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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Duke of Tuscany, and of his successors. At his death,
in 1714, he left his rich library to the city of Florence,
by which it is kept open to the public.

Magnan, min'yfiN', (BERNARD PIERRE,) a French
general, born in Paris in 1791. He served as captain at
Waterloo, (1815,) and obtained the rank of colonel about
1827, after which he was employed in Algeria. He
became a lieutenant-general in 1845, an ^ commanded
he army of the Alps in 1849. In July, 1851, he was
appointed commander-in-chief of the army of Paris, and
in December, 1852, he was raised to the rank of marshal
of France. Died in 1865.

See J. LASSAGNE, " Notice sur le Ge'ne'ral Magnan," 1852.

Magnan, (DOMINIQUE,) a French antiquary and monk,
born at Raillane in 1731. He lived in Avignon and
Rome, and acquired a European reputation by his works,
among which are a " Description of the City of Rome,"
(1763,) and several treatises on numismatics. Died ID

Magnani, mSn-y3'nee, (CRISTOPORO,) an able Italian
painter, born at Pizzighettone before 1550, was a pupil
of Bernardino Campi.

Magnasco, man-yas'ko, (ALESSANDRO,) called Lis-
SANDRINO, an Italian painter, born at Genoa in 1681.
His favourite subjects were processions, etc. Died in

Magnasco, (STEFANO,) a painter, born about 1630,
was the father of the preceding. Died in 1665.

Magne, mln, (PIERRE,) a French advocate and min-
ister of state, born at Perigueux in 1806. He was ap-
pointed minister of public works in January, 1851, and
minister of finance in February, 1855. He retired from
this office about 1861. Died in 1879.

Magnence. See MAGNENTIUS.

Magnentius, mag-neVshe-us, [Fr. MAGNENCE, mSn'-

Nss',] (FLAVIUS,) a Roman general, born in Germany
about 300 A.D. While commanding an army in Gaul,
he revolted against the emperor Constans, and usurped
the empire of the West in 350. Constans was killed by
his orders. Magnentius made himself master of the city
of Rome. A war ensued between him and Constantius,
who defeated the usurper on the river Drave in 351.
He retreated to Gaul, was again defeated, and killed
himself in August, 353 A.D.

Mag'nes, [Moywjc,] an Athenian poet of the old
comedy, was born in Icaria, and lived about 450 B.C.

See FABRICIUS, " Bibliolheca Grarca."

Magni, (JoHAN.) See MAGNUS.

Magni, mag'nee, written also Magne, [from Magn,
"strength,"] a son ot Thor, who, with his brother Modi,
will survive the conflagration of the world at Ragnarock.
(See MODI.)

Magni, mag'nee, or Magnus, mag'nus, (JoHAN 01
JONAS,) a Swedish bishop, born at Wexio in 1583, wrote
" Synopsis Historian universalis," (1622,) and other works.
Died in 1651.

Magni, mjn'yee, [La 1 - MAG'NUS,] (VALERIANO,) an
Italian writer and Capuchin friar, born at Milan about
1586. He wrote against the Jesuits. " This fire" says
Pascal, in a letter to the Jesuits, " has found the secret
of stopping your mouth." Among his works is "Or
gamim theologicum," (1643.) Died in 1661.

See PASCAL, " Lettres Provinciates."

Magnier, (EDMOND,) a French journalist and
statesman, born at Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1841. In
1872 he founded the journal "Evenement," which
proved very successful. He became a deputy in
1876, a senator in 1891, and in 1895 was tried and
convicted of complicity in railway frauds. His
" History of a French Commune" and "Dante and
the Middle Ages" are works of much value.

Magnier, mSn'ye-a',(LAURENT,) called also MANIERE,
a French sculptor, born in Paris in 1618 ; died in 1700.

Magnin, mJn'yiN', (CHARLES,) a French critic, born
in Paris in 1793. He acquired reputation as a critic of
dramatic literature. Among his works are a series of
"Lectures on the Drama," (1838,) and "Causeries et
Meditations historiques et litteraires," (2 Yols., 1842.)
Died in 1862.

Magnocavalli, man-yo-kl-val'lee, (FRANCESCO Ox-
TAVIO,) Count de Varengo, an Italian poet, born at
Casal in 1707, wrote "CorraHin, Marquis de Mont-
ferrat," and other tragedies. Died in 1788.

