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English astronomer, born at Toxteth, near Liverpool, in
1619, was educated at Cambridge, took orders, and be-
came curate of Hoole. He was the author of the true
theory of lunar motion, and was the first who observed
the transit of Venus, (in 1639,) which he had successfully
foretold, and of which he wrote an account, entitled
"Venus sub Sole visa." His other works on astronomy
were published by Dr. Wallis in 1672. " His investiga-
tions," says the " Edinburgh Review" for October, 1843,
" are all stamped with the clear indications of a genius
of the first order ; and he doubtless would have achieved
far greater discoveries had not his privations and suc-
cesses, his toils and triumphs, been together cut short by
his premature death, in 1641."

See A. B. WHATTON, "Memoir of the Life and Labours of J.
Horrox," 1859.

Horsburgh, hors'bur-eh, or Horsbury, hors'ber-e,
(JAMES,) F.R.S., a Scottish hydrographer, born at Elie
in 1762, was for some years captain of a merchant-ship
navigating the East Indian seas. In 1809 he was ap-
pointed hydrographer of the East India Company. He
was author of a valuable work entitled " Directions for
Sailing to and from the East Indies, China," etc., (1809.)
Died in 1836.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen,"
(Supplement;) "NouvelTe Biographic GeWrale."

Horse'field, (Rev. THOMAS W.,) an English anti-
quary, published the " History and Antiquities of Sus-
"x." Died in 1837.

Hora'field or Horsefield, (THOMAS,) M.D., F.R.S.,
an eminent naturalist and traveller, born in Pennsylvania
in 1773. He explored the natural history of Java for
many years, and returned to England about 1820. He
published "Zoological Researches in Java," etc., (1821-
24.) The plants which he collected were described in
an excellent work entitled " Plantae Javanicae Rariores,"
(1838-52, with fifty coloured engravings,) in which he
was aided by Robert Brown and J. J. Bennett He also
wrote several smaller works. Died in London in 1859.

Horsley, (CHARLES,) an English composer, born at
Kensington in 1821. He composed oratorios entitled
"Davicf 1 and "Joseph," (1852.) Died in New York,
March 2, 1876.

Horaley, (JOHN,) F.R.S., an eminent British anti-
quary, born in Mid-Lothian in 1685, became pastor of a
dissenting church at Morpeth. He wrote an excellent
work entitled " The Roman Antiquities of Britain "
(" Britannia Romana," 1732.) Died in 1731.

See RHV. J. HODGSON, " Memoirs of the Life, etc of John Hoi*
ley," London, 1X31 : CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Emi-
nent Scotsmen ;" NICHOLS, " Literary Anecdotes."

Horsley, (JOHN CALLCOTT,) an English historical
painter, born in London in 1817. His cartoon of "Saint
Augustine Preaching" (1843) received one of the prizes
of .200 from the Commission of Fine Arts. He was
one of the artists commissioned to adorn the House
of Lords, in which he painted a fresco of the " Spirit of
Religion," (1845.) Among his master-pieces are " L'Alle-
gro and II Penseroso," (1851,) "Lady Jane Grey and
Roger Ascham," (1853,) and a "Scene from Don Quix-
ote," (1855.)

Hor8ley,(SAMUEL,) LL.D., an eminent English bishop
and writer, born in London in 1733, was educated at Cam-
bridge. In 1759 he obtained the rectory of Newington
Butts, and, after receiving other preferments, became
Bishop of Saint David's in 1788, of Rochester in 1793,
and of Saint Asaph in 1802. To superior talents he
joined profound learning, both classical and scientific.



i, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonped; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; n&t; good; moon;



HORSLEY



'3*5



HOSACK



He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1767,
and secretary of the same in 1773. In 1783 he gained
distinction by a controversy with Dr. Priestley on Unita-
nanism, in which it is usually conceded that Horsley
had the advantage. He published in 1796 an excellent
treatise "On the Prosodies of the Greek and Latin Lan-
guages," and " Critical Disquisitions on the Eighteenth
Chapter of Isaiah." Among his numerous publications
are sermons, treatises on mathematics, and several ad-
mired performances in biblical criticism. Died in 1806.
See " Edinburgh Review" for February, ign; "London Quar-
terly Review" for May, 1810, (vol. xvii.)

