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in the rebellion of 1791, and subsequently entered the
French army. In 1805 he removed to America, and
was appointed professor of chemistry in the Medical
College, New York. He was the author of " Rambles
in Switzerland," and several scientific works. Died in

Mac-nish', (ROBERT,) M.D., a Scottish author, burn
at Glasgow in 1802. He became one of the editors of
" Eraser's Magazine" in 1831. Among his works is "Tht
Philosophy of Sleep," (1830.) Died at Glasgow in 1837

See D. MOIR, "Life of R. Macnish," prefixed to a collection <A
his "Tales, Essays, and Sketches," 1839 and 1844; CHAMIH;
^Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen," (Supplement;)
" Fraser's Magazine" for December, 1835, (with a portrait.)

Macomb, ma-koom' or ma-kom', (ALEXANDER,) a
distinguished American general, born at Detroit in 1782.
ie served in the war of 1812, and, as brigadier-general,
in 1814, gained the victory of Plattsburg over the British
at the same time that Commodore Macdonough signally
defeated them on the lake. General Macomb was ap-
pointed in 1835 commander-in-chief of the United States
army. Died in 1841.

See the "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans,"
voL i.

Macomb, (WILLIAM H.,) an American conm
a son of General Alexander Macomb, was born in Mich-

igan in 1820. He entered the navy in 1834, served with
distinction through the war of 1861-65 with tne ra "k of
commander, and was made a commodore in 1870, Died
at Philadelphia, August 12, 1872.

Ma'con, (NATHANIEL,) an American statesman, born
in Warren county, North Carolina, in 1757. He served
as a private in the army from 1778 to 1782, and opposed
the adoption of the Constitution of the United States,
(1788.) In 1791 "he was elected a member of Congress
for a district of North Carolina, which he represented
until 1815. He was always a Democrat, and a strict-
constructionist. He was Speaker of the National House
of Representatives for three terms, (1801-06,) and be-
came a Senator of the United States in 1816. Hii
speeches were short, but effective. He served in the
Senate until 1826, having then been a member of Con-
gress for thirty-seven consecutive years. He died in
Warren county, North Carolina, in June, 1837. John
Randolph called him "the best and wisest man that I
ever knew."

Mac-Os'car, (WILLIAM,) a Scottish minor poet, born
at Lochwinnoch, May 7, 1806. He was a schoolmaster,
and lived many years in London. Died at Kilbarchan,
January 1 1, 1877. His " Poetical Works" were published
in 1878.

Mac-Pher'spu, (EDWARD,) LL.D., an American
author, was born at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 31,
1830. He graduated at Pennsylvania College in 1848,
and became a journalist. He was in Congress from 1859
to 1863, and was clerk of the lower house of Congress,
1863-69. He published a "Political History of the
United States," (1864,) a " Political Manual," and other
works. Died December 14, 1895.

Mac-pher'aon, (JAMES,) a Scottish poet, celebrated
as the translator or author of " Ossian," was born in In-
verness-shire in 1738. After leaving college he became
a school-teacher at Ruthven, and in 1 758 published " The
Highlander," a poem, which was not successful. In 1760
he surprised the literary world by the publication of
" Fragments of Ancient Poetry collected in the High-
lands of Scotland, and translated from the Gaelic or Erse
Language." These were admired by the poet Gray and
others, and a subscription was raised to aid Macpherson
in exploring the Highlands for other similar treasures.
The ostensible result of this search appeared in " Fingal,
an Epic Poem," (1762,) and "Temora, an Epic Poem,"
(1763,) which purported to be the work of Ossian, a
poet of the third century. These poems found many
enthusiastic admirers throughout Europe. An animated
controversy ensued about their authenticity, which was
defended by Dr. Blair and other eminent critics. Dr.
Johnson, on the other hand, confidently maintained that
they were forgeries. Many others adopt the theory that
he caught the spirit of the Ossianic poetry from the
tales of the old Celtic bards, but supplied from his own
invention much of the peculiar imagery and cloudy
verbiage which abound in his pretended translations.
About 1772 he settled in London, and produced a prose
version of the " Iliad," which was a failure, a " History
of Great Britain," and other works. He was a member
of Parliament from 1780 to 1790. Died in 1796.

