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He published a "Treatise on the Steamboats of the
United States," etc., (1824.) Died in 1832.

Maret, mi'rV, (IIucuES,) a learned French physician
and writer, born at Dijon in 1726. He was a corre-
sponding member of the Academy of Sciences, Paris,
and a friend of the celebrated chemist Guyton de Mor-
veau. One of his sons was the Uuke of Bassano,
Hoticed below. Died in 1786.

Maret, (HUGUES BERNARD.) Duke of Bassano, an
able French statesman and diplomatist, born at Dijon in
1763. He studied law in Paris, and in 1789 reported
the debates of the National Assembly in a daily "Bul-
letin." This was soon united with the " Moniteur,"
which owed its success to the reports of Maret. Under
the new regime he was rapidly advanced in the depart-
ment of foreign affairs, and was sent on missions to
England and Naples in 1793. O" nis w *7 to Naples he
was arrested by the Austrians, and confined in a dun-
geon about two years. From 1800 to 1811, as secretary-
general, or secretary of state, he directed the home
department with great credit, had a large share of Bona-
parte's confidence, and accompanied him in his cam-
paigns. In 1811 he was appointed minister of foreign
affairs, and received the title of Duke of Bassano. On the
return of Bonaparte from Elba, Maret became again his
secretary. He was restored to the rank of a peer of
France in 1831, and in 1834 was minister of the interior
for a short time. He had been admitted into the Institute
(Academic Francaise) in 1803. Died in 1839.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" LAS CASK, " Memorial
de Sainte-Helene."

Maret, (JEAN PHILIBERT,) a French surgeon, born
at Dijon in 1705; died in 1780.

Marets, des. See DESMARETS.

Maretzek, (MAX,) an operatic manager, born at
Briinn, Austria, in 1821. He produced an original
opera on "Hamlet" at eighteen, and at twenty-two
was a successful orchestral conductor. He made vari-
ous tours on the Continent, sought the United States
in 1848, and opened the Academy of Music in New
York with Grisi and Mario in 1854. He continued in
the operatic field in the United States till 1878, and
died on Staten Island in 1897.

Ma'rey, (TIENNE JULES,) a French physiologist,
born at Beaune, March 5, 1830. He studied medi-
cine, experimented in physiology, was made professor
of natural history in the College of France in 1869,
and was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1878.
He invented many instruments for physiological re-
search and for studying the flight of birds and insects,
and recorded his results in several published volumes.

Marezoll, mVre't-sol', (GUSTAV LuDwic THEODOR,)
a German jurist, born at Gbttingen in 1794. He was
the author of several legal works. Died in 1873.

m^R'gRet' dfix'zhoo',] a daughter of Rene of Anjou,
Duke of Lorraine, was born in Lorraine in 1429. She
was married in 1445 to Henry VI., King of England,
and, in consequence of his imbecility, had the principal
share in the government. In the ensuing contest be-
tween the houses of York and Lancaster, her troops
were several times victorious over the former; but they
suffered a fatal defeat at Towton in 1461. After several
unsuccessful efforts to repair her fortunes, Margaret was
again defeated and made a prisoner at Tewksbury by
Edward IV. in 1471. She was ransomed by the French
king, Louis XL, and passed the remainder of her life in
France, where she died in 1481.

OESTREICH, maR-ga-ra'teh fon ost'rTK,] daughter of Max-
imilian, Emperor of Germany, and Mary of Burgundy,
was born at Ghent in 1480. She was betrothed when a
child to Charles VIII. of France. l!i\t he refused lo
keep the engagement, and married in 1491 Anne, the
heiress of Brittany. Margaret was married in 1497 to

Don Juan, Infant "of Spain, son of Ferdinand and Isa-
bella, who survived but a few months. She was again
married in 1501 to Philibert the Handsome, Duke of
Savoy, who died in 1505. In 1517 Margaret was ap-
pointed by her father ruler of the Netherlands, in which
post she displayed signal ability. She had a part in the
League of Cambray, formed in 1508 by the principal
European powers against Venice. She died in 1530,
leaving a number of works in prose and verse, including
her " Correspondence," which was published in 1839,
(2 vols.)

