Joseph Thomas.

Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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A. c, T, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 5, u, J, short; a, 9, j, 9, obicurt; fir, fill, fit; met; nit; good; moont



Marie, the French for MARY, which see.

Marie, mi're', (ALEXANDRE THOMAS,) a French ad-
locate and republican, born at Anxerre in 1797. He
was minister of public works from February to June,
1848, and minister of justice from July to December of
that year. He was elected to the Corps Legislatif in
1863. Died in 1870.

Marie Adelaide de Savoie, mi're' i'di'li'ed' deh
si'vwa', daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy,
born at Turin in 1685, was married in 1697 to the Duke
of Burgundy, grandson of Louis XIV. of France. She
died in 1712, leaving one son, afterwards Louis XV.

See SAINT-SIMON, "Memoires de Louis XIV," etc.; MADAME
OB MAINTENON, " Lettres."

Marie Amelie de Bourbon, mS're' S'mi'le' deh
booR'bAN', Queen of France, born near Naples in 1782,
was a daughter of Ferdinand 1., King of the Two Sici-
lies. She was married in 1809 to the Duke of Orleans,
afterwards King Louis Philippe. After his death she
retired to England, where she resided at Claremont,
near London. Died in 1866.

Marie Anne Christine Victoire de Baviere
mi' re' in kRes'ten' vek'twaR' deh bi've-aiR', daughter of
Ferdinand, Elector of Bavaria, was burn at Munich in
1660. In 1680 she was married \o Louis, the Dauphin
of France, son of Louis XIV. She died in 1690, leaving
three sons.

Marie Antoinette Joafephe Jeanne d'Autriche.
mi're' oN'twa'net' zho'zif zhin do'tRcsh', (commonly
called simply Marie Antoinette,) born at Vienna in
1755, was the daughter of Maria Theresa and the em-
peror Francis I. of Germany. She was married in
1770 to the Dauphin of France, afterwards Louis XVI.
High-spirited and energetic, she strove during the
revolutionary troubles to inspire the king with her own
courage ; but her counsels often led him into greater
difficulties. It was her misfortune and the misfortune of
France that she resisted all those reforms which might
have prevented or moderated the violence of the Revo-
lution. Possessing extraordinary personal charms and
great vivacity of disposition, the freedom of her manners
was often misconstrued by her enemies ; but their accu-
sations are generally believed to have been groundless.
During the terrible scenes which followed the captivity
of the royal family, she displayed the greatest firmness
and dignity, showing on all occasions more concern for
her husband and children than for herself. After the
fall of the Girondists, Marie Antoinette was condemned
to death by the Jacobins, and executed in Octobe', 1793.
(See Louis XVI.)

See MADAME CAMPAN, " Memoirs of the Court of Mar e Antoi-
nette :" "Memoires de Mademoiselle Berlin sur la Reine Marie
Antoinette ;" MADAME VlGEE-LEBRL'N, " Souvenirs," 1835 iTmERS,
"Histoirede la Revolution Francaise ;" LAMARTINE, " History of
the Girondists ;" WEBER, "Memoires concernant Marie Antoinette,"

Marie Clotilde Adelaide Xaviere de France,
mi're' klo'teld' i'da'li'ed' za've-aiu' deh fRdNss, sister
of Louis XVI., born at Versailles in 1759, was married
in 1775 to tne P rm ce of Piedmont, afterwards Charles
Emmanuel, King of Sardinia. Died in 1802.

Marie de Bourgogne. See MARY OF BURGUNDY.

Marie de France, mS'Ree' deh fRoNss, a poetess
who probably lived in France in the first half of the
thirteenth century, and who wrote " Lais," (lays,) of
which fourteen are extant, also a collection of fables
called "Ysopet," and a description of Saint Patrick's
purgatory in verse. Her style is good, and her dialect
Norman, with a few English words.

Marie de Guise. See MARY OF GUISE.

Marie de 1'Incai nation, mi're' deh IJNTdlR'na'-
e-6N', a French missionary, whose original name was
GUYARD, born at Tours in 1599, visited Canada in 1639,
where she made many converts among the Indians, and
founded a convent of her order. Died in 1672.

See " Vie de la Merc Marie de 1'Incarnation," by P CH/.RLB

Marie de Lorraine. See MARY OF GUISE.

Marie Madeleine. See MAGDALENE.