See BLAIK, " Critical Dissertation on the Poems of Ossian," 1763 ,
H. MACKHNZIH, " Report of the Committee of the Highland Society
of Scotland," etc. : J. SINCLAIR, "On the Authenticity of Ossian'*
Poems," 1806. " Nouvelle Biographic Generate ;" CHAMBERS "Bio-
graphical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen;" Review of "Opaian,"
in the " Monthly Review" for January and February, 176*.

Mac-Fher'son, (JAMES BIRDSEYE,) an eminent Amer-
ican general, born in Sandusky county, Ohio, in Novem-
ber, 1828. He entered the Military Academy of West
Point in 1849, and graduated at the head of his class in
1853. Having been assigned to the corps of engineers,
tie was employed as engineer at New York, Fort Del-
aware, and Alcatraz Island, California. He obtained
the rank of first lieutenant in 1858, and that of captain
in August, 1861. In November ensuing he became
aide-de-camp to General Halleck, with the rank of lieu-
tenant-colonel. He served as chief engineer on General
Grant's staff at the capture of Fort Donelson, and at the
battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862. In May of that
year he was appointed a colonel in the regular army,
and brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a

i, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, snort: a., e, i, o, otseiite; far, fill, fat; met; ndt; good; moon-




division which broke through the lines of General Price,
then investing Corinth, and marched in to the relief of
the garrison in October. For this service he was pro-
moted to the rank of major-general on the 8th of Octo-
ber, 1862. Having obtained command of the seventeenth
army corps in December, he served under General Gi ant
in the campaign against Vicksburg. His corps gained a
victory at Raymond on the 12th of May, 1863, and, with
the aid of General Sherman's corps, defeated General
Joseph E. Johnston at Jackson on the I4th. Genera]
McPherson contributed to the victory of Champion's
Hills, and took part in two unsuccessful assaults on
the works of Vicksburg in May. For his services in this
campaign he was promoted to be a brigadier-general in
the regular army, to date from the capture of Vicksburg,
and was appointed commander of the district of Vicks-
burg, July, 1863. He served under Sherman in the
expedition to Meridian in February, 1864. In the next
month, General Grant, who had just been nominated
general-in-chief of all the Union armies, wrote a letter
to Sherman, in which he expressed his thanks to Sher-
man and McPherson as the men to whom he was most
indebted fir his success. On the I2th of March, McPher-
son was appointed commander of the department and
army of the Tennessee.

As commander of the army of the Tennessee, he
maintained his high reputation in the campaign which
Sherman conducted in Georgia. His army fought with
success against the rebels at Dallas on the 28th of May.
On the 27th of June, Generals Thomas and McPherson
assaulted the fortified lines ot Kenesaw Mountain, but
were repulsed with severe loss. By a flank movement
of the army of McPherson, General Johnston was induced
to abandon his strong position at Kenesaw about July 3,
and to retreat to Atlanta. After the Union armies had
advanced to the vicinity of Atlanta, the enemy adopted
a bolder policy, and made several attacks, in one of which
McPherson was killed, July 22, 1864. "About I P.M.
of this day," says General Grant, " the brave, accom-
plished, and noble-hearted McPherson was killed." (Re-
port, dated July 22, 1865.)

See TKNNHY, " Military History of the Rebellion."

Macpherson, (Sir JOHN,) born in Skye, Scotland,
about 1767, became a member of the supreme council
of Bengal in 1781. He acted as Governor-General of
India alter the retirement of Warren Hastings, (Feb-
ruary, 1785,) until July, 1786. Died in 1821.

Macquarie, ma-kwor're, (LACHLAN,) a British gene-
ral, born in the island of Mull in 1762. He served many
years in India, and fought against the French in Egypt in
1801. From 1809 to 1821 he was Governor of New South
Wales. About 1814 he obtained the rank of general.
Died in 1824.