Margaret OF AUSTRIA, Duchess of Parma, born at
Brussels in 1522, was a natural daughter of Charles
V., Emperor of Germany. She was married in 1533 to
Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence, and after his
death to Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma. In 1599 she
was appointed Governor of the Netherlands by Philip
II. of Spain. This difficult post she occupied till 1567,
when she resigned it to the Duke of Alva. The cele-
brated Alexander Farnese, afterwards Duke of Parma,
was her son and only child.

Margaret, [Danish, MARGARETHE, maR-ga-ra'teh,,
daughter of Waldemar III., King of Denmark, born at
Copenhagen in 1353, was married in 1363 to Haquin,
King of Norway. In 1376 she was appointed Regent of
Denmark during the minority of her son Olaus, then but
five years old. On the death of Ilaquin, in 1380, she be-
came Queen of Norway, and, her son dying in 1387, the
Danes also acknowledged her as their sovereign. Soon
after this, Margaret engaged in a war with Albert, King
of Sweden, against whom his subjects had rebelled. Her
army defeated the Swedes and captured Albert, (1388,)
who obtained his liberty only by renouncing the crown
of Sweden. At an assembly of the estates of the three
kingdoms, held at Calmar in 1397, the famous treaty
called "the Calmar Union" was formed. By this it was
agreed that Sweden, Denmark, and Norway should in
future be united under one sovereign, and Eric VII..
nephew of Margaret, was appointed her successor. Died
in 1411.

RITE DE VALOIS, mJR'gRet' deh vtl'wa',] a daughter
of Henry II. and Catherine de Medicis, was born in
1553. She had respectable talents, but little virtue. In
1572 she was married to Henry of Navarre; but love
apparently had no part in this fatal alliance. During
the festivities that followed the marriage, the perfidious
court of Charles IX. ordered the Massacre of Saint
Bartholomew. She had lived separately from her hus-
band some years before he became Henry IV. of France
and their union was formally dissolved about the year
1600. Died in 1615.

See MONGER. " Histoire de la Reine Marguerite de Valois," etc.,
1777 : BRANT&ME, "Vies des Dames illustres. "

Margaret, Queen of Navarre, originally Margaret
mfR'gRet' doN'goo'le'm',1 daughter of Charles, Count of
Angouleme, and Louise of Savoy, and sister of Francis
I., was born in 1492. She was married in 1509 to
Charles, Duke of Alen9on, who died in 1525, and in 1527
she became the wife of Henry d'Albrct, King of Navarre.
She was distinguished for her beauty, talents, and supe-
rior culture, and exercised great influence in the govern-
ment of her brother, Francis I., to whom she was warmly
attached. The mildness and toleration she displayed
towards the Protestants, and particularly ner protection
of Calvin, brought upon her the imputation of heresy
from the Catholic party. She was the author of nume-
rous works in prose and verse, among which may be
named the "Heptameron," a collection of tales in the
style of Boccaccio's " Decamcrone," and a devotional
treatise entitled " Mirror of the Sinful Soul." She died
in 1549, leaving a daughter, Jeanne d'Albret, afterwards
the mother of Henry IV. of France.

See BRANT&ME, "Vies des Dames illusires;" SISMONDI, "His-
toire des Francais;" Miss FREER, "Life of Afarguerile, Queen of
Navarre," 1855; VICTOR DURAND, " Marguerite de Valois el la Cuul
de Francois I," 3 vols., 1848;

Margaret, SAINT, [Lat. SANC'TA MARGARI'TA; Fr.
SAINTE-MARGUERITE, slNt mtR'gRet',1 a virgin of An-

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, I<mgj, a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; n6t; good; moon;



tioch, supposed to have suffered martyrdom in 275 A.D.
According to tradition, she was solicited in marriage by
Olibrius, governor of Antioch, and on her refusal was
tortured and put to death by his order. This legend has
formed the subject of Milman's "Martyr of Antioch,"
and of numerous works of art.

See BMLLET, "Vies des Saints;" MRS. JAMESON, "Sacred and
Legendary Art."

Margaret, SAINT, daughter of Edward, a Saxon,
prince, and sister of Edgar Atheling, was born in 1046.
She was married about 1070 to Malcolm III., King of
Scotland, and died a few days after the death of her
husband and son, who fell in battle in 1093.

