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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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affected style and false sentiment of these productions
have given rise to the term mnrivaudagc. "Never,"
says La Ilarpe, "did any one turn common thoughts in
so many ways, each more affected than the last ;" and
Voltaire, admitting that Marivaux knew "the paths to
the heart," maintains that " he was ignorant of the high-
road." He was elected to the French Academy in 1743,
having Voltaire for a competitor. Died in 1763.

Marivetz, de, deh mi"re'v4', (ExiENNE CLEMENT,)
BARON, a French savant, born at Langres in 1728, pub-
lished several treatises on physics, etc. He was executed,
by order of the Revolutionary Tribunal, in 1793.

; 9as.r; ghard; gas/;G, H,K.,guttural; N, nasal; ^trilled; sass; thasinM/V. (J[^=See Explanations, p. 23. j




Marjolin, mil zholaN', (JEAN NICOLAS,) a French rious temper enabled her to exert an important influence

writer and surgeon, born in 1780; died in 1850. over his political conduct.

Mark, [Gr. Mupxof; Lat. MAR'CUS; ILMAR'CO; Fr. lie was the favourite attendant and confidential agent

MARC, mSRk,] SAINT, THE EVANGELIST. He was a of the Duke of York before his accession as James

companion of Saint Peter in his travels, (see I. Peter TT. II., in 1685 ; and soon after that event he was raised to

13,) and is supposed to have planted the Church at Alex- the peerage, as Baron Churchill of Sandridge, Having

andria. The early Christian writers believed that he was contributed to the defeat of Monmouih at Sedge-

the interpreter of Saint Peter, and that he wrote his moor, he was made a major-general. His wife was the

Gospel in Greek, under the direction and with the appro- favourite of the king's daughter, Princess Anne, over

bation of that apostle. Saint Augustine thought it was whom she had a complete ascendency. In the combi-

an abridgment of the Gospel of Matthew. According to nations and intrigues which preceded the revolution ol

tradition, he suffered martyrdom in Egypt in 68 A.n. 1688, Lord Churchill acted with deep duplicity. After

By many critics he is identified with John surnamed secretly committing himself to the cause of William

Mark, who was a companion of Paul and Barnabas in of Orange, he professed his devotion to James in Novem-

their mission to the Gentiles about 45 A.D., (Acts xii. ber, 1688, and, a few days later, deserted to the stronger

12, 2J, xiii. 13, xv. 37,) and who was in Rome with party. He was created Earl of Marlborough on the

Paul in 63.A.D. accession of William III., (1689,) and made a lord of

Mark'ham, (Sir CLEMENT ROBERTS,) F.R.S., an H e comMnded the English forces employed against

English author, was bom al illmgfleet, Yorkshire, the French in the Low Countries in 1689, and led a suc-

July20, 1830. He was a naval officer from 184410 1851, ! cessful expedition against Cork and Kinsale in Septem-

entered the civil service in 1855, and afterwards was ' ber, 1690. While he was thus trusted by William and

employed in the India Office. He visited the Arctic hated as an arch-traitor by the Jacobites, he opened a

regions in 1850-51, travelled extensively in Peru, (1852,) treasonable correspondence with the dethroned king,

and introduced successfully the culture of cinchona-trees who was at Saint Germain's. According to Macaulay,

into India, (1860-61,) carrying the plants from South he undertook to corrupt the army, with which his bril-

Amrira. HP :,<, atrarheri to the Rru^h =,rmv in Alw. | iant successcs and w j nn i ng manners rendered him a

America. He was attached to the British army in Abys-
sinia, 1867-68. He wrote a " Quichua Grammar and favourite in spite of his sordid avarice. The country
Dictionary," (1863,1 "Memoir of jhe Countess of being apprised of this plot, he was deprived of his offices

in January, 1692, and committed to the Tower a few
months later. Though he was quickly admitted to bail,
he passed the next four years in disgrace. About the
end of 1696 he was restored to his military rank and
command, and admitted to the privy council. (Respecting

Memoir of the

Chinchon"," (1875,) "Peruvian Bark," (1880,)
" Life of Columbus," (1892,) etc. He was knighted
in 1896. His brother, ALBERT HASTINGS MARKHAM,
born in 1841, was an Arctic voyager and writer on
polar research, and was made a rear-admiral in 1892.

