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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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gundy," (1715.) Died in 1729.

Malfilatre or Malfillatre, de, deh mSl'fe'latR',
(JACQUES CHARLES Louis,) a French poet, born at
Caen in 1733. He composed a poem on the "Transla-
tion of Elijah to Heaven," and another called " Narcissus
in the Island of Venus," (1769,) which is said to possess
great beauties. Died in 1767.

See DH BAUDKE, " Discours sur la Vie, etc. de Malfilatre," 1825 ,
LA HARPS, "Cours de Literature."

Malgalgne, mJl'gSn', (JOSEPH FRANCOIS,) a French
medical writer and surgeon, born in Paris about 1806.
He published, besides other works, a "Treatise on Sur-
gical Anatomy and Experimental Surgery," (2 vols..
1838.) Died in 1865.

Malherbe, de, deh mfl.\Rb', (FRANCOIS,) a


tinguished French lyric poet, born at Caen about 1555.
He served several campaigns in the civil wars of the
League, and married Madeleine de Carriolis in 1581.
In 1587 he composed his first work, "The Tears of Saint
Peter." An " Ode to the Queen Marie de Medicis" (1600)
was the foundation of his fame. He came to Paris a few
years later, and enjoyed the patronage of Henry IV.
during the life of that prince. Malherbe was called the
poet of princes and the prince of poets. He died in 1628.
" He was," says La Harpe, " the first [French] model of
the noble style, and the creator of lyric poetry. He has
its enthusiasm, its movements, and its fonrniirts." " Mai-
nerbe," says Hallam, " gave a polish and a grace to the
lyric poetry of France, which has rendered his name cele-
brated in her criticism. In general, we find in his poems
neither imagery nor sentiments that yield us delight."
Comparing him with Horace, the same critic remarks,
" He is far from deficient in that calm philosophy which
forms the charm of the Roman poet." ("Introduction
to the Literature of Europe.")

See Roux-ALpHftSAN, " Recherches sur Malherbe el sa Famille, 1
1840; "Malherbe, sa Vie et ses CEuvres," by M. DE GOURNAY,
1852; SAINTE-BEUVR," Causericsdu Luudi," tomevili ; "Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Malhouet, See MALOUET.

MaJibraii, mS'le'bRdN', (MARIA FELICITA.) a cele-
brated singer and actress, born in Paris in 1808, was the
daughter of Manuel Garcia, a Spanish tenor singer. She
made her debut in London in 1825, and in 1826 visited
New York, where she married M. Malibran, a banker.
After he had become a bankrupt, she separated from him
and went to Paris, where she performed with complete
success in 1828. In Italy, England, and Germany she
also obtained triumphs almost unexampled in the his-

tory of artistes. Her voice was a mezzo-soprano of great
volume. She was very successful as an actress. She
died in England in 1836, soon after a second marriage
with M. de Beriot, a violinist.

See KHTI-S, " Biographic Ui.iversclle des Musiciens;" "Memoirs
of Madame Malibran," by the COUNTESS OF MERLIN.

Malietoa Laupepa, King of Samoa, succeeded to
the throne in 1880. A rival, Tamasese, was favoured
by the Germans, who seized and exiled Malietoa and
sought to establish a protectorate. The exile was
brought back in response to the protests of Great
Britain and the United States, and restored to the
throne November 9, 1889. Died August 22,

Malik (mal'ik) or Melik, mel'ik, El Adel, el .Vclel,
I., (Seif-ed-Deen Aboobeker Mohammed, or Saif-
Eddyn Aboubekr Mohammed, sif ed-deen' 4'boo-
bek'er mo-h.Wmed,) Sultan of Egypt and Damascus,
born at Baalbec in 1139, was a brother of the famous
Saladin. He gained victories over the crusaders in 1 174
nd 1187. In 1201 he became Sultan of Egypt. He
xtended his dominions by conquest in Syria. Died