See SAINT ^ELRED, "Vita Sanct Margarita ;" BAILLET, "Vies
des Saints."

Margaret OF SCOTLAND, daughter of James I., was
married in 1436 to the Dauphin of France, afterwards
Louis XI. Died in 1445.

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Francais;" DUCLOS, " Histoire de
Louis XI."

Margarit, maR-ga-rtt', or Marguerit, de, dl maR-
gi-ret', (JosE 1 ,) Marquis d'Aguilar, a Spanish soldier,
born in Catalonia in 1602, was a prominent leader in
the insurrection of that province against the Spanish
government in 1640. He was afterwards appointed
Governor of Catalonia by Louis XIII. Died in 1685.

Margarit or Marguerit, de, (JUAN,) a Spanish car-
dinal, born at Girona about 1415, rose to be chancellor
of Aragon. He wrote a history of Spain, entitled " Para-
lipomenon Hispaniz." Died in 1484.

Margarit, (PEDRO,) was educated at the court of
Ferdinand V. He sailed with Christopher Columbus in
1492, and discovered the archipelago to which he gave
the name of Marguerite Isles.

Margaritone, maR-ga-re-to'na, an Italian painter,
sculptor, and architect, born at Arezzo about 1236. His
pictures were executed in fresco on wood and on copper,
and he sculptured in wood as well as marble. His
monument to Pope Gregory X., in the cathedral of
Arezzo, is ranked among his best works. Died about


See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters, Sculptors," etc. ; LANZI,
"History of Painting in Italy."

Margeret, mSRzh'ri', (JACQUES,) a French officer,
born in Burgundy. He entered the Russian service,
which he exchanged about 1610 for that of Poland. He
wrote an "Account of the Russian Empire, etc. from
1590-1606," (in French, 1607,) which was translated into

Marggraf, maRg'gRlf, (ANDREAS SIGISMUND,) an
eminent German chemist, born in Berlin in 1709. He
was chosen a member of the Academy of Sciences in
1738, and director of the class of physics about 1762. He
was an ingenious and sagacious experimenter, and wrote
many able treatises or memoirs, which were inserted in
the records of the Academy of Berlin. He made the
important discovery that sugar can be procured from
the beet. Died in 1780.

See F. HOKPER, " Histoire de la Chimie ;" " Nouvelle Biogra-
phic Ge'ne'rale."

Marggraf, (GEORG.) See MARCGRAF.

Margoliouth, maR-go'le-oot, (MosES,) a British
divine, born in London, of Jewish parents, December 3,
1820. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and
in 1844 was ordained a priest of the Anglican Church,
da" History of the Jews," " Principles of

' Rabbinical Hermeneutics," etc.

He published
Modern Judaism,"
Died March I, 1881., deh mSR'gON', (Gun.LAUME PLANT AVIT
DE LA PAUSE,) Aung, a French satirist, born near Beziers
about 1685. He wrote several controversial works, dis-
tinguished for their virulence and bitter personalities,
and directed alternately against the Jesuits and the Jan-
senists. Died in 1760.

Marguerie, miRg're', (JEAN JACQUES,) a French
mathematician and writer, born near Caen in 1742. He
served as lieutenant in the navy against the British
in 1778-79, and was killed near Grenada in 1779.

Marguerit. See MARGARIT.

Marguerite. See MARGARET.

Marguerite de Provence, miVgRet' deh pRo'-

V&NSS', daughter of Raymond Berenger, Comte de Pro-
vence, born in 1221, was married in 123410 Louis IX.,
King of France, commonly called Saint Louis. She
accompanied him in his expedition to Egypt, and while
in Damietta gave birth to a son. She died in a convent
in 1295.


Marguerittes, maVgRet', (JEAN ANTOINETEISSIER,)
a French dramatist and royalist, born at Nimes in 1744,
was a deputy to the Constituent Assembly. He ,wa
executed by the terrorists in 1794.