Hors'ley, (WILLIAM,) an English song-writer of high
merit, born November 15, 1774. His glees and madri-
gals are among the best ever written. He was the father
of Charles Horsley, before noticed. Died June 12, 1858.

Hors'man, (EDWARD,) a British lawyer and poli-
tician, born in 1807. He represented Stroud in Parlia-
ment from 1853 to 1868. He was one of those who were
called " Adullamites," who voted against the Reform
bill in 1866, although elected as Liberals. Died in 1876.

Horst, hoRst, [Lat. HOR'STIUS,] (GREGOR,) a German
physician, was born at Torgau, in Saxony, in 1578. He
became professor at Ulm in 1622, and was surnamed
THE GERMAN JEscuLAfivz. Among his chief works
are " On Diseases and their Causes," (" De Morbis
eorumque Causis," 1612,) and "Anatomy of the Human
Body," (1617.) Died in 1636.

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary ;" ERSCH and
GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklooaedie ;" FRKHER, "Theatrum Eru-
ditorum. "

Horst, van der, vSn der hoRst, (NIKOLAAS,) a Flem-
ish painter of history and portraits, born at Antwerp,
was a pupil of Rubens. His works are highly prized.
Died in 1646.

Horstiua. See HOKST.

Horstius, hoR'ste-us, (JACOBUS,) a Dutch religious
writer, originally named MERLER, was born at Horst
about 1597. He wrote, in elegant Latin, "Paradise of
the Christian Soul," (" Paradisus Animae Christianse,"
1630.) Died in 1644.

Horstius, hoR'ste-us, (JAKOB,) a German physician,
born at Torgau in 1537 ; died in 1600.

Hort or Horte, (JosiAH,) an English theologian,
educated at a dissenting academy with Dr. Watts, who
expressed a high opinion of him. He became Bishop
of Kilmore and Ardagh in 1727, and Archbishop of
Tuam in 1747. A collection of his sermons was pub-
lished. He died at an advanced age in 1751.

Hortemels, //oR'teh-mels' or /ioRt'mel', (FRDRIC,)
a French engraver, born at Paris about 1688.

Hortemels, (MARIE MADELEINE,) an able engraver,
born in Paris about 1688, was the wife of the celebrated
engraver Nicolas Cochin. Died in 1777.

Hortense Eugenie de Beauharnais, oR't&Nss'
uh'zhi'ne' deh bo'iR'nJ)', Queen of Holland, and mother
of the emperor Napoleon III., was born in Paris in
1783. She was the daughter of Alexandre, Vicomte de
Beauharnais, and Josephine Tascher, afterwards Empress
of France. Her personal charms and amiable character
rendered her a favourite with Napoleon and the ornament
of his court Against her own inclination, and through
the influence of her mother, she became in 1802 the wife
of Louis Bonaparte, with whom she did not live happily.
It is said that she wept abundantly at the performance
of the ceremony. In 1806 her consort Louis was made
King of Holland. On this occasion Hortense said she
would have preferred the throne of Naples. " I would
have rekindled," said she, " the flame of the fine arts
in Italy." She disliked the Dutch fogs, and deemed
sunshine and Parisian society indispensable blessings.

Hortense was the mother of three sons, whom by the
edicts of 1804 and 1805 the emperor had preferred as
successors to his crown : i. NAPOLEON Louis CHARLES,
who died in 1807 ; 2. NAPOLEON Louis, who died at
Pesaro in 1831; 3. CHARLES Louis NAPOLEON, the
late Emperor of France. In 1810 Louis abdicated his
throne, and was separated from his wife, who, with her
sons, returned to Paris. At the restoration of 1814 she
was created Duchess of Saint-Leu, through the favour
of some of the allied powers. Louis XVIII., after an



interview with her, declared he had never seen a woman
who united so much grace and dignity. After sharing the
brief and brilliant triumphs of the Hundred Days, she
was compelled to fly from France. The authorities of
Geneva refused her an asylum ; but she received a
hospitable offer from the canton of Thurgau, where she
purchased the castle of Arenenberg in 1817. For many
years she passed the summer at this place and the winter
at Rome. When Louis Napoleon was exiled to the
United States, in 1836, she wished to go with him, but
had not sufficient strength to bear the voyage ; and she
died in 1837, in the arms of her son, who, learning her
illness, had returned home. We should not omit to
mention that she excelled in music, and composed the
popular air of " Partant pour la Syrie," one of the
favourite national songs of France.