See Wwu "Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. iii.
Malik-Sh&h, mal'ik shah, written also Malek
Malec- or Melek-) Shah, a famous Seljookicle sove-
eign, the son of Alp-Arslan, whom he succeeded in 1072.
Under Malik-Shah the Seljookian empire reached its
lighest point of power and glory. His character, like
hat of his father, appears to have been singularly noble,
lis succession to the throne had been disputed by his
jrother Toortoosh, (Tourtousch.) Before giving battle
o his rival, he asked his minister, Nizam-ool-Moolk, as
hey came out of the mosque together, what he had
>raycd for. " I have prayed," answered the minister,
that God would give you the victory over your brother."
And I," said Malik-Shah, "that God would take away
my life and crown, if my brother is worthier to reign than
[." Perhaps the only stain upon the character of this
;reat prince is his having, at the instigation of his Sul-
ana, the Khitoon Toorkan, removed from office his
minister, the illustrious Nizam-ool-Moolk,* to whose
wise administration the empire was chiefly indebted for
its long-continued prosperity. Nizam-ool-Moolk died
soon after by the dagger of an assassin. Malik-Shah
survived his minister only a few months, lie died in 1092.
Malinche or Malintzin. See MARINA.
Malingre, mS'laNgR', (CLAUDE,) a French histo-
rian of little merit, born at Sens about 1580. He wrote
several works on French history, which were not suc-
cessful. Died about 1653.

Mallalieu, mal-la-UV, (Wn.LARD FRANCIS,) D.D., an
American Methodist bishop, born at Sutton, Massachu-
setts, December II, 1828. He graduated at the Wes-
leyan University in 1857, became a preacher in the same
year, and for some time was presiding elder at Boston.
In 1884 he was chosen a bishop.

Mallarme 1 , mal-lar-me', (STEPHANE,) a French
poet, born at Paris in 1842. He became first known
through a translation of Poe's " Raven." His
" Divagations" appeared in 1896. He is a repre-
sentative of the " decadent" school, employing odd
words and constructions, and ignoring the laws of

Mal'la-ry, (CHARLES,) a Baptist minister, born in
Poultney', Vermont, in 1801, removed to Georgia. He
was one of the founders of Mercer Theological Seminary,
at Penfield, Georgia, Died July 31, 1864.

Mallary, (ROLLIN CARLOS,) a lawyer, a brother of
the preceding, was born in Cheshire, Connecticut, in
1784. He was a member of Congress from 1819 until
his death, in 1831.

Mallemans de Messanges.mll'mSN' deh mi'scX'zh',
(CLAUDE,) a French savant, born at Beaune in 1653. He
was professor of philosophy for thirty-four years at the
College du Plessis, Paris. He published "A Physical
Treatise on the World," and other works. Died in 1723.
Malleolus. See HAMMERLEIN.

This nalne, the only one by which he was known, signifies the
" regulator of lie state or kingdom."

a, e, 7, 6, u, y, long; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; m?t; n5t; good; moon;




Mal'lery, (GARRICK,) an American ethnologist,
born at Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, in 1831. He
graduated at Yale College in 1850, was in the army
in the civil war, was executive officer of the Sig-
nal Service Bureau 1870-76, and subsequently on the
survey of the Rocky Mountain region. He retired
from the army in 1879, when he became chief of the
Bureau of Ethnology. He wrote various works and
papers on the ethnology of the North American
Indians. Died in 1894.

Mallet, mi'14', (CHARLES AUGUSTE,) a French phi-
losopher, born at Lille in 1807. He published, besides
other works, "Etudes philosophiques," (2 vols., 1837-
38,) which gained a prize of the French Academy. He
wrote numerous articles in -the "Nouvelle Biographic
Generale." Died March 28, 1876.

Mal'let or Malloch, mal'loK, (DAVID,) a Scottish
poet and dramatist, born at Crieff, in Perthshire, about
1698, was the son of James Malloch. He removed to
London about 1724, and changed his name to Mallet. In
1728 he produced "The Excursion, "a poem, and in 1731
" Eurydice," a tragedy, lie became intimate with Pope,
who procured him a situation as travelling tutor, llis
tragedy " Mustapha" (1739) was performed with ap-
plause. About 1740 he was appointed under-secretary
to Frederick, Prince of Wales. Among his other works
are " Amyntor and Theodora," and a "Life of Bacon."
He is censured for acting as the venal agent of Boling-
broke in an attempt to blast the memory of Pope, (1749.)
Died in 1755.^

Mallet, (EDMF.,) a French litltrateur, born at Melun
in 1713. He published an "Essay on the Study of
Belles-Lettres," and translated into French Davila's
"History." Died in 1755.

