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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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the Institute, and in 1811 received the Rumford medal
from the Royal Society of London for the discovery just
named. He was chosen examiner for physics and geome-
try at the Polytechnic School. " While thus surrounded,"
as Biot observes, " with numerous friends who appre-
ciated his genius, honoured with eminent positions to
which his talents, services, and probity had raised him,
already celebrated for great discoveries," etc., he died
prematurely, in February, 1812.

See ARAGO, "Notices biosraphiques," vol. iiL ; "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

Malvasia, mal-va-see'3, (CARLO CESARF.,) a learned
Italian antiquary, born at Bologna in 1616. was versed
in law, medicine, and theology. lie became professor
of law in the University of Bologna, and published, be-
sides numerous other works, one on the Bolognese
painters, " Felsina Pittrice, Vite e Ritratti de' Pittori
Bolognesi," (1678.) Died in 1693.

See CRESPI, " Vita di C. C. Malvasia."

Malvenda, mal-veVdl, (ToMAS,) a learned Spanish
Dominican, born at Xstiva in 1566, was a good Hebrew
scholar. He lived at Rome and Valencia. He wrote a
"Commentary on the Old Testament," with a literal
Latin version, and a "Commentarius de Paradiso,"
("Account of Paradise.") Died in 1628.

Malvezzi, mll-vet'see, (VIRGILIO,) MARQUIS, an
Italian author, born at Bologna in 1599. He served in
the Spanish army, and was sent as ambassador to Eng-
land by Philip IV. of Spain. He wrote, besides other
historical and political works, "A Life of Romulus," and
a " Life of Tarquin the Proud." Died in 1654.

Malvoisine. See MAVOIOISINE.

Malzel or Maelzel, me'lt'sel, (JOHANN NEPOMUK,) a
German mechanician, noted for ingenuity, was born at
Ratisbon in 1772. Hi made an automaton, called the
Panharmonicon, which could play many instruments at
once, and invented a metronome, which is useful to musi-
cians. He afterwards lived in the United States. Died
at sea, July 21, 1838.

Mamachi, ma'ma-kee, (TOMMASO MARIA,) a monk,
born in the isle of Scio in 1713. He went to Rome in
1740, and became professor in the College of the Propa-
ganda. He wrote "On the Oracles of the Heathen,"
(1738,) and "Christian Antiquities," ("Origines et Anti-
quitates Christianac," 4 vols., 1749-55.) "Died in 1792.

Mambelli, mam-tiel'lee, (MARCANTOMO,) an Italian
grammarian, born at Forli in 1582 ; died in 1644.

Mambrun, miN'bRuN', (PiERR'E,) a French critic
and Latin poet, born at Clermont-Ferrand in 1600. lie
became a Jesuit, and taught philosophy at Caen and
theology at La Fleche with a high reputation. Taking
Virgil for his model, he composed Latin eclogues, an
epic poem called "Constantinus," (1658,) and an " Essay
on Epic Poetry." His epic obtained a transient favour
with the public. Died in 1661.

Mameli, mi-ma'lee, (GoFFREDO,) an accomplished
poet, called "the Italian Kbrner," was born at Genoa in
1826, and was killed at Rome in 1849 while fighting the

French. The patriotic song " Fratelli d'ltalia" is his
most celebrated piece.

Ma-m?r'cus [Gr^Nuf^pKof] was tyrant of Catana
when Timoleon invaded Sicily in 344 B.C. He formed
an alliance with Hicetas and the Carthaginians against
Timoleon, by whom he was defeated and executed about
338 B.C.

Mamiani, mi-me-a'nee, (TERENZIO DF.LLA ROVERE.)
COUNT, an Italian philosopher and poet, born at Pesaro
about 1802. He produced " Nuove Poesie," (1836,) and
" Dialoghi di Scienza prima," (1846.) He was minister
of the interior and president of the ministry at Rome
from May to July, 1848. In politics he was a moderate
Liberal, and opposed to the temporal power of the pope,
on which he published an able work, "Del Papato,"
(1851.) lie became minister of public instruction under
Victor Emmanuel in 1860, was ambassador to Greece in
1861, and minister to Switzerland in 1865. Died in 1885.