Markham, ( EDWIN,) an American poet, was born * c * u ty' s charges against Marlborough see J Paget's

" M*m Kvom*n " I xh I onH thf K flflartm-lif RAVIAU/" fr*

at Oregon City, Oregon, in 1852. He lived as a boy
on a California farm, graduated from the State Normal
School in San Francisco, and became a teacher. He
grew suddenly famous through his poem " The
with the Hoe," (1899,) based on Millet's picture of
that title. It was treated as indicating the oppression
of the labourer, and had an extraordinary success. He
subsequently devoted himself to literary work.

1 New Examen,
April, i

1861, and the "Quarterly Review' 7 for
took Marlborough to Holland, gave

him command of his army, and invested him with ample
^ powers to negotiate with the allies in relation to the im-

pending war of the Spanish succession. He displayed
here the sagacity and address of a consummate diplo-
matist. The accession of Queen Anne, in March, 1702,
opened to him a brilliant career of glory abroad and

Markham, mark'am, (GERVASE,) an English soldier P. w at home ' He became Commander-in-chief of the

and miscellaneous writer, born in Nottinghamshire a>ed army, and at the end of the campaign m Flanders,

about 1570, served in the royalist army in the civil war. December, 1702 was created Duke of Marlborough.

He was the author of a tragedy entitled "Herod and About thls j lme he , and P""" Eugene began to act m

Antipater," "The Poem of Poems, or Sion's Muse," etc, concert, and formed a cordial friendship, which greatly

and other works. Died about 1655. promoted the success of the allies. Among their most

celebrated achievements was the decisive victory at Blen-

Markland, (JEREMIAH,) an eminent English scholar heim over the French marshal Tallard, August 13, 1704.

and critic, bom in Lancashire in 1693. He published Marlborough gained a great victory at Ramillies in 1706,

editions of the "Sylvie" of Statius (1728) and the and shared with Eugene the triumph at Oudenarde in

"Supplices"of Euripides, which are esteemed master- 1708. The allies also claimed the victory over Mar-

pieces of acute criticism. He also assisted Dr. Taylor shal Villars at Malplaquet, (1709,) although their loss

in preparing his editions of Demosthenes and Lysias, amounted, it is said, to 25,000 men.

and published "Remarks on the Epistles of Cicero to During these foreign transactions, Godolphin, the

Brutus," etc., in which he attempts to prove them spu- duke's personal and political friend, had been the head

rious. Died in 1776. of the English Tory ministry. The Tories, who had the

See NICHOIS and BOWYER, "Literary Anecdotes." warm sympathy of the queen, wished to discontinue the

Markof, maR'kof, Markov, or Markow, (ARCADI war, and fomented intrigues against Marlborough. His

IVANOVITCH.) COUNT, a Russian diplomatist. On the duchess, a zealous Whig, with much importunity pre-

accession of Alexander I. he was appointed minister- vailed on him to coalesce with the Whigs, who insisted

plenipotentiary to France, (1800.) on prolonging the war. The fondness of the queen for

Marlborough, mll'bur-uh, (popularly callev. in the Duchess of Marlborough was at length turned into

French MALBR.OUK, mll'brook'; Sp. MAMBRU, mam- violent aversion. The Tories obtained a complete as-

broo',) DUKE OF, originally John Churchill, an English cendency in 1710, and Marlborough was dismissed with

general, whose military genius and triumphs have been disgrace from all his employments at the end of 1711.

equalled by those of few men of modern times, was born On the accession of George I. (1714) he was restored to

at Ashe, in Devonshire, June 24, 1650. He was the son favour, and again became captain-general and master of

ot Sir Winston Churchill and of Elizabeth Drake. His llie ordnance. He died in 1722, leaving his titles and

education was rather defective. He received from nature estate to the male heirs of his daughter, who was mar-

an eminently handsome person, a bland temper, and all ried to Charles Spencer, Earl of Sunderland.