Macquart, mfkaV, (Louis CHARLHS HENRI,) a
French mineralogist, born at Rheims in 1745. He pub-
lished a "Manual of the Properties of Water," (1783,)
and a " Dictionary of Health and Education," (2 vols.,
1800.) Died in iSoS.

Macquer, mfkaii;', (PHILIPPE,) a French litterateur
and advocate, born in Paris in 1720. He was author
of a "Chronological Abridgment of Ecclesiastical His-
tory," (2 vols., 1751,) "Roman Annals," (1756,) and an
"Abridged History of Spain and Portugal," (2 vols.,
1759,) (all in French,) which were received with favour.
Died in 1770.

See QUBRARD, "La France Litte'raire."

Macquer, (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a meritorious French
chemist and physician, born in Paris in 1718, was a
brother of the preceding. He discovered new properties
in many chemical substances, and is said to have been
the first who proved that the diamond is combustible,
(1771.) He published " Elements of Theoretical Chem-
istry," (1741,) and avaluable "Dictionary of Chemistry,"
(1766.) In 1745 he was elected a member of the Academ)
of Sciences. He succeeded Bourdelin as professor of
chemistry at the Jardin du Roi, and edited the scientific
department of the "Journal des Savants" from 1768 to
1776. Died in 1784.

Mac-quoid', (KATHARINE S.,) an English authoress,
born in Kentish Town, London, about 1835. Among

her works are many novels (" A Bad Beginning," (1862,)
"Hester Kirton," "Patty," (1871.) "Doris Barugh,''
(1878,) "Beside the River," " Fifine," etc.,) and some
books of travel, such as " Through Normandy,"
"Through Brittany," " In the Ardennes," etc. Some of
her works have been illustrated by her husband, Mr.
Thomas R. Macquoid.

Maoready, ma-kree'de, ( WILLIAM CHARLES, ) a
popular English tragic actor, born in London in 1793.
He made a successful debut at Birmingham in 1810, and
appeared on the London stage in 1816, when he per-
formed " Orestes" at Covent Garden with great applause.
His reputation was increased by his performance of the
" Virginius" of Sheridan Knowles, and of" Richard III."
and other leading characters of Shakspeare. From 1837
to 1839 he was lessee and manager of Covent Garden
Theatre. About 1842 he assumed the management of
Drury Lane ; but, as he failed to make it profitable, he
kept it only two or three seasons. He performed with
great success in the principal cities of the United States
in 1848 and 1849. While he was in this country, a
quarrel between him and Edwin Forrest resulted in a
serious riot in New York. He retired from the stage
in 1851. Died April 27, 1873.

Macret, ma"lcRi', (CHARLES FRANCOIS ADRIKN,) a
French engraver, born at Abbeville in 1750; died in

Mac-rl-a'nus, [Fr. MACRIEN, mt'kRg-^N',) (MARCUS
FULVIUS,) a Roman emperor, born in Kcypt. He rose
from the lowest to the highest rank in the army. The
emperor Valerian having been taken prisoner by the
Persians, a part of the army, in 261 A.D., chose for his
successor Macrianus, who was then an old man. In
262 he was defeated in Illyricum, and put to death, by
Domitian, a general of Gallienus.

Macrien. See MACRIANUS.

Macrin. See MACRINUS, and SALMON, (JEAN.)

Macrino d'Alba, ma-kRee'no dal'ba, an Italian
painter, born at Alba, near Turin, about 1460. He was
among the most skilful artists of his time, and one of the
first to adopt the modern style. Many of his works are
preserved at Turin and Alba. Died about 1520.

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy."

Macrinus, mS'kRe'niiss', (CHARLES SALMON,) a
French writer, was a brother of Jean the poet, and pre-
ceptor to Catherine of Navarre. He was a victim of the
Massacre of Saint Bartholomew, (1572.)