Mammjea, mam-mee'a, or Mamaea, ma-mee'a, (Ju-
LIA,) a Roman lady or princess, born at Emesa, was the
daughter of Julia Mxsa, and the aunt of Elagabalus. She
became the wife of Gessius Marcianus and the mothei
of Alexander Severus, whose moral education she guarded
with watchful diligence. Severus having been chosen
emperor in 222 A.D., she acted as regent during his
minority. She and her son were assassinated by the
partisans of Maximin in 235 A.D.

See DION CASSIUS, " History of Rome."

Mamoon, Mamoun, or Mamun, Al, al-ml'moon',
(Abool- (or Abul-) Abbas- Abdallah, a'bool' ab'bis*
ab-ddl'lah,) the seventh Abbasside caliph, was born at
Bagdad in 786 A.D., and was the son of Haroun-al-
Raschid. After defeating his brother Alameen in battle,
he ascended the throne in 813. His reign was disturbed
by rebellions excited by princes of the race of Alee and
others. He enforced by persecution the dogma that the
Koran was created and not eternal, which was considered
heretical by many of the Moslem doctors. While he
was prosecuting a war against the Greek emperor The-
ophilus in Cilicia, he died, in 833, leaving his extensive
empire to his brother Motassem. Mamoon was cele-
brated ns a patron of science and literature, and was
praised by Eastern writers for his talents and liberality,
lie founded colleges, collected Greek and Hindoo manu-
scripts, which were translated at his expense, and invited
the scholars and savants of all nations to his capital,
(Bagdad,) then the great centre of learning and science
in the world.

See HAMMER-PURGSTALL, "Literaturgeschichte der Araber;"
ABOOLFEDA, "Annales Moslemici;" ELMACIN, "Historic Sara-
cenorum ;" CONDE, " Historia de la Domination de los Arabes;'*
WEIL, " Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. ii. chap. vii. ; CASIRI, " Biblio-
theca Arabico-Hispana."

Mamoun. See MAMOON.

Mamun. See MAMOON.

Ma-mu'rI-us Ve-tu'rI-us, a worker in brass at
Rome in the time of Numa, was employed to make
other shields exactly like the one which was said tr>
have fallen from heaven. He asked no other reward
but that his name might be sung at the feast of the An-
cilia, (shields.)

Ma-mur'ra, a Roman knight, was the commander
of the engineers in Julius Caesar's army in Gaul. He
amassed a large fortune.

Man or Maan, mjn, (CORNELIS.) a Dutch portrait-
painter, born at Delft in 1621. Having studied and
worked ia Rome and Venice some years, he settled at
Delft. He was a good colorist, and his style is said to
riave resembled that of Titian. His portraits of surgeons
and physicians in the Surgeons' Hall of Delft are highly
praised. Died in 1706.

See DBSCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc.

Manaigo, ma-ni'go, (SlLVESTRO,) a historical painter,
born in Venice about 1080.

Manara, ma-ni'ra, (PROSPERO,) MARQUIS, an Italian
writer, born at Taro, near Parma, in 1714. He became
a councillor of state, and afterwards prime minister of
the Prince of Parma. He translated into Italian verse
Virgil's "Georgics" and " Eclogues," and wrote sonnets,
eclogues, and other short poems. Died in 1800.

See ANTONIO CERATI, " Elogio di P. Manara," 1801.

e as k; c as s; g hard; g as /; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (SF=See Explanations, p. 23.'




Mauardi, ma-naR'dee, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian phy-
sician and writer, born at Ferrara in 1462 ; died in

Manasse 1 . See MANASSEH.

Ma-uas's?h or Ma-nas'ses, [Heb. HtyjD ; Fr. MA
NASSE, ma"na"s&',] a Hebrew patriarch, born in Egyp
about 1712 B.C., was the son of Joseph and Asenath
(See Genesis xli. 51.) His descendants formed two half
tribes among the tribes of Israel, one on the east, the
Other to the west,. of -the river Jordan.

Manasseh, [Heb. HtyjO,] King of Judah, the son of
Jlezekiah, was twelve years of age when he succeedec
his father, in 697 B.C. Having forsaken the true worship
and become an open idolater, he was taken captive by
the King of. Assyria, and detained at Babylon some
years. He repented, and was restored to his kingdom.
After a reign of fifty-five years, he died, and was suc-
ceeded by his son Amon.

See II. Kings xxj. and II. Chronicles xxxiii.