the qualities essential to a successful general and cour- Marlborough, (SARAH JENNINGS,) DUCHESS or, the

tier. In 1672, with the rank of captain, he seived in the wife of the preceding, born in 1660, was celebrated for

army which fought in alliance with France against the her beauty, ambition, and political influence. She was

Dutch. His bravery in this and the ensuing campaigns brought up from childhood with the princess Anne, who

attracted the favourable notice of Turenne and Louis regarded her with romantic fondness, combined with the

XIV. At the peace of 1678 he returned to England, deference which the weak feel for superior minds. Im-
and married Sarah Jennings, whose talents and impe-. patient of the restraints of etiquette, Anne, in conversa-

a,e, 1,6, u, y, long, -3,6,6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y,s/iort;a.,e, 1,9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;




tion and correspondence with her favourite, assumed the
name of Mrs. Morley, and addressed her friend as Mrs.
Freeman. In 1678 Miss Jennings was married to Colo-
nel Churchill, in whom she found an uxorious husband.
" History," says Macaulay, " exhibits to us few specta-
cles more remarkable than that of a great and wise man
who could carry into effect vast and profound schemes
of policy only by inducing one foolish woman, who was
often unmanageable, to manage another woman who was
more foolish still. ... To the last hour of her hus-
band's life, she enjoyed the pleasure and distinction of
being the one human being who was able to mislead
that far-sighted and sure-footed judgment, who was fer-
vently loved by that cold heart and servilely feared
by that intrepid spirit." Having been supplanted in
the royal favour by Mrs. Masham, she was dismissed from
court in 1710, and became an inveterate misanthrope.
Died in 1744.

Mar'litt, (E.,) the pseudonym of the German nov-
elist Eugenie John, was born at Arnstadt, Thuringia,
in 1829. She was for a time on the operatic stage,
but after 1863 wrote a long series of romances and
novels, many of which were translated into English.
Died in 1887.

Marlowe, mar'lo, (CHRISTOPHER,) an English drama-
tist, born at Canterbury in 1564. He studied at Corpus
Christ! College, Cambridge, where he took his degree
in 1587. He afterwards devoted himself to dramatic
writing, and, according to some authorities, became an
actor. He was addicted to low vices, and was killed in a
quarrel with a footman in 1593. The principal dramas
known to be his are " The Jew of Malta," " Edward
the Second," and "The Tragical History, etc. of Dr.
Faustus:" the last-named was the original of Goethe's
celebrated " Faust." Marlowe is characterized by the
French critic Villemain as a genius, whose rude dramas,
disorderly as his life, contain splendid beauties and a
gloomy audacity, the inflvience of which has not been
lost upon Shakspeare. His " Faust" is less elegant and
less ironical than that of Goethe, but every thing that
the pathos of such a subject can effect the fever of
doubt in a superstitious imagination, the boldness of
impiety in a despairing heart stamps this work with
the impress of extraordinary power. His "Edward II."
was greatly admired by Charles Lamb, who says that
one of its scenes moves pity and terror beyond any
scene, ancient or modern.

Marlowe, (JULIA,) an American actress, born at
Caldbeck, England, in 1870, and taken to the United
States at rive years of age. Her theatrical career
began with child parts in light opera and drama, her
first mature part being Parthenia, in " Ingomar," in
1888. Since that date she has been a favourite in
Shakspearean and other leading parts. Married
Robert Taber, leading man for several seasons in her

Marmier, maVme-i', (XAVIER,) a French littlratfur
and traveller, was borrTat Pontarlier in 1809. He pub-
lished, among other works, "Studies on Goethe,"" Poetic
Sketches," and " History of Literature in Denmark and
Sweden," (1839,) and made numerous translations from
the Enqlish and German. Died October II, 1892.

Mar'ml-on, (SHAKERLY,) an English dramatist, born
in Northamptonshire in 1602. His principal works are
the comedies of "Holland's Leaguer," "A Fine Com-
panion," and "The Antiquary." Died in 1639.