Magnol, min'yol', (PiERRE,) a French botanist and
physician, born at Montpellier in 1638. He became
professor of botany in his native city in 1694, before
which he had published " Introduction to the General
History of Plants," ("Prodromus Historiae generalis
Plantarum," 1689.) He had some sound ideas on
botanical philosophy, and shares with other botanists
of his time the merit of favouring the progress of the
natural method. He wrote several minor works on
botany. The genus Magnolia was named in his honour.
Died in 1715.

See " Biographic Me'djcale."

Magnon, mtn'yoN', (JEAN,) a mediocre French poet
and dramatist, born at Tournus. He left unfinished a
poem entitled "La Science universelle," (1663.) He
was assassinated at Paris in 1662.

Mag'nus I_, King of Norway, surnamed THE GOOD,
was the son of Saint Olaiis. He became king in 1034,
and at the death of Canute II., in 1042, obtained the
throne of Denmark. He died in 1047, leaving Norway
to Harold, and Denmark to Sweyn, a nephew of Canute
the Great.

See TORF^US, " Historia Rerum Norvegicarum."

Magnus, surnamed LADULOS, King of Sweden, born

i. e, T, o, ii, y, /ong; a., 6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 5, ii, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon'



about 1363, when Albert of Mecklenburg became king.
Magnus died in 1374.

Mag'nus, a Greek physician, lived about loo A.D.
He was one of the Pneumatic sect.


Magnus, mjg'nus, (EDUARD,) a German painter of
genre and portraits, born at Berlin in 1799. His works
are commended as excellent in colour and correct in
design. Died August 9,

Magruder, ma-groo'der, (JOHN

general, born in Virginia about 1810, graduated at West
Point in 1830. He served as captain in the Mexican
war (1846-47-) With the rank of major-general, he
fought against the Union at White Oak Swamp and
Malvern Hill, Tuly I, 1862. He commanded the army
in Texas in 1863 and 1864. Died in 1871.

Magruder, (JULIA,) an American author, born at
Charlottesville, Virginia, in 1854. She has published.

Magnus, (HEINRICH GUSTAV,) a German physicist, ^"number o f novels', including'" Across the Chasm,
born at Berlin, May 2, 1802. In 1834 he was made ex- ,, , ,, :,;,.> piaK;,r, " "fi^H Selves." etc.

traordinary professor of physics there, and in 1845 m !'
professor. His main refutation came from his experi-
ments and papers respecting heat, on the physics of

gases, and on capillarity. He also made some chemical
discoveries. Died April 4, 1870.

Magnus, mlg'nus, or Magni, mag'nee, (JoHAN or Sa
JONAS,) Archbishop of Upsal, was born at Linkoping in , as
'1488. He opposed the Reformation in Sweden without : destruction,

'A Magnificent Plebeian," "Dead Selves," etc.

Maguire, ma-gw!r', (JOHN FRANCIS,) M.P., an Irish
Catholic politician, born at Cork about 1815, wrote

Rome and its Rulers," (1857,) etc. Died in 1872


success, and retired to Rome, where he died in 1544.
He was author of a " History of Sweden," in Latin,
(" Historia Gothorum Suevorumque," 1554-)

Magnus, (OLAUS or OLOF,) a Swedish prelate, brother
of the preceding, was born at Linkoping about 1490. 1 le
was sent by Pope Paul III. to the Council of Trent in
1546. He wrote (in Latin) a " History of the Northern
Nations," (1555,) which was translated into English,
Dutch, German, and Italian. Died in Rome in 1568.

Mag'nus, (THOMAS,) an English emissary, sent by

____ _ _

etc. See These names in their alphabetical


Maha-Bali. See BALI.
Mahabharata, ma-ha'ba'ra-ta,

ma-ha'ba'rat, [from the Sanscrit


tz, "great," and

BhArStS, a descendant of Bharata, a famous Hindoo
prince,] the name of the great epic poem of the Hindoos,
so called because it treats of the war waged among the
descendants of Bharata. It is said to contain 200,000
lines, or 100,000 double verses. Tradition ascribes it
Vyasa, the arranger or editor of the Vedas. (See


Cardinal Wolsey to Scotland in 1524, in the twofold VYASA.) But there is reason to believe that it is the
capacity of ambassador and spy. He sent to the Eng- production or compilation of several perhaps of many
lish court some curious details (preserved in the state writers, living in different ages, both before and after

the Christian era. It was made a kind of cyclopaedia
of such knowledge as was deemed desirable for the
Kshatriyas, or warrior caste.