Ma-cii'iius, [Fr. MACRIN, ma"kRaN',] (M. OPELIUS
or OPILIUS,) a Roman emperor, was born of obscure
! parents in Mauritania in 164 A.D. lie obtained the high
office of prefect of the praetorians under Caracalla. In
April, 217 A.D., he instigated the assassination of Cara-
calla, and was proclaimed emperor by the army, whose
choice was confirmed by the senate. In the same year
he was defeated by the Parthians at Nisibis. He was
defeated near Antioch in June, 218, by the partisans of
Elagabalus, and put to death.

MacRit/chie, (DAVID,) a Scotch folk-lorist, born
at Edinburgh in 1851. He became a student of
ethnology and folk-lore, and wrote "Ancient and
Modern Britons," (1884,) " Testimony of Tradition,"
(1890,) " Fians, Fairies, and Picts," (1893,) etc.

Ma'cro, [Fr. MACRON, ma"kR6N',| (N/Evius SERTO-
R1US,) a profligate Roman courtier, who enjoyed the
favour of the emperor Tiberius and was the principa-
agent in the arrest of Sejanus. After the death of
Sejanus, he became prefect of the praetorian guard. He
was put to death by Caligula in 38 A.D.

Macrobe. See MACROBIUS.

Ma-cro'bI-UB,[Fr. MACROHE, mi'kRob',](AMBROSius
AURELIUS THEODOSIUS,) a grammarian and writer, who
is supposed to have lived at Rome in the fifth century-
It is not known whether he was a Christian or a pagan, a
Greek or a Roman. He was the author of three Latin
works which have come down to us, a " Treatise on the
Latin and Greek Verb," a "Commentary on the Dream
of Scipio," and a series of curious and valuable essays
on history, mythology, criticism, etc., entitled "Saturna-
' liorum Conviviorum Libri Septem."

,- cas s; gAarJ; gas;;G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; til as in this.

xplanations, p. ;




Mactyeire, mak-te-air', ? (HOLLAND NIMMONS,)
n D., a Methodist divine, born in South Carolina in
^824, became editor of the "Christian Advocate," at
Nashville, and was chosen a bishop of the Southern
Methodist Church in 1866. Died February 15, 1889.

MacVeagh, mac-va', (WAYNE,) LL.D., an American
lawver, born at Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, April 19, 1833,
graduated at Yale College in 1853, became a lawyer, was
United States minister to Turkey from 1872 to 1873, and
in 1881 was appointed attorney-general of the United I
States. He was chairman of the Civil Service
Association of Philadelphia and of the Indian Rights
Association, and was ambassador to Italy 1893-97.

Mac-vick'ar, (JOHN,) D.D., an American Episcopal
divine, born in New York in 1787. He was appointed
in 1817 professor of moral philosophy and rhetoric
Columbia College. He published " Outlines of Political
Economy," " The Professional Years of Bishop Hobart,
and other works. Died October 29, 1868.

Mac-Vick'ar, (WILLIAM NEILSOIN,) D.D., an Amer-
ican c'lergyman.'born in New York city, October 19, 1843.
He graduated at Columbia College in 1865, was rector
of Holy Trinity Church, New York, 1868-75, and became

Madeleine. See MAGDALENE.
Madelenet, mtd'leh-na', (GABRIEL,) a French poet,
born in the Auxerrois about 1587, lived mostly in Pans.
He composed elegant Latin odes. Died in 1661.

Mader, ma'der, (JOACHIM JOHANN,) aGerman philol-
ogist, born at Hanover in 1626. He published editions
of some Latin and Greek Fathers, and wrote " De Coro-
nis sacriset profanis," (1662.) Died in 1680.

Maderno, mi-deVno, (CARLO,) an eminent Italian
architect, born in Lombardy in 1556. He studied or
worked with his uncle, Domenico Fontana, in Rome.
Having acquired a great reputation, he obtained about
1614 the title of architect of Saint Peter's Church, and
" e pope to finish the anterior part. He
original plan by adopting the form of
a i^auii 1.1 u=>= u.=Lead of a Greek cross. His additions
to this edifice are condemned by Milizia and others.
Among his best works is the Mattei palace. Died in

' Nouvelle Biographic G^neiale."