See BAKER, "Biographia Dramatica ;' WOOD, Athens Oxo

Marmltta, maR-met'tJ, (LuDOVico,) an Italian gem
engraver, born at Parma. Among his master-pieces is
a cameo representing a head of Socrates. He livet
about 1500.

Marmol, de, da maR-moK, (Luis CARAVAJAL,) a
Spanish writer, bom at Granada about 1520, accom
panied the emperor Charles V. in his African campaigns
He wrote a "General Description of Africa," (1599,
and a " History of the Rebellion, etc of the Moors o!
Granada," (1600.)

See TICKNOR, "History of Spanish Literature;" PRESCOTT
"History of Philip II.," vol. iii. book v.

Marmont, de, deh miVmAN', (AUGUSTS FREDERIC
ouis VIESSE,) Duke of Ragusa, a celebrated French
marshal, born at Chatillon-sur-Seine in 1774, received
ils military education at the artillery school of Chalons.
He accompanied Bonaparte as aide-de-camp in the Ital-
an campaign of 1794, and, as general of brigade, took
part in the invasion of Egypt in 1798. He fought with
distinguished bravery at the battle of Marengo, (1800,)
obtained command of a division, and was appointed
nspector-general of artillery about 1802. Having as-
sisted at the capture of Ulm, in 1805, Marmont became
in 1806 general-in-chief of the army in Dalmatia, and
;ained a signal victory over a superior force of Russians
and Montenegrins at Castelnuovo. In 1807 he carried
out a system of public works, the most important of
which was a line of road-way two hundred and ten miles
in length ; and for this service he was created Duke of
Ragusa. Soon after the battle of Wagram (1809) he
was made a marshal of France, and appointed Governor-
General sf the Illyrian provinces. As commander of
the second corps, in 1813 he took part in the battles
of Bautzen, Dresden, and Leipsic, and closed the cam-
paign of 1814 by his engagement near Paris with the
allied army of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, (March 30.)
Though contending against a greatly superior force,
Marmont and Mortier refused to capitulate until au-
thorized to do so by Joseph Bonaparte. In April, 1814,
Marshal Marmont, after stipulating with Prince Schwar-
zenberg for the withdrawal of the French troops into
.Normandy, entered the service of the allies. He subse-
quently filled several high offices under the Bourbons.
Being called upon to suppress the revolt of July, 1830,
he brought great opprobrium upon himself by his failure
in this difficult task ; his name was struck off the army
list, and he was exiled. He died at Venice in 1852,
leaving "Memoires du Due de Raguse," (8 vols., 1856.)
See THIERS, "History of the Consulate and of the Empire;"
VAULABELLK, " Hisloire des deux Restaurations;" BOURRIENKE,
Me"moires;" LAMARTINE, "History of the Restoration;" MAV-
DUIT, "Demiers Tours de la grande Arme'e;" I*. DB LoMB.viB,
"M. le Marechal Marmont, par un Homme de Rien," 1844;
SAINTE-REUVE, "Causeries du Lundi." tome vi. : " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic GeneVale ;" "Quarterly Review 'for June, 1845 ; "Edinburgh
Review" for July, 1857.

Marmontel,'mSR'm6N'tSl', (JEAN FRANCOIS,) a cele-
brated French critic and miscellaneous writer, born in
Limousin in 1723. His family was poor, and he was
educated in the Jesuits' College at Mauriac, but he did
not enter their order. At an early age he acquired the
friendship and patronage of Voltaire, en whose recom-
mendation he visited Paris in 1746, and published the
same year a translation of Pope's " Rape of the Lock."
He brought out in 1748 his "Dionysius the Tyrant,"
("Denys le Tyran,") which was soon followed by " Aris-
tomene" and "Cleopatre," three tragedies, which had
considerable success at the time. His "Moral Tales"
("Contes moraux," 1761) were received with extraor-
dinary favour, and were translated into the principal
languages of Europe, including Danish and Hungarian.
They are written with great elegance and animation ;
though their morality is often questionable. About this
time Marmontel was imprisoned for a short time in
the Bastille, on a false accusation of having satirized a
person of rank. He published in 1763 his "Poetiq^ue
Francaise," and in 1767 his political romance of " Beli
saire," which obtained great popularity and has taken
its place among the classics of the language. The
empress Catherine II. ordered a translation of it into
Russian, and versions of it appeared in nearly all the
European languages. Some passages in the book, how-
ever, which favoured toleration, were denounced by the
Sorbonne, and the work was condemned by the Arch-
bishop of Paris, as containing impious and heretical
propositions. In the exciting controversy which followed,
Voltaire took an active part, and published several witty
and caustic pamphlets in defence of his protege. Mar-
montel was soon after appointed historiographer of
France. Among the most important of his other woiks
we may name " Les Incas," a romance, dedicated to
Gustavus III. of Sweden, the comic operas of " Le Hu-
ron," "Sylvain," and "Zemire et Azor,"and the tragedy
of "Les fleiaclides," which is highly commended by La