Ma-nas'ses, (CONSTANTINE,) a Greek writer of the
twelfth century, wrote a general chronicle, in verse, from
the creation to the year 1081 A.D. It is of some value
for the history of the Byzantine empire.

Ma-nas'ses Ben-Jo'seph-Ben-lB'rae,, a learned
Jewish rabbi, born in Spain about 1604. He resided
mostly at Amsterdam. He wrote, besides other works,
"On the Harmony of the Scriptures," ("De Convenien-
tia Locorum Sanctoe Scripture," etc.,) and "The Hope
of Israel," (" Spes Israelis.") Died in 1659.

Man'b?, (Captain GEORGE WILLIAM,) a British
officer, born in Norfolk in 1765. Having entered the
army, he obtained the rank of captain. About 1808
he invented a mode of saving life by shooting from a
mortar a rope to mariners shipwrecked near, the coast.
Several crews having been rescued by this means, the
government provided mortars and other apparatus at
numerous stations, and presented to Captain Manby
several sums, amounting to ^7000. Died in 1854.

See " Edinburgh Review" for May, 1823.

Man'ches-ter, (Sir EDWARD MONTAGU,) EARL OF,
an English general, born in 1602, was the son of Henry,
first Earl of Manchester. He was styled Lord Kimbolton
before his father's death, (1642.) Having joined the
opposition to the court about 1640, he acquired great
popularity. In 1642 he was impeached for treason, with
Uampden and four other members of Parliament, whom
ihe king attempted to seize in the House. lie was
appointed a general of the army of Parliament in 164-,
and co-operated with Fairfax at the victory of Marston
Moor, (1644.) Manchester and Essex were charged by
Cromwell with temporizing and with being averse to a
decisive victory of the popular party, and the command
was taken from them by the " Self-denying Ordinance,"
(1644.) At the restoration (1660) he was appointed lord
chamberlain by Charles II. Died in 1671. "lie was
distinguished," says Hume, "by humanity, generosity,
and every amiable virtue."

See CLARENDON, "History of the Rebellion;" LODGE, " Por-
traits of Illustrious Personages."

Manchester, (HENRY MONTAGU,) first EARL OF, an
English statesman, father of the preceding, was born in
Northamptonshire about 1562. He became lord chief
justice about 1617, and lord treasurer of England in
1620. He was created Earl of Manchester in 1626
Died in 1642.

Manchoo or Manchu Khan. See MANGOO.

Mancinelli, nian-che-nel'lee, (ANTONIO,) an Italian
poet, born at Velletri in 1452. He taught grammar at
Rome, Venice, etc., and wrote several works on gram-
mar. He was author of "The Mirror of Morality,"
("Speculum de Moribus,") "Carmen de Vita sua," (a
poem on his own life,) and other poems. Died about

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" NICEKON

Mancini, man-chee'nee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian
painter, born in the Romagna in 1725. He worked in
Rome, and was reputed one of the best painters of his
time. Died in 1758.

Mancini, (HORTENSIA.) Duchess of Mazarin, an.

Italian lady of remarkable beauty, born at Rome in
1646, was a niece of Cardinal Mazarin, who refused to
give her in marriage to Charles II. of England, then an
exile. She made in 1661 an ill-assorted marriage with
the French Due de la Meilleraie, who then received the
title of the Due de Mazarin. She soon separated from
him, and lived many years in London, where her house
was the resort of men of wit and pleasure. Died in
1699. According to Macaulay, she was one of the sul-
tanas of Charles II. in the last years of his reign.

See A. RENEE, "Les Nieces de Mazarin."

Manciui, (Louis JULES ) See NIVERNAIS.

Manciui, (MARIA,) Princess of Colonna, a sister of
Ilortensia, noticed above, was born in Rome in 1640,
and was a daughter of Cardinal Mazarin's sister. Louis
XIV. was so well pleased with her in his early youth
that he was inclined to marry her; but Mazarin sent
her to a convent. In 1661 she was married to Prince
Colonna. She ran away from him in 1672, obtained a
divorce, and. became a nun. Died about 1715.

See SAINT-SIMON, "Me'moires;" A. RENEE, "Les Nieces do

Mancini, (MARIA ANNA,) Duchess of Bouillon; a niece
of Mazarin, was born in Rome in 1649. She was mar-
ried in 1662 to the Duke of Bouillon, and became the
mother of the Prince de Turenne. She was the first
person who patronized La Fontaine the fabulist, who has
praised her in his letters. She died in 1714.