Sec LASCBLLES WRAXALL, " Memoirs of Queen Hortense ;"
COMTS DE LAGARDE, " Esquisse biographique sur la Reine Hor-
tense," 1853 ; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for July, 1838.

Hortensius. See DESJARDINS.

Hor-ten'sl-us, (LAMBERT,) a Dutch philologist, born
at Montfort about 1500. He wrote "On the German
War," (" De Bello Germanico," 1560,) and annotations
on Virgil's ".(Eneid," (1567.) Died about 1575.

Hortensius, hor-ten'she-us, (QuiNTUS,) an eminent
Roman orator, born of an equestrian family in 1 14 B.C.
At an early age he acquired celebrity in the Forum,
where, a few years afterwards, he maintained a spirited
and generous rivalry with Cicero, who applauds his elo-
quence and calls him his friend. After serving in the
army of Sulla in Asia, he became successively quaestor,
sedile, praetor, and, in 69 B.C., consul. In the previous
year he was counsel for Verres, when Cicero made his
memorable speech for the prosecution. His orations
and other works are all lost. His eloquence is said to
have been ornate, flowery, Oriental in exuberance, and
enlivened with sententious and brilliant passages. He
had a retentive memory, a sonorous voice, and a grace-
ful gesture. Died in 50 B.C.

See ONOMASTICON TULLIANUM : PLINY, " Natural History,"
books ix., x., xxxiv. ; QUINTILIAN, books iv., x., xi., xii. ; LINSBN,
"Dissertatio de Hortensio Oratore," Abo, 1822.

Horto, ab, ab OR'IO, or de la Huerta, da 1J weR'ti,
(GARCIA,) called also Garcia da Orta, a Portuguese
botanist, went to India as physician to the viceroy, and
wrote "On the Plants and Drugs of India," (1563.)

See BARBOSA MACHADO, " Bibliotheca Lusitana."

Hor'tpn, (THOMAS,) D.D., born in London about
1600, was professor of divinity in Gresham College, and
published a number of sermons. Died in 1673.

Horuc. See BARBAROSSA.

Ho'rua, [Gr. 'Qpof, possibly related etymologically to
the Sanscrit S&rya, Lat. Sol, and Sp. Sur,] the Egyptian
god of the Sun, was regarded as the son of Isis and Osiris.
(See OSIRIS and HARPOCRATES.) His Egyptian name
was Har. He had a hawk's head. The god Harpocrates
is often called the younger Horus, or Horus the child.

Horus Apollo. See HORAPOLLO.

Horush. See BARBAROSSA.

Horvat, hor'vat, (IsTVAN, or STEPHEN,) called "the
Hungarian Varro," was born at Stuhlweissenberg in
1784. He wrote " Primitive Magyar Families," (1820, a
monumental work,) and various histories. Died in 1846.

Horvdth, hoR'vSt, (MICHAEL,) a Hungarian histo-
rian, born at Szentes in 1809. He became Bishop of
Csanad in 1848, and minister of public instruction in
1849. After the defeat of the patriotic cause he went
into exile in 1849. He wrote a valuable " History of
the Magyars," (4 vols., 1842-46.) Died Aug. 19, 1878.

Hos'ack, (DAVID,) LL.D., F.R.S., an eminent Ameri-
can physician, born in New York City in 1769. After
graduating in Philadelphia in 1791, and prosecuting hia
studies in Edinburgh and London, he returned to New
York, and became professor of botany and materia
medica in Columbia College in 1795. He taught clinical
medicine and obstetrics in the College of Physicians and
Surgeons nearly twenty years, between 1807 and 1826.
For many years he was one of the most successful prac-
titioners and most influential citizens of New York.
From 1820 to 1828 he was president of the New York
Historical Society. His first wife was the sister of



tas k; c. as j; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (flap-See Explanations, p. 23.)



IIOSCHEL



1316



HOTHAM



Thomas Eddy, and his second the widow of Henry A.
Costar. He wrote a treatise on Vision, published by the
Royal Society of London, (1794,) "Memoirs of De Witt
Clinton," (1829,) a "System of Practical Nosology,"
( 1 829,) " Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Physic,"
(1838,) several volumes of medical essays, and other
works. Died in 1835.