Margunius, maR-goo'ne-us, or Margunio, maR-
goo'ne-o, (MAXIMUS,) a modern Greek prelate and
scholar, born in the island of Candia about 1525. He
founded a printing-office at Venice, where he published
numerous editions of the Greek classics, remarkable for
their accuracy. In 1585 he was appointed Bishop of
Cerigo. He wrote "Anacreontic Hymns," and several
ecclesiastical works. Died in 1602.

Marheineke, maR-hl'neh-keh, (PHILIPP KONRAD,)
a German Protestant theologian of high reputation, bora
at Hildesheim in 1780, became successively professor of
theology at Erlangen, Heidelberg, and Berlin. He pub-
lished a "History of the Reformation in Germany," (4
vols., 1816,) "Christian Symbolics," and several philo-
sophical works, in which he favours the system of Hegel
Died in 1846.

Maria, the Latin of MARY and MARIE, which see.

Ma-ri'a OF AUSTRIA, a daughter of the archduke
Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Aragon, was born
at Brussels in 1503. She was married in 1521 to Louis
II., King of Hungary and Bohemia, and after his death
was appointed by her brother, Charles V., ruler over the
Netherlands. Soon after the abdication of the emperor
she resigned her office and retired to Spain, where she
died in 1558.

See LANZ, " Correspondenz Karls V. ;" CRANT&MS, "Vies dea
Dames illustres."

Maria, ma-ree'a, II., (DA GLORIA, dJglo're-5,) daugh-
ter of Don Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, and Leopoldine,
Archduchess of Austria, was born at Rio Janeiro in 1819.
Her father succeeded to the throne of Portugal in March,
1826, but renounced his right in favour of Dona Maria.
Her uncle Don Miguel usurped the throne about May,
1828, and was supported by the absolutist party. A civil
war ensued, Don Miguel was defeated, and Dona Maria
became queen about September, 1833. She married
Duke Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary in April, 1836.
Her reign was disturbed by emeutes and insurrections.
She died in November, 1853, and was succeeded by her
son, Pedro V.

Maria, mJ-ree'J, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian painter and
architect, surnamed FALCONETTI, born at Verona in 1458.
He formed a lasting friendship with the celebrated Louis
Cornaro, in whose household he lived for twenty-two
years. Died in 1534.

Maria, di, de mJ-ree'J, (FRANCESCO,) a Neapolitan
painter, born in 1623, was a pupil of Domenichino. Died
in 1690.

Ma-ri'a El-e-o-no'ra OF BRANDENBURG, daughter
of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg. She was
married in 1620 to Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden,
whom she accompanied in his campaigns in Germany.
Died in 1655.

See GEIJER, " History of Sweden," (translated by TURNER.)

Maria Leszczynska, mi-ree'i Iesh-ch6ns'sk3,
daughter of Stanislas Leszczynski, King of Poland, was
born in 1703, and was married in 1725 to Louis XV.
of France. Died in 1768.

Maria Louisa, ma-ri'aloo-ee'za, [Fr. MARIE LOUISE,
mt're' loo'ez',] daughter of the emperor Francis I.
of Austria and Maria Theresa of Naples, was born a
Vienna in 1791. She was married in 1810 to Napo-
leon I., Emperor of France, to whom she bore a son
in March, i8n. On the abdication of Napoleon, in
1814, she retired to Vienna, and in 1816 the allied
powers gave her the duchy of Parma. She was pri-
vately married to Count Neipperg, her chamberlain.
Died in 1847.

See " Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'ra!^."

cas/fc; $zss; 'ghard; gas/;G, H,K,>ittnraI; N. nasal; f.,tril!eJ; sasz; th as in /to, (Jj^'See Explanations, p. 23.




Maria Louisa Augusta, (CATHERINE,) Empress of
Germany, was a daughter of Charles Frederick, Grand-
Duke of Saxe-Weimar, and grand-daughter of Paul I.,
Czar of Russia. She was born September 30, 1811, and
in her youth was associated with Goethe at Weimar. In
1829 she married William, the future king of Prussia,
and the first emperor of Germany in the new regime.
The empress Augusta was noted for benevolence, and
for her love of art and letters. Died January 7, 180,0.

Maria Theresa, ma-ree'a ta-ra'sa, |Fr. MARIE THE-
RESE, mi're' ti'riz',] daughter of Philip IV. of Spain,
was married in 1660 to Louis XIV. of France. (See
Louis XIV.)