History ol r 11 nip 11., vol. ui. book v. ui i^t-a nci 41.1 iuca, vnuv.ii * Migu>j >

as k; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H. K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (E^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




Harpe. His "Elements de Litterature" (6 vols., 1787)
is also ranked among his best productions. In 1783
Marmontel succeeded D'AIembert as perpetual secretary
of the French Academy. He lived in retirement in the
country during the greater part of the Revolution, and
died iiv 1799, leaving " Memoires" of his life. He had
married about 1778 the niece of Abbe Morellet

Sec VOLTAIRE, " Correspondence :" SAINT-SURIN, "Notice sur
Marmontel," 1824: LA HARPE, "Lycee;" GRIMM, "Correspon-
dence lilteraire;" VILLENAVE, "Notice sur les Ouvrages de Map-
ninmel," 1820: SAlNTE-HeuvE, "Causeries du Lundi," tome iv. ;
MOKKLLET, " Elo-e de Marmonte!," 1805: " Nouvelle BioRraphie
Genirale;" "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1806; "Monthly
Review" for November and December, 1805.

Marmora, della, del'li maR'mo-ri, (ALBERTO Fer-
rero fSr-ra'ro,) COUNT, a Sardinian general and savant,
born in 1789. He entered the French army, and rose
to be military commander in the island of Sardinia in
1849. He published "Travels in Sardinia; or, Statis-
tical, Physical, and Political Description of that Island."
Marmora, della, (ALESSANDRO FERRERO,) brother
of the preceding, born in 1799, fought in the war for
Italian independence in 1848, and became a major-gene-
ral. He died in the Crimea in 1855.

Marmora, della, (ALFONSO FERRERO,) an Italian
general and statesman, brother of the preceding, was
born in Turin in 1804. He was appointed minister of
war by the King of Sardinia in November, 1849, resigned
in February, 1855, 'and the same year took command of
the Sardinian forces in the Crimean war, after which he
again served as minister of war. He was president of
the Council of Ministers from July, 1859, to July, 1860.
In September, 1864, he became minister of foreign affairs
and president of the Council of Ministers in the kingdom
of Italy. He was succeeded by Ricasoli in June, 1866,
took command of the army, and was defeated by the
archduke Albert of Austria, at Custozza, in July of the
same year. Died at Florence, January 8, 1878.

Marmora, della, (CARLO FERRERO,) MARQUIS, Prince
of Masserano, eldest brother of the preceding, was born
in 1788: Having been made lieutenant-general and sen-
ator of the kingdom of Sardinia, he accompanied Charles
Albert as first aide-de-camp in the campaigns of 1848
and 1849. Died in 1854.

Marne, de, deh maRn, QEAN BAPTISTE,) a Flemish
Jesuit and historian, born at Douai in 1699, wrote a
" History of the County of Namur," which has a high
reputation. Died in 1756.

Marne, de, or Demarne, (JEAN Louis,) a painter,
born at Brussels in 1744. He was reduced to the neces-
sity of working al the porcelain-manufactory of Sevres,
and fell into a mannerism called the mnmire foreelahu.
His early style was much more graceful. Died in 1829.
Marner, maR'ner, (KoNRAD,) a German minnesinger,
flourished about 1250-70.