See VoLTAiKE,"Siedede Louis XIV;" A. REN BE, "LesNitcei
de Mazarin,"

Mancini, (OLYMriA,) Countess de Soissons, another
sister of the preceding, born about 1642, was married to
Eugene Maurice of Savoy, Count de Soissons. She was
.he mother of the celebrated Prince Eugene, commander-
n-chief of the Austrian armies.

Mancini, (PAOLO,) the founder of the Academy of
Umoriiti, was born at Rome. He was the grandfather
of Ilortensia and Maria Mancini, noticed above. Died
n 1635.

See TIRABOSCHI, "Storiadella Lctteratura Italiana."|

Man'co Ca-pac'(ormang'ko ki-pak') was, according
:o tradition, the first Inca of Peru. He instituted the
worship of the sun, of which he pretended to be the
offspring, founded the city of Cuzco, and gave laws to
he natives of that region, whom he found in a savage
:tate. He is supposed to have flourished about looo
A.D. (See INCA.)

Manco Capac, Inca of Peru, was the son of Iluayna
Capac. lie became heir to the throne after Atahualpa
vas killed by Pizarro, in 1533. He made a treaty with
'izarro, but, finding himself treated as a captive, he
escaped in 1535, raised a native army, and besieged
-uzco. The approach of Almagro forced him to retire,
ie was assassinated by a Spaniard about 1544.

See PRE^COTT, " History of the Conquest of Peru," vol. ii. chap,
ui. ; G. DE VEGA, " Historia general del Peru."

Mandajors, de.'deh moN'dS'^hoR', (JEAN PIERRE
DES OURS,) a French historical writer, born at Alais in
679. He published a "Critical History of Gallia Nar-
)onensis," (1733.) Died in 1747.

Man'da-ne, [Gr. Mowiui^,) a daughter of Astyages,
Cing of Media, and mother of Cyrus the Great.

Maudar, mun'dur, the same as MANDARA, which see.

Man dar,m6N'claV, (MICHEL PHILIITE,) better known
as THEOPHILE MANDAR, a French political writer and
evolutionist, born at Marines in 1759. He took an active
iart in several insurrections in Paris from 1789 to 1793.
t is said that in the councils of his party he attempted
o arrest the massacre of September, 1792, and proposed

dictatorship for that purpose. He wrote "The Genius
>f Ages," and other poems, and several political works.
)ied in 1823.

Man'da-ra, [modern Hindoo pron. mun'da-ra,] in the
lindoo mythology, a famous mountain used by the gods
n churning the ocean. (See K0RMA.)

Maudel, m_an'del, (EnuARD,) a German engraver,
iorn at Berlin in 1810. His portrait of Charles I., aftei
Van Dyck, is esteemed a master-piece. He obtained a
medal of the first class at the Exposition of Paris in 1
Died October 26, 1882.

i, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; Rt. fill, fit; m5t; not; good; moon.




Mandelot, de, deh moNd'lo', (FRANCOIS,) a French
fanatic and general, born in Paris in 1529. lie was
commandant at Lyons, and co-operated with the king in
ihe massacre of the Protestants in 1572. Died in 1588.

Mander, van, vtn man'dcr, (CAREL,) an eminent
Flemish painter, poet, and biographer, born at Meule-
beke, near Courtrai, in 1548. He received lessons in art
from Lucas de Heere of Ghent, and about 1574 went to
Rome, where he worked three years and gained a high
icputation as a painter of landscapes and of frescos.
In 1583 he settled at Haarlem, where he remained
twenty years and founded an academy of painting.
Among his master-pieces are "Adam and Eve in Eden,"
and "The Adoration of the Magi." He translated the
"Iliad," and Virgil's " Bucolics" and "Georgics." He
was author of " Dina," a drama, and of other poems.
His best literary work is " Lives of Flemish and Italian
Painters," (1604,) which is highly esteemed. Died in

See DESCAMPS, "Vies des Peintret Flamands, Hollandais," etc. ;
CESLACHT, "Vie de Carel van Mander," prefixed to his works;
NAGLER, " Allgemeines Kiinsller-Lexikon ;" " Nouvelle Biographic

Mander, van, (CAREL,) a painter, a son of the pre-
ceding, was born at Delft in 1580. He worked at the
court of Denmark. Died about' 1665.