Maderno, (STEFANO,) an Italian sculptor, born near

hurches of Rome

. ( learned Ger-

W rt " l,R7fi "The Andeol in 1785. He showed firmness and sagacity in the

ti^'^^A^^ aK^^d M^ %"$? * *" ^
ral of his pictures are very popular as en- ab M ^ y^,) ' D.D.,: an. American prelate, born

in 1875. In 1898 he was appointed coadjutor bishop |

^^K^t^^ L ^^n^^=^u^b - B^gS:
KXr-Tht LtdTofttToodJ" i.sS" - Andeolin^. He showed firmness and sagacity in the
Lord of the i
etc. Seve

Macwhorter, mak-hwur'ter, ? (ALEXANDER,) a Pres-
byterian minister, born in New Castle county, Delaware,
in 1734. He preached many years at Newark, New Jer-
sey. Died in 1807.

Madai, von, von mod'oy, (DAVID SAMUEL,) a Hun-
garian numismatist, born at Schemnitz in 1709. He pub-
lished a work entitled "A Complete Cabinet of Medals,'
(1765-74.) Died in 1780.

Mad'an, (MARTIN,) an English clergyman, born near
Hertford' in 1726. He became a popular preacher at the
Lock Hospital, and published, besides other works,

Thelyphthora," in which he advocated polygamy. Died

in 1790.

Madan, (SPENCER,) a brother of the

jreceding, be

n Rockingham county, Virginia, in 1 749, became Episco-
pal Bishop of Virginia in 1790. He had been previously
jlected president of William and Mary College. Died
n 1812.

Madison, (JAMES,) an eminent American statesman,
he fourth President of the United States, born in King
George county, Virginia, on the i6th of March, 1751,
was a son of Colonel James Madison and Eleanor or
Nelly Conway. He entered Princeton College, New
Jersey, in 1769, and graduated in 1771, after which he
studied law. In 1776 he was elected a member of the
Assembly or Convention of Virginia. He was defeated
in the election of 1777 because he refused to "treat" the
voters; but he was elected a member of the Geneial
Congress by the Assembly of Virginia in 1779. From
this period he was one of the most prominent men in
the political history of the republic. He was re-elected
in 1786, and was a member of the National Convention
which met at Philadelphia in 1787 to form the Constitu-
tion of the United States. He took a prominent part
in the debates on the Constitution, and advocated the
adoption of the same by a series of able essays, forming
part of "The Federalist," which is the joint production
of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Madison was a mem-
ber of the Virginia Convention which, after a spirited
contest, adopted the Federal Constitution by a small
majority in June, 1788. He became a member of Con-
gress in 1789, and united with the Republicans as a
moderate opponent of the administration of Washington
and the financial measures of Hamilton. He was dis-
posed to be a mediator rather than a partisan in '


came Bishop of Peterborough. Died in 1813

Madan, (Rev. SPENCER,) a son of Martin, noticed
above, was born in 1759. He was an eloquent preacher,
and obtained the living of Ibstock and the prebend of
Peterborough. For about thirty years he was chaplain
to the king. Died in 1836.

Mad'den, (Sir FREDERICK,) an eminent English
antiquary, 'born at Portsmouth in 1801, was appointed
keeper of the manuscripts in the British Museum in
1837. He was a valuable contributor to British history,
and edited many works, among which are " Havelock
the Dane," (1828,) and "Layamon's Brut, or Chronicle
of Britain," (1847.) Died March 8, 1873.

Mad'den, (RICHARD ROBERT,) an Irish physician
and writer on various subjects, was born in Dublin in
1798. Among his numerous works are "Travels in
Turkey, Egypt, and Palestine," (2 vols., 1829,) "The

Lives and Times of the United Irishmen^' (7 vols) _ ^ __ __ .. _

and "Memoirs and Correspondence of the Countess o |),, ro thy Paine, a woman eminent for her virtues and
Blessington," (3 vols., 1855.) Died in 1886. ' accom plishments. He declined the office of secretary

Madden, (SAMUEL,) an Irish clergyman and writer, of s(ate vacate( j by Jefferson in December, 1793, ar4
whom Dr. Johnson said Ireland ought to honour, was cont j nue( j to serve in Congress until 1797. He opposed
born in 1687. He was noted for public spirit, and founded
at Dublin a society for the promotion of the arts by pre-
miums. He wrote "Memoirs of the Twentieth Cen-
tury," (1732,) and the " Monument of Boulter," a poem.
Died in 1765.