Marie de Medicis, mS're' deh ma'de'sess', or Maria
de 1 Medici, mS-ree'J di mSd'e-chee, the daughter of
Francis, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and the archduchess

Joan of Austria, was born at Florence in 1573. She waa
married in 1600 to Henry IV, of France. She had
moderate abilities, but exorbitant ambition ; and her ob-
stinacy and violent temper were the source oi constant
dissension between her and her husband. On the dealh
of Henry she became regent, for which office she proved
herself utterly incompetent. Having given offence to her
subjects by her partiality for unworthy favourites, she
was deposed and imprisoned, but, effecting her escape,
again took part in the government. She introduced
Richelieu into the administration, who soon possessed
himself of the highest power, and induced her son,
Louis XIII., to imprison her (1630) at Compiegne. Aftei
a second escape, she died at Cologne in 1642.

See Miss PARDOE, "Life of Marie de' Medici:" RICHELIEU.
" Memoires ;"SlsMONDl, " Histoiredes Francais;" RtMU, " Tableau
de la Regence de Marie de Medicis," 1615.

Marie d'Or!6ans, mi're' doR'la'dN 1 ', (MARIE CHRIS-
VALOIS, mS're' kRes'ten' ki'ro'len' i'di'li'ed' fRoN'swiz'
la'o'pol'den' deh vil'wi',) Duchess of Wurtemberg,
born at Palermo in 1813, was the youngest daughter of
Louis Philippe, King of France. Having early mani-
fested a love for the arts, she studied sculpture and de-
sign under Ary Scheffer. Among her works the status
of Joan of Arc is the most generally admired. She was
married in 1837 to Duke Alexander of Wurtemberg.
Died in 18-59. '

Marie Therese. See MARIA THERESA.

Mariette, mi're'JV, (AuousTE EDOUARD,) a cele-
brated French archaeologist, born at Boulogne in 1821.
Having acquired a knowledge of Egyptian hieroglyphics
he was charged in 1850 with a scientific mission to
Egypt, where he discovered the site of the city of Mem-
phis and disinterred the temple of Serapis and a ne-
cropolis of vast extent. In this- were found the granite
sarcophagi of the bulls of Apis, hewn out of a single
stone, fifteen feet long, nine in width, and the same in
/eight. He also removed the sand from the colossal
Sphinx, which was cut entire from a rock. He published
"The Serapeum at Memphis," illustrated, (1857-66.)
"Researches in Egypt, Nubia, and the Soudan," (1867,)
"The Egyptian 1'apyruses in the Museum at lioulac," (2
vols., 1871-73,) " Deir-el-Bahari : Topographical, His-
torical, and Ethnographical Documents gleaned in that
Temple," (1877.) He died January 19, 1881.

Mariette, (PIERRE JEAN,) a French painter, born
in Paris in 1694, was one of the most distinguished ama-
teurs of his time, and became director of the Imperial
Gallery at Vienna. He was a member of the Academy
of Painting in Paris, and of the Academy of Design at
Florence. He published, among other works, a " Treat-
ise on the Engraved Gems of the Royal Cabinet." Died
in 1774.

See DUMESNIL, " Histoire de3 plus cilebres Amateurs Francais,"
1856; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'raJe."

Marignano, ml-rtn-ya'no, written also Melegnano,
[Fr. MARIGNAN, mi'ren'yiN',] (GtAN GIACOMO,) Mar-
quis de Medichino, a celebrated Italian soldier, born at
Milan in 1497. He entered the service of the emperor
Charles V., who sent him in 1540 to reduce the city of
Ghent, of which he WM afterwards appointed governor.
He took an active part in the siege of Metz, in 1552, and
was subsequently employed by the grand duke Cosimo
de' Medici to suppress the revolt in the republic of
Sienna, where he ravaged the country and was guilty of
great barbarity towards the inhabitants. Died in 1555.

See Da THOU, " Hisloria sui Temporis;" BRANTSME, "Vies
des grands Capitaines;" SISMONDI, " Hisloire des Re"publiques
Italiennes;" MISAGLIA, "Vita del Marcliese di Marignano," 1605;
ROBERTSON, " History of Charles V.," book xi.

Marignie, de, deh mi'ren'yeji', (JEAN TIENNB
FRANCOIS,) a French littlrateiir, boriTin Languedoc about
1755, was one of the most zealous defenders of Louis
XVI. in the National Convention. He published a num-
ber of dramas and political treatises. Died about 1830.