MahadSva, ma-ha'da'va, or MaM-Deo, ma-ha' da'o,
(i.e. the " great god,") the name by which Siva is com-
nonly known in many parts of India. (See SIVA.)

Ma-haf' fy, (JOHN PENTLAND,) an eminent scholar and
critic,' born at Chaponnaire, near Vevay, Switzerland,
February 26, 1839. He graduated at Trinity College,
Dublin, in 1856. He was appointed professor of ancient
history in that institution in 1871, and became distin-
guished for his versatility and wide attainments. He
took orders in the Anglican Church. Among his books
are "Twelve Lectures on Primitive Civilization," (1868.)
"Prolegomena to Ancient History," (1871,) "Kant's
nV> for Fr,crli<;h Readers." (1871,,

1 (1874,) " Greek
and was' elected chief magistrate. Having led another Antiquities'," (1876,) "Rambles and Studies in Greece,"

land-army into Sicily, he was killed, and his army was (,3761 "History of C
. f . ' . j-. i i i T^- . _i t o* T. .-i 111;^. ' *' . . * i m

papers of Henry VIII.) relating to the young King of
Scotland and the customs of those times.

Magnusen, mag'nas-en, or Magnusson, mig'nus-
non, (FiNN,) an Icelandic historian and antiquary, born
at Skalholt in 1781. He published, among other works,
a "Translation and Explanation of the Elder Edda."
(1821.) Died in 1847.

Magnusson. See ARNI-MAGNUSSON.

Magny, de, deh min'ye', (OLIVIER,) a French poet,
born at Cahors about 1524. He was a lover of Louise
Labe, and a follower of the Pleiadi. His " Odes,"
" Amours," " Soupirs," " Gayetes," etc., evince much
talent. Died in 1560.

Ma'go, [Gr. Muyui' , Fr. MAGON, mf'gfiN',] a Cartha-
*inian admiral, who gained a victory over the fleet of

Syracuse about 396 B.C. A few years later he was de- c r j t j ca i philosophy for English Readers," (1871,) "Greek
feated by Dionysius in Sicily. He returned to Carthage, g oc j a i Life, from Homer to Menander," (187.

defeated at Cabala by Dionysius, about 382 B.C. His
son, MAGO, succeeded to the command of the army, and
prosecuted the war with success.

Mago, a Carthaginian writer of uncertain period, was
called "the father of agriculture" by Columella. He
wrote an extensive work on agriculture, which was trans-
lated into Latin by the order of the Roman senate after
the destruction of Carthage.

Mago, a brother of the famous Hannibal, followed
him in the invasion of Italy, and held a high command
at the battle of Cannae, 216 B.C. He carried the news
of this victory to Carthage, and solicited reinforcements,
but was ordered to Spain, where he and Hasdrubal com-
manded for several years against the Scipios with vari-
ous success. After gaining some advantages in Liguria

Classical Greek Literature," (1880,)
GrTek Life and Thought," (1887,) "The Greek
World under Roman Sway," (1890,) "Problems in
Greek History," (1892,) etc.

Maha-Kall See KALt.

Maha-Maya, ma-ha' mi'ya, the name of the mother
of Booddha. See'GAUTAMA.

Mahan, (ALFRED T.,) an American naval captain
and author, was born at West Point, New York, in
1840. He graduated at the Naval Academy in 1859,
served through the civil war and until 1896, when he
retired with the rank of captain. He was a member
of the Naval Advisory Board in 1898 during the war
with Spain. He became widely known as an author
through his notable work, "The Influence of Sea-

" . , , , j j , LlllVJUl/li 11 13 livitiun- ui i\ j *

where he was severely wounded, he was ordered to p ow( History," (1892-96,) and wrote lives of

Vncfer, fr, thp Ar>ff>n<~p rf CafthpCTP. hilt hp fllPfl during

hasten to the defence of Carthage, but he died during
the voyage, in 203 B.C.

Magon. See MAGO.