Maruesia or Marnezia.. See LEZAY-MARNESIA.
Marnix de Saint- Aldegonde, van, vtn mSr'neks'
deh saN'til'deh-gANd', (PHILIPPE,) an eminent Flemish
writer and Protestant Reformer, was born at Brussels in
1538. He studied at Geneva, where he acquired the
friendship of Calvin and adopted his faith. In 1566
he drew up the celebrated formulary of the Flemish
nobles against the Inquisition. As burgomaster of Ant-
werp, he defended that city in 1584 against Alexander,
Duke of Parma ; but he was forced to capitulate in 1585.
He was the author of a " Picture of the Difference be-
tween the Christian Religion and Popery," and "The
Romish Bee-Hive." He also translated the Psalms into
Dutch verse, and was engaged on a Flemish version of
the Scriptures when he died, in 1598. " He was," says
Motley, "a man of most rare and versatile genius.
Scholar, theologian, diplomatist, swordsman, orator,
poet, pamphleteer, he had genius for all things, and was
eminent in all."

See MOTLEY, " History of the United Netherlands," vol. i. chap.
iii. ; STRADA, " De Hello Bclgico:" JOHANNES PRINS, " Leven van
P. van Marnix," 1782: DRESSEI.HUIS, " F. van Mat-nix, Heer van
Mom Saint-Aldegonde," 1832; WILLEM BROBS," F. van Marnix,
Heer van Saint-Aldegonde," etc., 2 vols., 1838-40.

Maro, the cognomen of PUBLIUS VlRClLIUS MARO.

Marochetti, ma-ro-ket'tee, (CHARLES,) BARON, a
celebrated Sardinian sculptor, born at Turin about 1805.
After executing several works in Paris, among which
was an equestrian statue of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke
of Savoy, he went to London in 1848. Under the patron-
age of the court and the nobility, he produced a colossal
equestrian statue of Richard Cceur-de-Lion, (1851,) a
}ust of Prince Albert, an equestrian statue of Queen
Victoria at Glasgow, (1854,) a statue of Lord Clyde,
11867,) and several groups of statuary. He was elected a
Royal Academician in 1866. Died in December, 1867.

Marochetti, (VlNCENZio,) an Italian" scholar, father
of the preceding, was born in Piedmont about 1768.
He was appointed advocate to the court of cassation in
Paris. Died in 1820.

Maroli, ma'ro-lee, (DoMENICO,) a Sicilian painter,
born at Messina in 1612. He was killed in the revolu-
tion of Naples, (1676.)

Marollea, de, deh mfProl', (MiCHEL,) a French littl-
rateur, born in Touraine in 1600, was Abbe de Villeloin.
He made translations from Juvenal, Statius, and other
classics, which were much esteemed at the time. He
made a valuable collection of prints, which were added
to the royal cabinet. Died in 1681.

See NiciRON, " Me'moires ;" M. DK MAROLLRS, " Merooires, 1 *
656. (and in 3 vols., 1755.)

Ma'ron, SAINT, written also Maroun, an anchorite
of the fourth century, resided in Asia Minor. He is
supposed by some writers to have been the founder of
the Maromtes, while others ascribe the origin of that
sect to another of the same name, living in the seventh

Maroncelli, ma-ron-chel'Iee, (PiERO,) an Italian pa-
triot, musician, and poet, born at Forll in 1795. He
published in 1819 a hymn, for which he was imprisoned
a short time. He was again arrested in 1820, and con-
demned to twenty years' imprisonment in the fortress
of Spielberg, where his intimate friend Silvio Pellico
was confined at the same time. They were at first sepa-
rated, but at the end of three years were permitted to
enjoy each other's society. They were released in 1830,
Maroncelli having previously suffered the amputation of
one of his legs, in consequence of a disease contracted
in the prison. Died in New York in 1846.

See SILVIO PELLICO, "My Prisons;" "Nouvelle Biographic

Marone, ma-ro'ni, (ANDREA,) an Italian improvisa-
tore, born in the Friuli in 1474, was celebrated for his
skill in improvising Latin verse on any given subject.
Died in 1527.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 129 of 425)