Marignolli, de, di ma-ren-y61'lee, ( GIOVANNI,)
known also as John of Florence, a Franciscan monk
of Italy, born about 1288. In 1338 he was one of four
cl-erics sent from Avignon by Pope Benedict XII. to the
Khan of Cathay, (China.) In 1342 they arrived at Pekin,
in 1348 went to Malabar, in India, and m 1353 Marignolli

as A 1 ; 9 as s; g hard; g as /; G, II, K,giit!ural; N, tuual; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

anations, p. 23.)




was again at the papal court. lie was afterwards made
Bishop of Bibignano, and thereafter was a chaplain to
the emperor Charles IV., who caused him to write
" Monumenta Historica Bohemise," in which he curiously
interpolated stories of his adventures in the East. The
passages of this description were put together and trans-
lated by H. Yule, (iS66.)

Marigny, de, deh mS'ren'ye', (ABEL FRANCOIS Pols-
Bon pwa'siN*,) MARQUIS, a French architect, born in
Paris in 1727, was a brother of Madame de Pompadour,
through whose influence he was appointed in 1751 di-
rector-general of the royal buildings. Died in 1781.

Marigny, de. (ENCUF.RRANU,) a French statesman,
filled several high offices under Philippe le Bel, and
attained the rank of prime minister. Soon after the ac-
cession of Louis X., he was condemned to death on the
false accusations of his enemies, and executed about I^'S-

Marigny, de, (FRANCOIS AUCIER,) a French Orien-
talist and historian, born about 1690. He produced a
"History of the Twelfth Century," (5 vols., 1750,) and a
" History of the Arabs under the Government of the
Caliphs," (4 vols., 1750.) Died in Paris in 1762., (GASPARD AUGUSTIX RENE BERNARD,)
a French officer, born at Lu90n in 1754, was one of the
royalist chiefs in the Vendean war. He was condemned
to death by his own party for alleged neglect of duty,
an;! executed in 1794.

Marigny, de, (JACQUES CARPENTIER,) a French
priest, noted for his wit, born near Nevers. lie wrote
several poems, and Letters, (1678.) Died in 1670.

Marillac, de, deh mt're'yaV, (CHARLES,) an able
French negotiator, born in 'Auvergne about 1510. He
was chosen Archbishop of Vienne, and conducted suc-
cessfully some important negotiations in Germany and
Rome. lie was at the head of a small number of French
bishops known by their tendency to a philosophic spirit.
Died in 1560.

Marillac, de, (Louis,) a nephew of the preceding,
was born in Auvergne in 1572. He served with distinc-
tion in the armies of Henry IV., and was made a mar-
shal of France in 1629. Being afterwards suspected of
conspiring against Cardinal Richelieu, he was executed,
on a charge of peculation, in 1632.

See "Proces du Marechal de Marillac," etc, 1633: RICHELIKU,
41 Journal."

Marillac, de, (MICHEL,) a French statesman, brother
of the preceding, was born in Paris in 1563. He was
appointed by Cardinal Richelieu keeper of the seals,
(1626.) Having subsequently incurred the enmity of
the cardinal, he was imprisoned at Chateaudun in 1630
where he died in 1632.


Marin, mJ'raN', a French mechanician, and a native
of Lisieux, invented the air-gun, which he exhibited in
the presence of Henry of Navarre.

Marin, (FRANCOIS Louis CLAUDE.) a French UttSra
tmr, born in Provence in 1721. Among his principal
works is a " History of Saladin, Sultan of Egypt," etc.
Died in 1809.

Marin, (MICHEL ANGE,) a French ecclesiastic anc
devotional writer, born at Marseilles in 1697. He pub
lished " Lives of the Hermits of the East," (3 vols. 410
1761,) and numerous other works. Died in 1767.

Marina, ma-ree'na, Malinche, ml-len'cha, written
also Malintzin, the daughter of a Mexican chief, born
about 1505, was sold as a slave, and subsequently fel
into the hands of Cortez, whom she accompanied in al
his expeditions. She possessed rare beauty and talents
and, from her knowledge of the Spanish as well as
Mexican languages, was of great service as an inter
preter. After the death of Cortez, she was married to
Don Juan de Xamarillo, a Spanish officer. Marina has
been celebrnted by the Spanish poet Moratin in his
" Noves de Cone's."