Maddersteg, mad'der-ste'G', (MICHAEL,) a Dutch
painter of marine views, etc., born at Amsterdam in
1659, worked in Berlin. Died in 1709.

Mad'dpx, (ISAAC,) born in London in 1697, became
Bishop of Worcester in 1743. He wrote a " Review of
Neal's History of the Puritans." Died in 1759.

dissensions which arose among the founders of the re-
public. In 1794 he married Dorothy Todd, originally

the alien and sedition laws of 1798, and was the author
of a series of resolutions adopted by the Assembly of
Virginia and known as the Resolutions of 1798, which
protested against all attempts to increase the power of
the Federal government by forced constructions of gen-
eral clauses of the Constitution. He was appointed
secretary of state by President Jefferson in Maich, 1801,
and filled that office for eight years in such a manner as
to acquire the confidence and approbation of the people.
Having been nominated for the Presidency by a caucus
of Republican members of Congress, he was elected n

i, e, i, 6, u, v, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, ?, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; mt; nSt; good; moon;





iSoS, receiving one hundred and twenty-two electoral
votes out of one hundred and seventy-five, which was
the whole number. Charles C. Pinckney, the Federal
candidate, received forty-seven votes. On entering upon
the office of President, March 4, 1809, he found the United
States involved in difficulties and disputes with the British
government, which had offended the Americans by im-
pressing seamen and by searching American vessels for
deserters, and had injured their commerce by orders
in council. His cabinet at first consisted Oi Twyuert
Smith, secretary of state, Albert Gallatin, secretary of
the treasury, William Eustis, secretary of war, and Paul
Hamilton, secretary of the navy.

In May, 1810, Congress passed a non-intercourse act.
The President sent to Congress a special message on
the subject of British aggressions about the 1st of June,
1812, and war was declared on the l8th of the same
month. A few days later the British ministry repealed
their orders in council in relation to the rights of neu-
trals, but they refused to satisfy the Americans in relation
to the impressment of seamen. In the autumn of 1812
Mr. Madison was re-elected to the Presidency by one
hundred and twenty eight electoral votes. His com-
petitor was De Witt Clinton, who received eighty-nine
votes. The slave States, with Pennsylvania, Ohio, and
Vermont, voted for Madison. A strong party in the
United States was opposed to the war of 1812, which
was waged with various success on land and sea. Com-
modore Perry gained a naval victory on Lake Erie in
September, 1813. About the 3d of July, 1814, a small
American army invaded Canada, gained a victory at
Chippewa, and fought a severe battle at Lundy's Lane,
or Niagara, (July 25,) in which the Americans lost 743
killed and wounded and the British lost 878. In August
of that year a small British force ascended the Chesa-
eake, took Washington by a sudden movement, and
urned the Capitol. A treaty of peace was signed at
Ghent, December 24, 1814; but, before the tidings of
this event had reached the United States, General Jack-
son gained a signal victory over the British at New
Orleans, January 8, 1815. In 1816 Madison approved a
bill which Congress had passed to charter the Bank of
the United States for twenty years. On the 4th of March,
1817, he retired from public life. He passed the re-
mainder of his days on his farm at Montpelier, Orange
county, Virginia. He was a member of the Virginia
Convention called in 1829 to revise the Constitution of
'he State. Died at Montpelier, June 28, 1836.

"This great statesman and philosopher," says R. W.
Griswold, "was the confidential, personal, and political
friend of Jefferson ; but in almost every respect their
characters were essentially different. Mr. Madison's in-
tellect was of a far higher order, and its ascendency over
his passions was nearly perfect. His triumphs were
those of pure reason. His public and private life were
above reproach. . . . His writings on the Constitution
and other subjects were second only to those of Hamilton

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 115 of 425)