Mallet, mll'let, (FREDRICK,) a Swedish writer on
science, born in 1728, was for many years professor of
mathematics at Upsal. lie published many treatises
between 1752 and 1774, and co-operated with Bergman
in a general description of the earth. Of this work
Mallet wrote the astronomical part. Died in 1797.

Mallet, mS'li', (JACQUES ANDRE,) called Mallet-
Favre, a Swiss astronomer, born at Geneva in 1740, was
a favourite pupil of Daniel Bernoulli. He became pro-
fessor of astronomy at Geneva about 1770, and built an
observatory there. He wrote memoirs on astronomy,
mechanics, etc. for the Academy of Paris and the Royal
Society of London, of which he was a member. Died
in 1790.

Mallet, (PAUL HENRI,) a Swiss historian, born at
Geneva in 1730. He taught French to the Prince-Royal
of Denmark, (Christian VII.,) and returned to Geneva
in 1760. He was appointed professor of history in the
Academy of that city. Among his works (in French)
are "Monuments of the Mythology and Poetry of the
Celts," (1756,) "Memoirs on the Literature of the
North," (6 vols., 1760,) and a " History of Denmark,"
(3 vols., 1777,) which is highly esteemed and has been
translated into English, German, etc. Died in 1807.

His " Introduction a 1'Histoire de Danemark" was
translated into English, under the title of " Northern An-
tiquities," wh ; ch is one of the most valuable works on
Northern mythology.

SeeSiSMONDi, "Dela Vie et les crits de P. H. Mallet," 1807:
HA.\C, "La France protestante;" " Nouvelle liiographie G^n-
raje ;" " Monthly Review" for March, 1771.

Mal'let, (ROBERT,) a British engineer and seismolo-
gist, born at Dublin, June 3, 1810. He graduated at
Trinity College, Dublin, in, 1830. His numerous reports,
papers, and catalogues on earthquakes (prepared by him
with the aid of his son, Dr. J. W. Mallet) are of higli
importance. He invented several seismometers. His
largest independent work is "First Principles of Obser-
vational Seismology," (2 vqls., 1862.) Died in London,
November 5, 1881.

Mallet-Dupan, mS'li' dii'pSN', (JACQUES,) a distin-
guished publicist and editor, born at Geneva in 1749.
He became a resident of Paris in 1782, and editor of a
journal called " Mercure historique et politique," which
was very successful. In the Revolution he defended the
royalist cause, and in 1792 was compelled to suspend

the publication of the " Mercure," of which he had
written the political editorials. He then became an
exile, and in 1799 began to issue, in London, the " Mer-
cure Britannique," which was ranked among the ablest
political journals of that time. Died in England in 1800.
See "Me'moires et Correspondence de Mallet-Dupan." Paris,

Mallet-Prevost, mt'li'pRi'vo', (HENRI,) a scientific
Swiss writer, born at Geneva in 1727. He published a
valuable "Metrologic Manual, or Repertory of Weights,
Measures, and Coins of Various Nations," (1802,) and a
"Description of Geneva," (1807.) Died in 1811. Uo
was a brother of Paul Henri Mallet, noticed above.

Malleville, de, deh mal'vel', (CLAUDE,) a French
minor poet, born in Paris in 1597, was one of the first
members of the Academic Fran9aise. " He seldom
produced a finished piece," says Hallam, " though not
deficient in spirit and delicacy." His poems are son-
nets, one of which is called "The Fair Early-Riser,'-
("La belle Matineuse.") Died in 1647.

Mallinkrot, von, fon maTlln-kRot', (BERNARD,). ..
German philologist, was dean of the chapter of Munster.
He wrote, besides other works, a treatise "On the Rise
and Progress of the Art of Printing." Died in 1664.

Mallio, mal'le-o, (MiCHELE,) an Italian writer of verse
and fiction, born at Sant' Elpidio in 1756; died in 1831

Malloch. See MALLET, (DAVID.)