Magon de Clos-Dore, mf'goN' deh klo'do'ri', Vernon, New York, in 1799. He graduated at Hamiltc
(CHARLES RENfc,) a French rear-admiral, born in Paris , College in 1824, and at Andover Seminary in 1827.
in 1763. He was killed at the battle of Trafalgar, in 1805. ; 1829 he was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry, ar

Ma-goon', (ELIAS L.,) D.D., an American Baptist he held various pastorates in that and the Congreg

as *; s as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( 3J=See Explanations, p. 23.)

Farragut and Nelson, and other works.
Ma-hail', (ASA,) D.D., an American divine, born at





alist denomination. He was chosen president of Ober-
lin College in 1835, and of Cleveland University in 1850.
He was also (1861-71) president of Adrian College.
Among his works are "Science of Intellectual Philos-
ophy," (1845,) "Doctrine of the Will," (1846.) "The
True Believer," (1847,) "Science of Moral Philosophy,"
(1856,) "Science of Logic," (1857,) and a work entitled
"Doctrine of Christian Perfection," a doctrine which
he earnestly maintained. Died April 4, 1889.

Mahan, (DENNIS HART,) LL.D., an American soldier
and engineer, born in New York, April 2, 1802. He
graduated at West Point with highest honours in 1824,
and was an assistant professor there, 1824-26. and pro-
fessor of engineering, 1832-71. Among his works are
treatises on " Field Fortifications," (1836,) "Civil Engi-
neering," (1837; mostly rewritten, 1868.) "On Indus-
trial Drawing," (1853,) "Descriptive Geometry," (1864,)
and "Military Engineering," (part i., 1865; part ii.,
1867.) He committed suicide by drowning, near Stony
Point, New York, September 16, 1871.

Mahan, (Mii.o,) D.D., an American theologian,
brother of the preceding, was born at Suffolk, Virginia,
May 24, 1819. He studied at Saint Paul's College,
Flushing, New York, and in 1845 entered the Episcopa-
lian ministry. He was professor of church history in
the General Theological Seminary, New York city, from
1861 to 1864. He published "The Exercise of Faith,"
(1851,) " History of the Church," (1860; enlarged, 1872,)
and other works, which gave him a high place among
the theologians of his church. Died in Baltimore, Sep-
tember 3, 1870. (See his "Collected Works and Life,"
by J. H. Hopkins, 3 vols., 1872-75.)

Ma-ha' Fral'ya, [ modern Hindoo pron, ma-hi'
prul'ya,] (i.e. the "great end" or "great destruction,") a
term applied to the final consummation of all things,
which, it is supposed, will take place after a hundred
years of Brahma have elapsed, in which each day (with
its night) is reckoned as 8640 millions of our years. At
the time referred to, all the gods, including Brahma, as
well as all creatures, will be annihilated ; Brahm, the
eternal, self-existent Spirit, will alone remain.

See MOOR. "Hindoo Pantheon."

Maharbal. See MAHEKBAL.

Maha-Rudra, a name of Siva. See RUDRA.

Mahdee, Mahay, or Mahdi, Al, tl mah'dee, (Mo-
n\MME!>, mo-Ham'med,) the third Abbasside caliph of
Bagdad, succeeded his father, Al-Mansoor, in 775 .\.n.
He waged war against the Greeks with such success thai
the empress Irene sued for peace. He died in 785. and
was succeeded by his son Hadee, (or Hady.)

See WEIL, " Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. ii. chap, iii

Mahdi, EL, el ma'dee, (Arabic for " the well-directed,")
tne title of a prophet and deliverer of Islam foretold
by Mohammed ; also the assumed title of Mohammed
Ahmed, known to Europeans as "The False Prophet
of the Soudan," who was born near Dongola, Nubia, in
1842. He worked in his youth as a boat-builder at
Khartoom, and engaged in the traffic in wild animals for
European menageries. He learned to read and write
after becoming an adult, taught school at Khartoom, and
subsequently established himself at Tamaniat as an in-
terpreter of the Koran. Afterwards he went with some
disciples to reside on the island of Aba, in the White
Nile, where, by strict seclusion and austerity for six
years, he acquired great tame as a holy man and was
visited by pilgrims. In 1881 he announced himself by
proclamation as the expected M.tluli, claiming to have
all the physical signs prophesied of that personage. On
the overthrow of Arabi Pasha in 1882 he acquired great
ascendency in the Soudan, took possession of Sennaar,
Kordofan, and Darfur, raised immense forces, and anni-
hilated, in November, i,SS; v irar El Obeid, the Egyptian
army commanded by Hicks Pasha. In 1884 his power
extended to the Red Sea, lie waged war with the British
at Suakim and vicinity, blockaded General Gordon at
Khartoom, rejecting the title of " Sultan of Kordofan"
offered him by Gordon, and forced England to send
an expedition under Lord Wolseley to Khartoom for
the relief of Gordon. Khartoom fell and Gordon wjs
killed January 26, 1885. El Mahdi died June 22.