See J. W. FRANCIS, " Memoir of Dr. Hosack ;" GROSS, "Ameri-
can Medical Biography," 1861 ; " National Portrait-Gallery of Dis-
tinguished Americans," vol. ii.

Hoschel or HoescheL, ho'shel, [Lat, HOESCHE'-
Lius,] (DAVID,) a distinguished German Hellenist, born
at Augsburg in 1556. He was professor of Greek and
keeper of the public library at Augsburg. He edited
numerous Greek works, among which are the Homilies
of Saint Basil and Saint Chrysostom, and the book of
"Origen against Celsus," (1605.) His "Catalogue of
the Greek Manuscripts in the Augsburg Library" (1595)
is highly esteemed. Died in 1617.

Sre BRUCKER, " De Mentis in Rem literariam D. Hoeschelii,"
17^8; BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" NICERON,
"Memoires;" J. A. FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Gra."

Ho-se'a or O-se'a, [Heb. ^Pin : Fr. OSEE, o'zi',] one
of the twelve minor Hebrew prophets, of whom little is
known, except that he lived in the "days of Uzziah,
Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Kings of Judah." It is
inferred that his prophetic career extended from about
785 to 725 B.C. His language is remarkably obscure.
" He is the most difficult and perplexed of all the pro-
phets," says Lowth. He is quoted in Matthew ii. 15,
ix. 13, Romans ix. 25, (where his name is written Osee,)
and Revelation vi. 16.

Hosemann, ho'zeh-man, (THEODOR,) a German genre
painter and illustrator, born at Brandenburg, Septembei
24, 1807 ; died at Berlin, October 15, 1875.

Ho-she'a or Ho-se'a, I Heb. ;>i?in,] the last King
of Israel, began to reign' about 730 B.C., after he had
assassinated King Pekah. (See II. Kings xv. 30 and
xvii. I to 7.) After a reign of nine years, his capital,
Samaria, was taken by Shalmaneser, King of Assyria,
who carried Hoshea with his subjects as captives to
Halah, Habor, and the cities of the Medes. Since
this event the fate of the ten tribes has been involved
in mystery.

HoBiuB. See Osius.

Ho'sl-us, (STANISLAS,) an eminent cardinal, born at
Cracow, in Poland, in 1504. After holding responsible
civil offices, he entered the Church, and was made suc-
cessively Bishop of Culm and of Warmia. He was a
violent opponent of heretics and Protestants. In 1561
he received a cardinal's hat from Pius IV., who sent him
as legate to the Council of Trent. He wrote the "Con-
fession of the Catholic Faith," (1551,) and other works.
Died in 1579.

See RESCIUS, "Vita Hosii," Rome, 1587: BAYLE, "Historical
and Critical Dictionary ;" ERSCH und GRUBHR, "Allgemeine Ency-
klopaedie."

Hos'king, (WILLIAM,) an English architect and
writer on architecture, born in Devonshire in 1800. He
became a resident of London in his youth, and acquired
distinction by a " Treatise on Architecture and Building,"
republished from the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," (1839.)
About 1840 he was chosen professor of civil engineering
and architecture at King's College, London. He wrote
" Guide to the Regulation of Buildings as a Means of
Securing the Health of Towns," (1848.) Died in 1861.

Hos'kina or Hoa'kyna, JOHN,) Sr., an English
writer and lawyer, born in Herefordshire in 1566. He
was noted for skill in Latin and English poetry, and
wrote epigrams, law treatises, etc. According to Wood,
it was Hoskins who " polished Ben Jonson the poet," and
revised Sir Walter Raleigh's History before it went to
press. Died in 1638.

Hosklua, (JOHN,) an English portrait-painter, patron-
ized by Charles I. Died in 1664.

Hos'm?r, (HARRIET,) an American sculptor, born in
Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1831, studied in Rome,
where she fixed her residence. Among her works are
"Medusa," "Beatrice Cenci," "Zenobia in Chains,"
(" Zenobia Captiva,") a statue of Thomas H. Benton,
and a memorial monument to Abraham Lincoln.