See liRRNAL DIAZ, "Historia de la Conquista del Mexico;
PBKSCOTT, " History of the Conquest of Mexico," book ii.

Marina, ma-ree'nl, (Don FRANCISCO MARTINEZ,) a
Spanish political writer of the liberal party, born abou
1757. lie published the " Theory of the Cortes," (1871,
"Discourse on the Origin of the Spanish Monarchy,'
etc., and other works. Died in 1833.

Marinali, ma-re-na'lee, (ORAZto,) an Italian sculptor,
>orn at Bassano in 1643 ; died in 1720.

Mariuari, ma-re-na'ree, (ONORio.) a Florentine
>ainter, born about 1660, was a pupil and imitator of

arlo Dolce. Died in 1715.

Marinas, de las, da las ma-ree'nis, (ExRlQUEZ,) a
Spanish painter, born at Cadiz in 1620, was celebrated
or the excellence of his marine views, from which he
derived his surname. Died in 1680.

Marinella, ma-re-nel'la, or Marinelli, mi-re-nenee,
LUCREZIA,) an Italian poetess, born at Venice in 1571.
She wrote, besides other works, "Life of the Virgin
.lary," ("Vita di Maria Vergine," 1617.) Died in 1653.

Mariueo, ma-re-na'o, (Lucio,) a Sicilian scholar and
n'storian, born at Bidino about 1460. He became chap-
ain and historiographer to Ferdinand V. of Spain, anc
vas also distinguished by the favour of the empero
Charles V. He wrote several works on Spanish history,
;in Latin.) Died about 1535.

Marini, tna-ree'nee, (BENEDETTO,) an Italian painter,
x>rn at Urbino, lived about 1625.

Marini, (GAETANO LUICI,) an Italian antiquary, born
at San Arcangelo in 1740. He wrote several valuable
works, one of which is entitled "Acts and Monu-
ments of the Rural Brothers," etc., (2 vols., 1795.) Died
n 1815.

Mariiii or Marino, ml-ree'no, (GiAMDATTiSTA,) an
talian poet, born at Naples in 1569, was a friend of
Tasso. lie produced "Adonis," and many other poems,
which were greatly admired by his contemporaries, but
are marred by affected conceits and extravagant meta-
phors, lie passed several years in Paris, and received
a pension from Queen Marie de Medicis. Died in 1625.

See BAIACCA, "Vita del Cavalier Marino," 1625: F. CMIARO,

Vita del Cavalier Marino," 1626: LOREDANO. "Vita del Cavalier
Marino," 1633: CAMOLA, "Vita di G. B. Marini," 1633: POPPB,
"Vita J. B. Marini," 1771: LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of
Europe;" " Lives of the Italian Poets," by the REV. HENRY STEB-
BINC, London, 1831.

Marini, (GIOVANNI AMDROCIO,) an Italian writer,
born at Genoa about 1594. He wrote two popular
romances, entitled " II Caloandro fedele"and "Quarrels
of the Desperadoes," (" Le Care de' Desperati.") Died
about 1650.

Marini, (GIOVANNI ANTONIO,) a Pieclmontese phy
sician and writer, born in 1726; died in 1806.

Marini, (GIOVANNI FILIPPO,) an Italian Jesuit and
missionary, born near Genoa in 1608. lie resided four
teen years at Tonquin, and published a valuable work
entitled " A New and Curious Account of the Kingdoms
of Tonquin and Laos," (1666.) Died in 1677.


Marinoni, ma-re-no'nee, (GIOVANNI GIACOMO,) an
Italian mathematician, born at Udine in l6j6. lie was
appointed court mathematician by the emperor Leopold
I., and drew a plan of Vienna ana its environs. He was
one of the founders of the Academy of Military Science
at Vienna in 1717, and subsequently built at his own
expense an observatory, which is esteemed one of the
best in Europe. He published several scientific works.
Died in 1755.

Ma-ri'nus, [Gr. Mopii/of,] a native of Samaria, studied
philosophy at Athens under Proclus, whom he succeeded
as a teacher in 485 A.D. His only work extant is a " Life
of Proclus."

See Vosstus, " De Historicis Gracis."