Mah6 de la Bourdonnais, mS'a' deh Ii booR'do'-
ni', (BERNARD FRANCOIS,) a distinguished French naval
officer, born at Saint-Malo in 1699. About 1718 he
entered the service of the French East India Company.
He was appointed Governor-General of the Isles of
France and Bourbon in 1734, and received command of
a squadron in 1741. War having begun between France
and England, he repulsed an English fleet near Madras,
and captured that place, in 1746. He quarrelled with
Dupleix, governor of the French possessions in Hin-
dostan, who refused to give up Madras, which La Bour-
donnais by treaty had agreed to restore to the English.
Having been recalled to France, where he arrived in
1748, he was confined in the Bastille three years, and
then tried and acquitted. His talents and virtues are
praised by Saint-Pierre in the preface to " Paul and
Virginia." Died in 1754 or 1755.

See GERARD, " Vies des plus illustres Marins Francais," 182$ ;
M[LL, " History of British India." 1826.

Ma-hen'dra, called also Mahiu'do, a son of Asoka,
introduced Booddhism into Ceylon about 200 B.C.

Ma-her'bal or Ma-har'bal, [Gr. Mdopof,] a Car-
thaginian general, who followed Hannibal into Italy,
fought at Thrasymene, and commanded the right wing at
the battle of Cannae, in 216 B.C. He urged Hannibal to
advance on the Roman capital, and, when the latter
rejected this counsel, said to him, " You know how to
gain victories, but not how to improve them."

See LIVY, " History of Rome," books jcd -xxiii.

Mahesa. ma-ha'sa, or MahSsha, ma-ha'sha, and
Mah&swara, ma-has'wa-ra, names of SIVA, which see.

Mahiudo. See MAHENDRA.

Mahlmann, mil'man, (SIEGFRIED AUGUST,) a Ger-
man poet, born at Leipsic in 177:. Some of his produc-
tions were very popular. Died in 1826.

Mahmed. See MOHAMMED.

Mahmood, Mahmoud, or Mahmud, maH-mood',
I., Sultan of Turkey, born in 1696, was the son of
Mustafa II. He succeeded his uncle, Ahmed (Achmet)
III., in 1730. In 1734 he began a war against the Rus-
sians, who were assisted by the Austrians. The latter
made peace and gave up Belgrade to Turkey in 1739.
Soon after that date he made a treaty of peace with
Russia. Mahmood left the direction of affairs to his
ministers. Died in December, 1754.

See VON HAMMER, "Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs ;"
LKVKSQUH, " Histoire de laRussie."

Mahmood, Mahmoud, or Mahmud H., Sultan
of Turkey, a younger son of Sultan Ahdool Hamid,
was born July 20, 1785. His youth was passed in seclu-
sion or confinement and in literary pursuits. Curing
the reign of his brother, Mustafa IV., the deposed Sul-
tan, Selim III., was his fellow-captive, and initiated him
in those projects of reform which he himself had failed
to effect. In Tuly, 1808, Mustafa was deposed by the
military, and Mahmood was proclaimed Sultan at one of
the most critical periods in the history of the Ottoman
empire. The pashas of Asia and Africa had rendered
themselves nearly independent of the Sultan, and the
disaffection of the Janissaries threatened a revolution in
the capital. He began the work of reform in the army,
which he ordered to be organized after the European
system. In November, 1808, the Janissaries rebelled,
attacked the Sultan's palace, and proclaimed Mustafa.
Mahmood suppressed this dangerous revolt by the exe-
cution of Mustafa and his heirs, after which he remained
the only surviving prince of his race.

