) " Ireland since
the Union," (1889,) "The French Revolution,"
(1890,) "A London Legend," (1895,) etc.

MacCheyne, mak-shan', (ROBERT MURRAY,) a Scot-
tish divine, born at Edinburgh in 1813. He studied
theology under Dr. Chalmers in the university of his
native city, and in 1836 was ordained minister of Saint
Peter's, Dundee. His earnest and faithful labours were
instrumental in converting great numbers during the
memorable revival of 1839. He died in 1843, leaving a
number of hymns of great beauty.

Macchi, mlk'kee, (MAURO,) an Italian political
writer, born at Milan in 1815. He was a moderate Lib
eral in politics. Died in 1880.

Macchiavelli or Machiavelli, de, da ma-ke-S-vel'-
lee, often Anglicized as Machiavel, mak'e-a-v!l, [Lat.
MACHIAVEL'LUS ; Fr. MACHIAVEL, mfshe'fvel',] (Nic-
COL6 DI BERNARDO, ) a famous Italian statesman,
diplomatist, and writer, whose character abounds in
enigmas and paradoxes, and from whose name has been
derived a synonym of perfidious policy, ( Machiavfllism. ,
He was born at Florence on the 3d of May, 1469. In
1499 he was appointed secretary of the Ten who managec
the diplomatic affairs of the republic. He retained this
office about fourteen years, during which he was em-
ployed in many foreign missions to France, etc., anc
acquitted himself with great dexterity. In 1510, for the
third time, he was sent to France, and negotiated an
alliance with Louis XII. He zealously exerted his talents
and influence to maintain the independence of Florence
but without success. In 1512 the Medicis obtained sove
reign power in Florence by the aid of the pope and the
emperor, and Macchiavelli was banished from the city
but forbidden to leave the country. He passed severa
ensuing years in retirement, and during this period com
posed a treatise on the "Art of War," and his importam
work entitled "The Prince," ("Del Principe," or "De
Principatibus,") which has entailed a large portion ol
conventional infamy on his name. It was written for the

mvate use of Lorenzo de' Medici, and not designed for
jublication. "Few books," says Hallam, "have been
more misrepresented. His crime, in the eyes of the
world, was to have cast away the veil of hypocrisy."
"Introduction to the Literature of Europe.") About
1520 he was recalled into public service by Leo X., and
was employed on several missions, the last of which was
to the army of the league against Charles V., (1526.) He
died at Florence in June, 1527. His last work was an
excellent, luminous, and picturesque history of Florence,
" Storie Fiorentine," 1525,) the style of which is greatly
admired. He was also author of several comedies of
iome merit, and of valuable " Discourses on Livy."
' The character of Macchiavelli," says Macaulay, " was
lateful to the new masters of Italy. His works were
misrepresented by the learned, misconstrued by the
gnorant, censured by the Church, abused with all the
rancour of simulated virtue by the minions of a base
despotism and the priests of a baser superstition. . . .
The name of a man whose genius had illuminated all
the dark places of policy, and to whose patriotic wisdom
an oppressed people had owed their last chance of
emancipation, passed into a proverb of infamy. . . . The
terms in which he is commonly described would seem
to import that he was the tempter, the evil principle, the
discoverer of ambition and revenge, the original inventor
of perjury," etc. " His History of Florence," says Hal-
lam, " is enough to immortalize the name of Machiavel.
Seldom has a more giant stride been made in any de-
partment of literature than by this judicious, clear, and
ilegant history." (" Introduction to the Literature ot

See GALANTI, " Elogio di Niccoli Machiavelli," 1779: BAL-
IKLLI, "Elogio di Niccoli Machiavelli," 1794: PBRIBS, "Histoir*
de N, Machiavel," 1823 : ARTAUD DB MONTOR, " Machiavel, son
Ge"nie et ses Erreurs," 1833 : MACAULAY'S " Essays," article " Ma-
chiavelli ;" T. MUNDT, "Macchiavelli und der Gang der Euro-
paischen Politik," 1852; GINGUENB, "Histoire de la Litte'rature
Italienne ;" GERVINUS, " Historische Schriften :" F. W. EBELING,
" N. di Bernardo de Macchiavelli's rolitisches System." etc., 1850;
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" "Edinburgh Review" for Septem-
ber, 1816, p. 209, (by SIR TAMES MACKINTOSH ;) "Edinburgh Re-
view" for March, 1827 ; " North American Review" for July, 1835.