Man'de-ville, de, (or deh mdNd'vel',) {BERNARD,) an
ingenious author, born at Dort, in Holland, about 1670.
He became a resident of London, where he practised
medicine before he appeared as an author. In 1 7 14 he pub-
lished a poetical satire called "The Grumbling Hive, or
Knaves Turned Honest." This having been censured as
immoral by William Law and other writers, he published,
with notes, a new edition, with the title of "The Fable
of the Bees, or Private Vices Public Benefits," (1723.)
It was denounced by the grand jury of Middlesex as a
pernicious book. (For an analysis of this remarkable
work, see the "Nouvelle Biographic GeneVale," article
"Mandeville, B. de.") He also wrote "Free Thoughts
on Religion, the Church, and National Happiness."
Died in 1733.

See BIRTH, "Life of Bernard de Mandeville;" "Biographia

Mandeville, de, deh man'deh-vil', (Sir JOHN,) a fa-
mous English traveller, born at Saint Alban's about 1300.
In early life he practised medicine. According to his
own account, in 1327 he went to Palestine, enlisted in
the army of the Sultan of Egypt, and afterwards travelled
in various countries of Asia, lie spent about three years
in Cambalu, (Peking,) and returned home in 1360. In
point of fact, he probably never went farther east than
Jerusalem. He wrote an account of his travels, which
obtained a wide reputation. His book abounds in mar-
vellous and extravagant stories, partly borrowed from
Pliny and from medieval romances, and largely made up
from the writings of Odoric, Carpini, Boldensele, and
other travellers. Mandeville's famous story is in fact a
tioax. It is said that he died in 1371 ; but there is really
nothing known as to this date. Mandeville is absurdly
called "the first English prose writer;" but he wrote in
French. The Latin versions, the delightfully quaint (but
very inaccurate) old English version, and the Italian
translation are by unknown hands.

See DISRAELI, "Amenities of Literature :" SPRENGEL. "Ge-
Bchiclite der geographischen Entdeckungen ;" "Retrospective Re-
view," vol. iii., (1821.)

Mandosio, min-do'se-o, (PROSTERO,) a mediocre
Italian writer, born at Rome. He compiled a work
called "Bibliotheca Romana," consisting of biographies
of about five hundred Roman writers, ancient and
modern, (2 vols., 1682-92.) Died about 1700.

Manes. See LAKF.S.

Ma'nes, Ma'ni, or Manichjeus, man-e-kee'us, the
founder of the heretical sect of Manichxans, was prob-
ably born in Persia in the early part of the third cen-
tury. He corrupted the Christian religion by mixing
with it some doctrines of the Magi, teaching that the
world is made or ruled by two eternal and opposing
principles of light and darkness. He rejected the Old
Testament, professed that he was the Comforter promised
ill lohn xvi., held the doctrine of metempsychosis, and
published a book which he pretended contained a revela-

tion from heaven. Manes obtained proselytes in Persia,
Egypt, and other countries. Saint Augustine was a zealot
of this sect in his youth. The Oriental accounts of Manes,
differing widely from those of the Greek or Catholic
writers, state that he was born of the race of Magi, lived
in Susiana, was an adept in painting and other arts,
produced a "gorgeous picture-book," which was re-
ceived as sacred by his disciples, and was put to death
by Varanes, King of Persia, about 272 A.D. The Latin
and Greek writers say that his original name was CuBRl-
CUS, that he derived his doctrines from an impostor
named Terebinthus, and was punished with death for
his heresy, in 277 A.D.

See BEAUSOBRE, " Histoire du Manich^Isme ;" BASNAGE, " His-
toire des Eglises re'forme'es ;" SAINT AUGUSTINE, " De Moribus
Manichsoruro;" WALCH, " Geschichte der Ketzereien ;" PLUCQUHT.
" Dictionnaire des Heresies;" RITTER, "History of Philosophy;"
BAVLH, " Historical and Critical Dictionary," article " Manicheisro."

Manesse, mi'nSss', (DENIS JOSEPH,) a French natu-
ralist, born atLandrecies in 1743 ; died in 1820.

Manesson-Mallet, mS'ni'soN' mt'14', (ALAIN,) a
French geometer and military engineer, born in Paris in
1630. He published a "Description of the World,"
("Description de 1'Univers," 5 vols., 1683.) Died in 1706.