Hosmer, (WILLIAM,) an American divine of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, born in Brimfield, Mas-
sachusetts, in 1810. He was editor of the " Northern
Christian Advocate," published at Auburn, New York,
and of the " Northern Independent," a religious ant-
slavery journal. He wrote, besides other works, " Chris-
tian Beneficence," etc., (1855.) Died June 17, 1889.

Hoamer, (WILLIAM HENRY CUYLER,) an American
poet, born at Avon, in the Genesee valley, New York,
in 1814, studied in Geneva College, and practised law
in his native town. He spent much time among the
Indians. In 1854 he took up his residence in New York.
He wrote, besides other works, " Indian Traditions and
Legends of the Senecas," etc., (1850.) A complete
edition of his Poetical Works, in 2 vols., was pub
lished in 1854. Died May 23, 1877.

See GRISWOLD, " Poets and Poetry of America."

Hoa-pin'i-an, [Ger. pron. hos-pe-ne-Jn'; Fr. HO3PI-
NIEN, hos'pe'ne-aN'; Lat. HOSPINIA'NUS,] (RUDOLF,) an
eminent Swiss Protestant theologian, born at Altorf in
1547. He became the minister of a church near Zurich,
and wrote a number of learned works, in Latin, among
which are " On the Origin and Progress of Ceremonies,
Rites, and Holydays (Festis) among Christians," (1585,)
" History of Sacraments," (" Historia Sacramentaria,"
!598,)anda"HistoryoftheJesuits,"(i6l9.) Diedin 1626.

See JOHN H. HEIDEGGER. " Historia Vita Rodolphi Hospiniani,"
1681 ; BAYLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary.

Hospinianus. See HOSPINIAN.

Hoapinien. See HOSPINIAN.

Hospital See L'HdPiTAL.

Hossch. See HOSSCHIUS.

Hosschiua, hos'ke-us, or Hoasch, hosK, (SiDOXius,)
a Flemish Jesuit, born at Merckhem in 1596, published
in 1635 a collection of Latin elegies, which were much
admired. Died in 1653.

Host or Hoeat, host, (GEORG,) a Danish traveller,
born in Jutland in 1734, became secretary for foreign
affairs, etc. He wrote an " Account of the Kingdoms
of Morocco and Fez," (1779.)

Host or Hoeat, (JENS KRAGH,) a Danish historian,
son of the preceding, was born at Saint Thomas, in the
Antilles, in 1772. He was the author of "Politics and
History," (5 vols., 1816,) "Johann Friedrich Struensee
and his Ministry," (3 vols., 1824,) and other works.
Died near Copenhagen in 1844.

See J. K. HOEST, " Erindringer ;" ERSLBW, "Almindeligt For-
lauer-Lexikon."

K' Kit, host, (NlKOLAUS THOMAS,) an Austrian, born
in 1763, was first physician to the Emperor of Austria,
and published " Flora Austriaca," (2 vols., 1827.) Died
in 1834.

Hoste, hoi, (JEAN,) a French geometer, born at
Nancy, became professor of mathematics at Pont-i-
Mousson. He published several treatises on geometry.
Died in 1631.

Hoate. Ii', lot, (PAUL,) a French Jesuit, born at Pont-
de-Vesle in 1652, was professor of mathematics in Tou-
lon. He wrote a treatise on the " Construction of Ships
and Naval Tactics," (1697.) Died in 1700.

Hoa-till-an, [Fr. HOSTILIEN, os'te'le-aN',1 or, more
fully, Cai'ua Va'lena Mea'sius Quin'tiua Hoatilia'-
nus, second son of the Roman emperor Decius. At the
death of his father, 251 A.D., he was acknowledged by
some as a partner in the- empire with Gallus ; but he
died a few months after, in 252.

Hoatilien. See HosriLiAN.

Hoa-til'I-ua, (TuLLUS,) the third King of Rome, and
the successor of Numa, reigned about 650 B.C. Among
the principal events of his reign, which is semi-fabulous,
was the war against Alba, terminated in favour of Rome
by the victory of Horatius over the Curiatii.

Hoatrup, hos'tRup, (CHRISTOFFER,) a Danish drama-
tist, born in iSiS, produced many successful comedies,
among which are "The Neighbours." ("Gjeiboerne,")
and "The Intrigues." Died November 21, 1892.

Hoatus, hos'tus, (MATTHAUS,) a German antiquary,
born in 1509; died in 1587.