A war with Russia, in which the Turks had been de-
feated, was terminated by a treaty of peace in May, 1812.
He pursued his projects of reform with courage and
energy, amidst the violent opposition of his subjects.
About 1822 begun a general insurrection of the Greeks,
of several years, were liberated from
the Turkish yoke. During this war he continued his
bold innovations "against the old customs and traditions ;
he dressed himsrll in tl-,<- European fashion, and finally
iplished his must important measure, the destruc-
iiad instigated a formidable

insnurr! inn in th . The next day (June 15) the

standard of the prophet was unfurled, and all good

a, e, I, o, u, y, A>Ya,e,6, same, less prolonged; a, e, !, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure, far, fill, fat; mft; not; good; moon;




Mussulmans were summoned to arms. The Janissaries
weie outnumbered and speedily overpowered, and many
thousands of them were killed. On the i6th an edict
was issued for the abolition of their organization.

On the 2oth of October, 1827, Mahmood's fleet was
defeated and ail-but annihilated at Navarino by the allied
French, English, and Russians, who fought there for the
liberty of Greece. Mahmood is censured for rashness
in renewing the war with Russia in 1828. The Russian
general Diebitsch defeated the Turks at Shumla, crossed
the Balkan, and took Adrianople in 1829. The existence
of the Turkish empire was in peril ; but, through the
mediation of England and other powers, the Sultan ob-
tained peace (September, 1829) by paying a large sum
of money and resigning the sovereignty of Moldavia,
Wallachia, and Servia. In 1832 he was involved in war
with Mehemet All of Egypt, whose army, commanded
by his son Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) gained a decisive vic-
tory at Konieh, (December, 1832.) Russia interposed
to protect Mahmood against his rebellious vassal. The
Ottoman empire was apparently on the verge of disso-
lution, when the Sultan died, in June, 1839, and was
succeeded by his son, Abdool-Mejeed.

See VON MUNCH, " Mahmud II., sein Leben," etc., 1839 ; POUQUE-
VILLB, " Histoire de la Refutation de la Grece," and article
" Mahmoud" in the " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'neVale."

Mahmood, Mahmoud, or Mahmud, maH'mood',

Brahmans, in great trepidation, offered him an immense
sum of gold if he would spare their idol. Some of his
officers advised him to accept the ransom ; but his real
as a true Moslem forbade such a compromise. He
smote the image and broke it to pieces. It proved to
be hollow, and a countless treasure of diamonds, rubies,
and pearls was poured from its cavity upon the ground,
thus richly rewarding the incorruptible zeal of the con-
queror, and at the same time explaining the pious libe-
rality of the Brahmans. In the extensive wars which
Mahmood carried on in Central Asia, after his first ex-
pedition into India, he appears to have been mainly
indebted for his success to the elephants used in his
army. It is related that on one occasion Ilij (or Elich)
Khan, a Turkish prince, invaded Khorassan with a large
army. Mahmood hastily assembled an inferior force,
which was accompanied, however, by five hundred ele-
phants. The hostile armies met near Bulkh, (or Balkh,)
in the vicinity of the river Amoo, or Oxus. Mahmood
was mounted on a superb elephant, which, during the heat
of the battle, rushed forward, and, seizing with his trunk
the chief standard-bearer of the Turks, hurled him into
the air. The other elephants followed the example of
their great leader : with their trunks they lifted the horse-
men from their saddles and dashed them on the ground,
so that the Turkish army was soon broken and put to a
total rout. Later, the military establishment of Mah-

(Abool-Kasim- Yemeen-ed-Dowlah, or Abftl- 1 mooc ) ; s said to have comprised no fewer than thirteen
(Aboul-) Kasim-Yemin-ed-Daulah, J'bool ka'sim \ h un( j re d elephants and more than fifty thousand horse.
vh-meen' ed-dow'lah,) one of the most celebrated of all Along with great military talents and a fierce, uncon-

f. .,.(-_... j _r*l /-* . _o ' _ _ . . __j

the Mohammedan conquerors, the founder of the Gazne-
vide dynasty, and the first who established a permanent
Moslem empire in India, was born at Gazna (or Ghiznee)
in 967 A.D. He was the son of Sabuktageen, whom he
succeeded as governor of the province of Candahar, (or

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 117 of 425)