Maria Theresa, ma-ri'a te-ree'sl, [Fr. MARIE THE-
RESE, mS're' ti'riz' ; it. MARIA TERESIA, ma-ree'i ta-
ra'se-l,] daughter of Charles VI., Emperor of Germany,
and Elizabeth Christina of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, was
born in May, I 717. She was married in 1736 to Francis,
Duke of Lorraine. Charles VI., who died in 1740, ap-
pointed her heir to his hereditary thrones, in accordance
with the act called the Pragmatic Sanction, but her
claims were disputed by the Electors of Saxony and
Uavaria and by the Kings of Prussia, Spain, and Sardinia,
each of whom claimed some portion in the name of the
Austrian princesses with whom they were connected.
Maria Theresa immediately repaired to Vienna, where
Ehe received the homage of the Austrian states, and
thence proceeding to Presburg was crowned Queen of
Hungary in 1741. She received offers of assistance
from Frederick II. of Prussia on condition of her ceding
to him Lower Silesia, but she firmly re'.used. Her
capital being soon after threatened with a siege by the
Elector of Bavaria and his French allies, the queen
convoked the Hungarian Diet at Presburg, where, with
her infant children, she said to the deputies that, " being
assailed by enemies on every side, she had no hopes
except in their loyalty, and she had come to place under
their protection the daughter and son of their kings."
The Hungarian nobles responded with enthusiasm to
this appeal, and drew their swords, exclaiming, " We
will die for our king, Maria Theresa 1" ("Moriamur pio
rege nostro, Maria Theresial") The French and Bava-
rians were soon .driven out of her hereditary states by
the forces under General Kevenhuller and Prince Charles
of Lorraine. In 1742 a treaty of peace was concluded
between Maria Theresa and the King of Prussia, by
which the latter obtained Silesia. The Elector of Bavaria,
who had been previously chosen Emperor of Germany
under the name of Charles VII., having died in 1745,
Francis, the husband of Maria Theresa, was elected to
that dignity. In 1746 the Imperialists gained important
victories in Italy, anrl defeated the French and Spaniards
at Piacenza. The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748,
put an end to the war of the Austrian succession, leaving
the empress in possession of all her hereditary estates
except Silesia. The Seven Years' war, carried on by
Prussia against France, Russia, and Austria, terminated
In 1763, leaving the boundaries of Austria and Prussia
the same as before. The emperor Francis having died
in 1 765, his son Joseph was elected Emperor of Germany ;
but Maria Theresa still retained the principal share in
the government of her hereditary dominions. She is said
to have refused to take any part in the partition of Po-
land (1772) until prevailed irpon by the representations
of Joseph II. and Prince Kaunitz. Among the important
reforms of her reign was the abolition of the torture
(1776) and of feudal service. She also abolished the
Inquisition at Milan, and suppressed the order of Jesuits.
She died in November, 1780, and was succeeded by her
son, Joseph II., as King of Hungary.

See PAOLO FRISI, " Elogio di Maria Teresia," 1783: SABATIER
BE CASTRES, "Abre'ge 1 de la Vie de Marie TheVese," 1773; RICH-
TER, " bebens- und Staatsgeschichle Mariae Theresiae, 3 vols.,
1745; DULLER, "Maria Theresia und ihre Zcit," 1844: RAUTSN-
STRAUCH, " Biographic der Kaiserin Maria Theresia, 1780; REN-
NBR, "Maria Theresia und Friedrich der Grosse," 1831^ WOLF,
'Oestreich unter Maria Theresia," 1855; " Nouvelle Biographic

Marialva, ma-re-31'va, (Dom Jolo Couticlio
kfVten'yo,) COUNT, a Portuguese officer, fought under
Alphonso V. against the Moors in Africa, and was killed
while assisting in the capture of Arzilla, in 1471.

Marialva y Menezes, mj-re-al'va e ma-na'zes,
(ANTONIO Luiz,) Count de Castanhede. an able Portu-
guese general and statesman, born about 1627. In 1659
he gained a signal victory over the Castilians at Elvas,
and soon after became principal minister of state, Marquis
of Marialva, and lieutenant-general of the armies of the
kingdom. Died about 1668.