Mal'lock, (WILLIAM HUKRELL,) an English author,
a nephew of the historian Froude, was born in Devon-
shire in 1849. He graduated with high honours at Balliol
College, Oxford. Among his principal works are "Every
Man his Own Poet," (1872.) "The New Republic," (1876,
a satirical work which for a time attracted great attention,)
"The New Paul and Virginia," (1877,) "Is Life Worth
Living?" (1879,) "Labour and the Popular Wel-
fare," (1893,) "Classes and Masses," (1896,)
"Aristocracy and Evolution," (1898,) and several
novels and volumes of poems.

Mal'lo-ry, (STEPHEN R.,) an American Democratic
politician, born about 1810. He was elected a Senator of
the United States by the legislature of Florida in 1850,
and re-elected in 1856. He served as secretary of the
navy of the Confederate States from March, 1861, to
1065. Died at Pensacola, November 9, 1873.

Malmesbury, EARL OF. See HARRIS, (JAMES.)

Malmesbury, mams'ber-e, (JAMES HOWARD HAR-
RIS,) third EARL OF, a British Tory statesman, a grand-
son of the first Earl of Malmesbury, was born in 1807.
He succeeded to the earldom at the death of his father,
in 1841, before which he was styled LORD FITZHARRIS,
In February, 1852, he was appointed secretary of foreign
affairs in the Derby ministry, which was dissolved in
December of that year. He again became foreign secre-
tary under Lord Derby in 1858, and on the formation
of the Liberal ministry in June, 1859, was succeeded by
Lord John Russell. He edited the " Diaries and Official
Correspondence of the First Earl of Malmesbury," ( 1 844.)
From 1866 to 1868 and from 1874 to 1876 he was lord
keeper of the privy seal. Died May 17, 1889.

Malmesbury, (WILLIAM OF,) an old English histo-
rian, who is supposed to have been born in Somerset-
shire about 1095. lie became a monk in the monastery
of Malmesbury, where he held the office of librarian,
llis principal works are a " History of England from
450 to 1127," (" De Gestis Regum Anglorum,") " Recent
History," (" Historia Novella,") wherein he relates events
of which he was an eye-witness, and a " History of the
English Prelates," (" De Gestis Pontificum." ) These aro
highly prized for accuracy, veracity, and critical judg-
ment. He died in or after 1143.

Malmstrom or Malmstroem, malm'stRom, (,)
a Swedish poef, born in 1816. He published a collection
of elegies entitled "Angelica," (1840,) and an epic poem
of "Ariadne." Died at Stockholm in June, 1865.

Malombra, ma-lom'bRi,(PiETRO,) a Venetian painter,
born in 1556. He was successful in portraits and in
historical pictures. Died in 1618.

Ma-lone', (EDMUND,) an Irish critic, chiefly distin-
guished as an editor and commentator of Shakspeare,
was born in Dublin in r74i. Having inherited an easy
fortune, he removed to London and devoted himself to

as k; i as s; g hard; g asy; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled; s as 2; tU as in this.

Explanations, p.




literature. He associated with Dr. Johnson, Burke, and
other eminent authors. In 1790 he published his edition
of Shakspeare, with commentaries. He excelled Stee-
Vens, a rival commentator, in candour and love of truth ;
but "neither seems," says Hallam, "to have had a full
discernment of Shakspeare's genius." Malone published
an edition of Sir Joshua Reynolds's works, with a Me-
moir of his Life, (1797,) and other works. He died in
1812, leaving unfinished an improved edition of Shak-
epeare, since published, (1821.)

See JAMES BOSWELL, " Biographical Memoir of Edmund Ma-
lone;" SIR JAMES PRIOR, "Life of Edmund Malone," 1860;
44 Monthly Review" for September, 1793.

Mal'p-rjr, (Sir THOMAS,) a Welsh or English knight,
born about 1430. He is noted as the compiler and trans-
lator (from the French) of the English "Morte Darthur,"
begun about 1461 and finished about 1470. He was
probably a priest His book was printed by Caxton in
1485. It is a noble prose epic, and its appearance marks
an epoch in the history of English literature.

Malot, (HECTOR HENRI,) a French novelist, born
near Rouen in 1830. He resided in London as a
newspaper correspondent, and published a long series
of novels, including his autobiographical " Le Roman
de mes Romans," (1896.)