Ma-ri'nus, SAINT, [It. SAN MARINO, sin ml-ree'no.
Fr. SAINT-MAR IN, sl.s mS'raN',1 an ecclesiastic of the
fourth century, was a native of Dalmatia, and lived as a
hermit near Rimini, in Italy. The miracles said to have
been wrought at his tomb drew thither many pilgrims,
who in time built a town called San Marino, which for
ten centuries has formed the centre of a little republic.

See BAILLET, "Vies des Saints."

Marinus OF TYRE, [Fr. MARIN DE TYRE, mrrlN
deh teR,| a Greek geographer, who lived about 150 A.D
His works were highly esteemed by his contemporaries,
but none of them are extant.

See UKERT, "Geographic der Griechen und Romer."

Mario, ma're-o, (GIUSEPPE,) Marchese di Candia,
an Italian operatic singer, born at Cagliari, Sardinia, in

a, c, i, 5, ii, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obtain; far, fall, fat; mSt; i)6t; good; moon;




1808, of a noble but impoverished family. In 1830 he
accepted a commission in the Sardinian army, but ten-
dered his resignation in 1836, and, when it was not ac-
cepted, he escaped to Paris. His exquisite tenor voice
gained him a great reputation in amateur circles, and he
was reluctantly induced to accept the munificent offers
of the director of the Paris Opera. Under die assumed
name of Mario, he made his first public appearance De-
cember I, 1838, in the rf.'e of " Robert le Diable." His
success was immediate. In 1839, while still attached to
the Paris Opera, he sang for a brief period in London,
and was greeted with favour. In 1840 he passed over to
the Italian Opeia, and for several years he sang each
season in both Paris and London. In 1849 he went to
Saint Petersburg. In 1854-55 he accompanied Grisi on
a tour through the United States, lie had been living
with Grisi for some years, and on the dissolution of her ;
first marriage was legally united to her. On June 18, I
1871, he took his farewell of the operatic stage at Co- 1
vent Garden, London. In 1872 he again visited the
United States on a concert tour. Died at Rome, Decem-
ber n, 1883.

Mario Nuzzi. See FIORI, DE', (MARIO.)

Mar'I-on, (FRANTIC) a celebrated American general
of the Revolution, was born in South Carolina in 1732.
Soon after the breaking out of the war he entered the
army, and assisted in the defence of Sullivan's Island
aga nst the British in 1776. 'The enemy having taken
possession of Georgia and besieged Charleston, Marion
raised a brigade of soldiers, at the head of whom he
carried on for more than three years a guerilla warfare,
often attended with brilliant successes, and baffling all
the attempts of the British generals to effect his capture.
Died in 1795.

Marion Delorme. See DELORME.

Marion -Dufresne, mt're'iN' du'frin', (NICOLAS
THOMAS,) a French navigator, born at Saint-Malo in
1729, sailed on a voyage of discovery to the South Sea
in 1771. Soon after landing at New Zealand, Marion
was treacherously murdered by the natives, together
with the greater part of his men, (1772.)

Marion du Mersan, mS're'oN' dii meVsoN', (THEO-
PHILE,) a French antiquary and dramatist, born in 1780,
published a great number of popular comedies and prose
essays on various subjects. Died in 1849.

Mariotte, mi're'ot', (EDME, ) an eminent French
mathematician and physicist, was a resident of Dijon.
He was one of the earliest experimental philosophers in
France, and discovered the law of elastic fluids called
by his name. Among his principal works are his "Dis-
course on the Nature of Air," (1676,) "Treatise on the
Movement of Waters," (1690,) "Experiments on the 1
Colours and Congelation of Water," and an " Essay on
Logic," which is highly commended by Condorcet. Died
in 1684.

See CpNnoRCHT, " loges des Acaddmiciens," etc. : " Nouvelle
Uiographie Ge'ne'rale."

Mar'iscal, (IGNACIO,) a Mexican statesman, born
at Oajaca in 1829. He studied law, and was a judge
of the supreme court 1862-63 ar >d 1868. He occupied
a number of posts under the government, was secretary
of legation at Washington 1863-68, and minister there
1869-71 and 1872-77. After a ministry to Great
Britain 1883-84, President Diaz appointed him secre-
tary of foreign affairs, a post he had filled several
times before.

Mariti, ma-ree'tee, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian traveller
and writer, born at Florence in 1736, visited the isle of
Cyprus, Syria, and Palestine, and published in 1769 an
account of his journey, which was translated into French,
German, and Swedish. Died in 1806.