See LACLErE, "Histoire de Portugal.'*

Ma-rl-am'ne, [Gr. Mapia/ivy,] a beaijtiful Jewess, a
granddaughter of the high-priest Hyrcanus II., became
in 38 B.C. the wife of Herod the Great, who, when he
departed from his capital to meet Octavian, gave secret
orders that she should be put to death in case he did
not return in safety. This secret having been revealed
to her, she received him coldly on his return, and excited
his jealousy, which was increased by the intrigues of
Herod's sister Salome, who suborned the royal cup-
bearer to testify that Mariamne designed to poison the
king. She was put to death in 29 B.C. This story is tho
subject of one of Voltaire's tragedies.

See JOSEPHUS, " History of the Jews;" SMITH, " Dictionary o
Greek and Roman Biography."

Mariana, de, da ma-re-a'na, (JUAN,) an eminent
Spanish historian, born atTalavera in 1536. He studied
at Alcali, and, having entered the order of Jesuits, was
appointed professor of theology in their college at Rome,
(1560.) He returned to Spain in 1574, where he passed
the remainder of his life in retirement, devoted to literary
pursuits. lie published in 1599 his "Treatise on Roy-
alty," ("De Rege et Regis Institutione,") in which ho
maintains that it is lawful in certain cases to put a king
to death. This work caused a great sensation, particu-
larly in France, where it was denounced by the Sorbonne,
and soon after the assassination of Henry IV. it was
publicly burned by order of the Parliament. In 1592 he
brought out his great work entitled "Historia de Rebus
Ilispanije," ("History of Spain,") which was received
with great favour ana was soon after translated by him
into Spanish. His Latin style is characterized by great
elegance and animation, and has been compared to that
of Livy ; while his Spanish history is generally esteemed
the most admirable work of the kind in the language.
" Noble, pure, and rich without diffuseness, it unites
with rare felicity," says a French critic, " the picturesque
vivacity of the chroniclers with the dignity of history;"
and Ticknor, in his " History of Spanish Literature,"
observes, "Its admirably idiomatic style, so full yet so
unencumbered, so pure and yet so rich, renders it, if
not the most trustworthy of annals, at least the most
remarkable union of picturesque chronicling with sober
history that the world has ever seen." Mariana also
published a treatise "On Weights and Measures," "On.
Death and Immortality," and other learned works, in
Latin, and an essay entitled "De las Enfermedades de
la Compafiia y de sus Remedies," ("On the Disorders
of the Society [of Jesuits] and their Remedies," 1625.)
in which he boldly exposes and condemns the errors of
the Jesuits. Died in 1623.

See TICKNOR, History of Spanish Literature ;" TAMAJO (or
TAMAVO) UE VARGAS. " Vida del P. Juan Mariana;" N. ANTONIO.
"Hibliutneca Hispana Nova;" ACOSTA, " Vida de Mariana;'^ F.
BUCHHOLZ, "J. de Mariana, oder EntwickelunRsgeschichte eines
Jesuiten," 1804: BOUTERWEK, "Histoire de. la Lme'rature Espa-
gnole:" and L. JOUOSRT'S excellent article in the "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Gen^rale."

Mariani, mi-re-a'nee, (CAMILLO,) an Italian sculptor
and painter, born at Vicenza in 1565; died in 1611.

Mariani, (GIOVANNI MAKIA,) an Italian painter, born
at Ascoli about 1650. Among his master-pieces is a
" Baptism of Saint James," at Rome.

Ma-rl-a'nus Sco'tus, a Scottish chronicler, born in
1028, is said by Matthew of Westminster to have been
a relative of the Venerable Bede. His principal work is
a "Universal Chronicle from the Creation to the Year
1083," (in Latin.) Died in 1086.

See Vossius, "De Historicis Lalinis."

MarichI, ma-ree'chl, a celebrated Hindoo sage of
demi-god, was, according to one account, the son of
Brahma, according to another, the son of Bhrigu. He
was the father of Kasyapa. By some he is considered
as the god of "light," which appears to be the etymo-
logical signification of his name.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 127 of 425)