Malou. ma"loo', (JULIUS,) a Belgian statesman and
leader of the Catholic party, born at V pres in 1810 ; died
in 1886. He became minister of finance in 1845.

Malouet orMalhouet, m^loo'4', (PIERRE VICTOR,)
a French statesman, born at Riom in 1740. In 1789 he
was elected to the States-General, where he became
prominent as a liberal royalist and co-operated with
Clermont-Tonnerre. He took refuge in England in
1792, returned about 1802, and was chosen a councillor
of state in 1810. Died in 1814.

Malouin, mi'loo-a.N', (PAUL JACQUES,) a French
Chemist and physician, born at Caen in 1701. He be-
came professor of chemistry in the Jardin du Roi, Paris,
in 1745, wrote many articles on that science for the
" Encyclopedic," and published an esteemed work on
"Medical Chemistry," (1750.) He was a member of the
Academy of Sciences. Died in 1778.

See CONDORCET, " Eloge de P. J. Malouin ;" "Biographic Me'di-.

Malpighi, mal-pee'gee, (MARCELLO,) [Lat MARCEL'-
lus MALPIG'HIUS,'] a celebrated Italian anatomist and
naturalist, born near Bologna in 1628. Having gradu-
ated as a physician in 1653, he became professor at Pisa
in 1656, and at Messina about 1664. He published, be-
tween 1661 and 1665, treatises "On the Lungs," ("De
Pulmonibus,") "On the Tongue," (" De Lingua,") anc 1
"On the Brain" (" De Cerebro.") Malpighi was the
first who used fhe microscope in the study of anatomy.
In 1670 he returned to Bologna, and wrote an important
work on the anatofny of plants, " Anatome Plantarum,"
(1675,) a science which was first cultivated by Grew and
Malpighi. He made discoveries in the structure of the
skin and glands. In 1691 he was chosen chief physician
to Pope Innocent XII. He died in Rome in 1694.

Malpighius. See MALPIGHI.

OTTO,) BARON, a German littlrateur, born at Hanau in
1786, translated Calderon's dramas into German, and
published a number of religious poems. Died in 1824

Malt'by, (EDWARD,) an English theologian, born ai
Norwich in 1770. He became Bishop of Durham in
1836, and published several volumes of sermons. Died
in 1859.

See the "Monthly Review" for March, 1820.

a Danish author and geographer of great merit and celeb-
rity, was born at Thister, Jutland, in 1775. His original
name, MALTHE CONRAD BRUUN, (bRoon,) was changed
by the French into Malte-Brun, by which he is now
universally known. He had a great facility for learning
languages, and wrote French with an ease and elegance
which perhaps no other foreigner ever acquired. In his
enthusiasm for liberty, he wrote some political articles,
forwhich he was banished in 1796. He composed several
admired odes ; that on the death of Count Bernstorf

is esteemed one of the finest in the Danish language.
Induced partly by admiration of Napolecxi, he became
an adopted citizen of France about 1800. In 1806 he
was engaged as one of the editors of the "Journal des
Debats" of Paris, for which he wrote, during many years,
able articles on foreign politics, history, languages, science,
etc. Malte-Brun and Eyries edited in 1808 the "An-
nalsof Voyages of Geography and of History," ("Annales
des Voyages de la Geographic et de 1'Histoire.") Be-
fore this period he had devoted his attention chiefly to
the science of geography, in which he surpassed all his
predecessors by his happy union of philosophy with a
highly poetic imagination. In 1810 he published the
first volume of his great work, "A System of Universal
Geography," (" Precis de la Geographic universelle,")
the plan of which was too vast for one man to execute.
The sixth volume was finished in 1825. Exhausted with
excessive labour and study, he died in December, 1826,
leaving his task unfinished. The language of this work
is graphic, picturesque, and at times highly poetical. In
order to complete the plan, two more volumes were sub-
sequently added by M. HuoL There is a good English
version of Malte-Brun's Geography, by J. G. Percival, the
American poet and savant.