Maritz, mi'rits or mfrtts', (JEAN,) a Swiss mecha-
nician, born at Berne in 1711, invented a machine for
boring and turning cannon. For this service he was
ennobled by the French government. Died in 1790.

Mariuccia. See MAROZIA.

Ma'ri-us, (CAius,) a Roman general, distinguished
for his splendid talents, indomitable energy, and unprin-
cipled ambition, was born near Arpinum (now Arpino)
in 157 B.C. His parents were poor and plebejan. He

served under Scipio Africanus at the siege of Numantia,
and was chosen tribune of the people in 119. lie ob-
tained the praetorship in 115, though strongly opposed
by the patrician party, and about the same time married
Julia, an aunt of Julius Caesar. Having accompanied
Metellus as legate and second in command into Africa,
(109 B.C.,) he won such popularity by his skill and bravery
that he was elected consul for 107 B.C. and intrvstcd
with the command of the Jugurthine war. He defeated
Jugurtha, who was made prisoner in 106. In 104 B.C.
Marius was again chosen consul, as being the only one
capable of defending the state from the threatened in-
vasion of the Teutones and Cimbri. He defeated the
barbarians at Aix, (Aquae Sextiae,) in Gaul, in 102 n.c.
Having been elected consul the next year, for the fifth
time, Marius, in conjunction with Catulus, gained a sig-
nal and overwhelming victory over the Cimbri in the
plain of Vercellae, (Vercelli.) By the aid of the tribune
Saturninus, Marius became consul for 100 B.C., in spite
of the determined hostility of the patricians. During
this consulate an agrarian law was passed, and Metellus
Numidicus was exiled for refusing to conform to it. On
the expiration of his term of office, Marius went to Asia,
under the pretext of sacrificing to Cybele, but really in
order to excite Mithridates to a war with Rome, that he
might again distinguish himself in his congenial element.
In 90 B.C. both Marius and Sulla entered the service
of the consuls Octavius and Cinna in the Marsian or
Social war; but, jealous of the reputation of his rival,
the former soon resigned. Sulla, having become consul
in 88 B.C., obtained the command in the Mithridatic
war, upon which Marius, assisted by his friends, caused
a law to be passed transferring it to him. He was soon
driven from the city by Sulla and his adherents, and
forced to take refuge in Africa. When Sextilius, Gov-
ernor of Libya, sent him orders to leave the country, on
pain of being treated as an enemy, Marius replied to the
messenger, "Go tell him that you have seen the exile
Marius sitting on the ruins of Carthage." The next
year, while Sulla was absent in Greece, Marius, joined
by the consul Cinna, entered Rome and ordered a
general massacre of the opposite party. Among the
patricians who perished was M. Antonius, the orator so
highly praised by Cicero. Marius and Cinna became
consuls, (86 B.C.,) but the former was attacked by a fever,
of which he died the same year.

See PLUTARCH, "Life of Marius;" GEORGE LONG, "Life of
Marius," London. 1844; MERIMEE. "Etudes sur 1'Histoire Ro-
maiue," etc. : SALLUST, "Jugurtha;" F. WEILAND, "C. Marii sei>-
ties Consulis Vita," Berlin, 1845: P. EKERMAN, "Dissertatio de C.
Mario septtes Consule," 1742; SMITH, "Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"nerale."

Marius, (CAIUS,) nephew and adopted son of the pre-
ceding, took refuge, after the proscription of his uncle,
with Hiempsal, King of Numidia. He was made consul
in 82 B.C., and signalized himself by many acts of in-
justice and cruelty. Having been defeated by Sulla, he
caused himself to be killed by one of his officers.

Marius, ( MARCUS AUREI.IUS, ) one of the Thirty
Tyrants of Gaul, was, on the death of Victorinus tl.e
Younger, chosen emperor by the army. He was assas-
sinated about 268 A.D., after a reign of a few months.

Marivaux, de, deh mi're'vo', (PlERRE CARLET r>B
CHAMRLAIN,) a French novelist and dramatic writer
born in Paris in 1688. His principal works are his ro-
mances entitled "Marianne" and "Le Paysan parvenu,"
which enjoyed great popularity at the time, and were
among the first novels which delineated real life and
manners. He also wrote a number of comedies. The

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 128 of 425)