Man'e-tho, [Gr. Mai't'tfuv and Mavcfric; Fr. MAN&-
THON, mS'na'toN',] a celebrated Egyptian writer and
priest, was a native of Sebennytus, or, according to some
accounts, of Diospolis, and flourished in the reigns of
Ptolemy Soter and Ptolemy Philadelphus, between 300
and 250 B.C. He was reputed to have attained the highest
possible degree of wisdom. He was keeper of the sacred
archives at Heliopolis, and author of several important
works, among which was a "General- History of Egypt,"
in Greek. This is lost, except fragments preserved by
Josephus in his "Reply to Apion," and by George Syn-
cellus. He was the first Egyptian who wrote in Greek
an account of the religion, history, and ch'onology of
Egypt. A poem, in Greek, on the influence of the stars,
entitled "Apotelesmatica," (which has come down to us
entire,) is sometimes ascribed to Manetho, but was proba-
bly written by a later author.

See But-'SEN, "Egyptens Slelle in der Weltgeschichle;" POECK,
" Manetho und die Hundssternperiode," 1845 : FAHRICIUS. " Biblio-
theca Gra?ca ;" KRUIN, " Dissertatio historica de Manellione," 1847;
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" SMITH, " Dictionary of Creel
and Roman Biography," etc.

Manethon. See MANETHO.

Mauetti, ma-net'tee, [Lat. MANET'TUS,] (GiAN-
NOZZO,) an Italian statesman and author, born at Flor-
ence in 1396, was one of those who contributed to the
revival of learning in Italy. He was versed in Latin,
Greek, and Hebrew, and was reputed one of the most
learned men of his time. After holding other high offices
in Florence, he was elected to the Council of Ten, and
was secretary to Pope Nicholas V. Among his works
are a " Life of Petrarch," and a "Specimen of the Lite-
rary History of Florence during the Thirteenth and
Fourteenth Centuries," in Latin, (1747.) Died in 1459.

See TIRABOSCHI, " Storia della Letter.ilura Ilaliana;" I. B.
REQUIEH, " Vie de G. Manetti, Se'nateur de Florence," 1762 ; NAI.DO
NALDI, "Vita Manetti," in MURATORI'S "Scriptores Renjm Itali-

Manetti, (RUTILIO,) an Italian painter, born at Sienna
in 1571, was a pupil of Francesco Vanni. His design
and style are commended as correct and noble. He
painted both in oil and fresco with equal success. Died
in 1639.

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy ;" BALDINUCCI, " No-

Manetti, (SAVERIO,) an Italian physician and natu-
ralist, born at Florence in 1723. He became keeper of
the botanic garden of that city, and corresponded with
the most eminent savants of Europe. He published,
among other works, a "Treatise on Different Species of
Grain and Bread," (1765.) and a splendid work on the
"Natural History of Birds," with coloured plates, (1767.)
Died in 1785.

Manettus. See MANETTI, (GiANNOZzo.)
Man'fred, [It. MANFREDI, man-fra'dcc; Lat. MAN-
FRE'DUS; Fr. MAI.NFROI, maN'fRw.V,] King of Naples,
born about 1234, was a natural son of the emperor Frede-
rick II., from whom he seems to have inherited noble 01
at least popular qualities. By the will of Frederick, who

tas k; 9 as s; g hard; g asy; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

xplanations, p. 23.)




died in 1250, Manfred became Regent of the Two Sicilies
until the arrival of Conrad, the lawful heir, who was
in Germany. Conrad died in 1254, leaving an infant
son, Conradin or Corradino, and Manfred again became
regent. A rumour of Conradin's death having obtained
credence, Manfred was proclaimed king in 1258, and he
refused to relinquish the royal power when that report
was proved to be false. He became an ally of the Ghibe-
lines of Northern Italy against the Guelpbs. Urban IV.,
who became pope in 1261, and who had long been an
enemy to the house of Suabia, excommunicated Manfred,
and offered the kingdom of the Two Sicilies to Charles
of Anjou, a brother of Louis IX. of France. Charles
accepted it as a fief of the see of Rome, marched an
army into Naples, and gained a victory, in which Man-
fred was killed, in 1266.

See BURIGNI, "Hisltiire de Sicile:" StSMONDl, "Histoire des

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 122 of 425)