See BORV DB SAINT-VINCENT, " Notice biograohique sur M.
Maile-Brun," 1827; QU^RARD, "La France Liue'raire:" ERSLEW,
" FoHatter- Lexicon ;" *' Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ue'rale,"

Malte-Brun, (VICTOR ADOLPHE,) a geographer, a
son of the preceding, was born in Paris in 1816. Ho
became professor of history at Pamiers in 1838. He
published a new edition of his father's Geography, (3
vols., 1852-55.) Died in 1889.

Mal'thus, (THOMAS ROBERT,) an English political
economist, distinguished as the author of the Malthusian
theory, was born near Dorking, Surrey, in 1766. Ho
graduated as M.A. at Cambridge in 1797, took orders,
and settled in a parish near his native place. In 1798
he controverted the theories of Godwin and others on
the progress and perfectibility of human nature, in his
" Essay on the Principle of Population as it affects the
Future Improvement of Society." Much attention was
excited by his fundamental principle, that population
tends to increase in geometrical progression, and that
the supply of food and other necessaries of life can only
be increased in an arithmetical progression. After ex-
ploring several countries of Europe in search of facts to
confirm his system, he published in 1803 an enlarged
edition of his essay. His principles were approved by
many statesmen and political economists. From 1805
until his death he was professor of modern history and
political economy in the college at Haileybury. He was
author of an "Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of
Rent," (1815,) " Principles of Political Economy," (1820,*
and other works. Died in 1834.

See OTTER, "Memoir of Malthus:" "Nouvelle Bioirraphie
GeWrale:" "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1837; "Monthly
Review" for December, 1803. January, 1804. and May, 1831.

Maltitz, mal'tits, (FRANZ FRIEDRICH,) BARON, a
Russian statesman, of German extraction, born in 1794,
was appointed minister-plenipotentiary of Russia at the
Hague. He was the author of poems and dramas, (in
German,) and wrote a continuation of Schiller's " Deme-

Maltiz, mal'tits, (APOLLONIUS,) z.litt!rateurzn& diplo-
matist, of German extraction, born in 1795, was ambas-
sador from the Russian court to Lisbon. He wrote
tales, plays, epigrams, and poems. Died March 2, 1870.

Maltiz, mal'tits, (GoTTHiLF AUGUST,) BARON, a
German writer, born at Konigsberg in 1794, published
several dramas, and a political satire entitled "Pepper-
Corns," (" PfefTerkb'rner.") Died in 1837.

Mal'tou, (THOMAS,) an English geometer and artist,
born between 1735 and 1750, lived in London. He
published about 1776 a "Complete Treatise on Per-
spective," which is highly commended. He also pub-
lished various engravings, designed by himself, among
which were " Views of London." Died about 1802.

Maltzau, von, fon malt'sin, (HEINRICH KARL EcK-
HARDT HELLMUTH,) Baron von Wartenburg-Penzlin,
a German traveller and ethnologist, born near Dres-
den, September 6, 1826. He studied law in Jena. He
travelled largely in North Africa, Arabia, etc., and pub-

, e, i, 6, u, y, lung; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; tar, fill, fat; m?t; nil; good; moonj




lished "Three Years in the North-West of Africa,"
(1863,) " Meine Wallfahrt nach Mecca," (1865.) " Reise
in Tunis und Tripolis," (1870.) "Reise in Arabien,"
(1873,) alu l other works, containing much valuable lin-

fulsiic and scientific material. Died by suicide at Pisa,
'ebruary 22, 1874.

Malus, mS'liis', (EriENNE Louis,) an eminent French
optician and military engineer, was born in Paris in 1775-
He became a student of the Polytechnic School about
1794, and, aided by the tuition of Monge, made great
progress in mathematics. "Of all the pupils who then
attended that school," says Biot, "he showed himself
the first in application and talents." In 1798 he accom-
panied as engineer the army to Egypt, and was employed
at the sieges of Jaffa, Cairo, etc. He returned to France
in 1801, devoted his leisure to analytic optics, and pub-
lished an excellent "Traite' d'Optique." In iSoS the
Institute proposed a prize for a memoir on the double
refraction of crystals. Malus won this prize, after a mul-
titude of experiments, in which he happened to make
one of the most important discoveries of physical
science, viz., the property or phenomenon which he
named the "polarization of light." He was elected to

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 121 of 425)