Macchietti, mak-ke-et'tee, (GIROLAMO,) an Italian
painter, surnamed DEL CROClFlssAjo,(kRo-che-fes-sa'yo,)
(because, as we are told, his master painted crucifixes,)
was born at Florence about 1540. He worked at Florence
and Rome, and painted history and portraits with great
success. Among his master-pieces was a picture of the

Adoration of the Magi."

See VASARI, ''Lives of the Painters."

Mac-Clel'lan, (GEORGE,) M.D., an eminent American
surgeon, born at Woodstock, Windham county, Con-
necticut, in 1796. He graduated at Yale College in
1815, and studied medicine in the University of Penn-
sylvania, where he took the degree of M.D. in 1819.
He founded about 1826 the Jefferson Medical College
in Philadelphia, in which he became professor of surgery
and a very popular lecturer. He was one of the first in
the United States to introduce the system of clinical
instruction into the medical schools. He was particu-
larly distinguished as a bold and successful surgical
operator. Died in 1847.

See S. D. GROSS, "American Medical Biography," 1861 ; SAMUEL
G MORTON, "Biographical Noticeof Dr. George McClellan," 1849.;
W. DARRACH, " Memoir of Dr. George McClellan," 1847

MacClellan, ( GEORGE BRINTON, ) a distinguished
American general, the son of the preceding, was born in
Philadelphia, December 3, 1826. He entered the Military
Academy at West Point in 1842, and graduated there in
the summer of 1846, standing second in general rank in
a large class. He served in the Mexican war as lieutenant
of engineers in 1847, and was breveted captain for his
services at the capture of Mexico. In the spring of 1855
the government sent to the seat of war in the Crimea a
military commission to examine the military systems of
the European powers, etc. Captain McClellan was one
of the three officers selected for this mission. He re-
turned home in April, 1856, and gave the results of his
observations in a valuable report to the war department.
He resigned his commission in the army in 1857, and
was appointed chief engineer of the Illinois Central

In May, 1861, he took command of the Union forces

e, i, 5, u, y, long; ra, 6,6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, fi,y, short; a. c, i, i),ol>seure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;




In Western Virginia, which defeated the enemy at Rich
Mountain and Cheat River in July. A few days after
the battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) he was, at the re-
commendation of General Scott, appointed commander
of the army at Washington. He reorganized that army
and brought it into a high state of discipline. When
General Scott retired from active service, November i,

1861, McClellan was appointed to the command of the
armies of the United States. About the end of January,

1862, the President ordered that a general movement
should be made by all the armies on the 22d of February.
Having been relieved from the command of all the de-
partments except that of the Potomac, McClellan began
to move towards Richmond about the loth of March.
He conveyed his army by water down the Potomac and
Chesapeake Bay to the mouth of James River. Soon
after the opening of this campaign he began to complain
that he was not properly supported by the President.
He commenced active operations about the 5th of April,
by the siege of Yorktown, which the insurgents evacuated
on the 3d or 4th of May. On the next day he fought an
indecisive battle at Williamsburg, from which he slowly
followed the retiring enemy to the Chickahominy.

According to his biographer and admirer, Mr. Hillard,
"the mind of McClellan was constantly burdened with
a conviction that his troops were not numerous enough."
He had about 95,000 men at Yorktown. The Union
army was attacked at Fair Oaks on the 3151 of May by
General J. E. Johnston, who was repulsed with heavy
loss. According to Hillard, McClellan was confined to
bed by illness during this battle. His army remained
nearly inactive in the swamps of the Chickahominy for

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