Ho'tham, (HENRY,) an English vice-admiral, born in
1776. In 1815 he commanded the Channel fleet, was
charged after the battle of Waterloo to blockade the



a, e, T, o, u, y, long; 1, e, 6. same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, ?, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;






HOTHO



'317



HOUEL



west coast of France, and received Napoleon as a pris
oner on board his flag-ship, the Bellerophon. He was
appointed one of the commissioners of the admiralty in
1818. Died in 1833.

Hotho, ho'to, (HEINRICH GUSTAV,) a German writer
on art, born in Berlin in 1802. He became professor of
philosophy at the University of Berlin in 1829, and was
considered one of the chief representatives of the school
of Hegel. He wrote a " History of Painting in Germany
and the Low Countries," (2 vols., 1840-43.) Died 1873.

Hotman, /iot'moN', (ANTOINE, ) a French jurist,
a brother of Franjois, noticed below, was born about
1525; died in 1596.

Hotman or Hottomann, [Lat HOTOMAN'NUS
and HOTTOMAN'NUS,] (FRANCOIS,) an eminent French
jurist and Protestant, born in Paris in 1524, was a friend
of Calvin. He was deeply versed in jurisprudence,
literature, and antiquities. He became professor of law
at Strasburg about 1550, and at Valence in 1561. By
concealment he escaped the Massacre of Saint Bar-
tholomew, (1572,) after which he retired to Geneva and
Bale. He was appointed councillor of state by Henry
IV. about 1580. He performed an important part in the
scientific revolution which was produced in jurisprudence
in the sixteenth century. His famous work on public
French law, entitled "Treatise on the Government of
the Kings of Gaul," ("Franco-Gallia, sive Tractatus de
Regimine Regum Gallias," 1573,) had an immense influ
ence. He wrote, in elegant Latin, many other works,
among which are a " Commentary on Legal Words,
("Commentarius de Verbis Juris," 1558,) and "Cele-
brated Questions," (" Qusestiones illustres," 1573.) Died
at Bale in 1590. His son JEAN (1552-1636) was a diplo
matist and writer.

See BAYLB, " Historical and Critical Dictionary:" HAAG, "La
France protestante ;" NHVELET, "Vita Hottomanni," prefixed to
Hotmail's Works, about ioo; DARESTB, "Essaisur F. Hotman,"
1850: " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Hotmann or Hottomann. See HOTMAN.

Hotmannus or Hottomannua. See HOTMAN.

Hottinger, hot'ting-er, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) an
eminent Swiss Orientalist and Protestant divine, born at
Zurich in 1620. After studying in his native city, at Ge-
neva, and Leyden, and becoming one of the best Oriental
scholars of his time, he was chosen in 1648 professor of
theology and Oriental languages at Zurich. In 1655 he
accepted the chair of Oriental languages at Heidelberg,
where he remained until 1661, when he was elected rector
of the University of Zurich. The University of Leyden
persuaded him to accept their chair of theology ; but be-
fore he arrived at that scene of labour he was accidentally
drowned, in 1667. Among the numerous monuments of




1651-67,) and " Etymo'logicum Orientale,
seven languages, (1661.)

See J. H. HEIDEGGER, " Historia Viue J. H. Hottingeri," 1667;
BAYLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary :" G. H. HAHN, " Un-
tersuchung ob des gelehrten Hottinger's wirkliche Lebensgefahr,"
etc., 1742; NIC^RON, "Me'moires."

Hottinger, (JOHANN JAKOB,) a Swiss theologian, a
son of the preceding, was born at Zurich in 1652. From
1698 until his death he was professor of theology in his
native city. He wrote, besides other works, an " Eccle-
siastical History of Switzerland," in German, (4 vols.,
1708-29.) Died in 1735.

Hottinger, (JOHANN JAKOB,) a Swiss professor and
philologist, born at Zurich in 1750. He taught Greek
and Latin in his native city, and published several
good editions and translations of classic authors. Died
in 1819.

Hottinger, ( JOHANN JAKOB, ) a Swiss writer, born
in 1783 at Zurich, where he became professor of his-
tory, and published, besides other works, a " History of
the Schism in the Swiss Church," in German, (2 vols.,
1827.) Died May 18, 1859.

Hotze, von, fon hot'seh, (DAVID,) an Austrian gene-
ral, born near Zurich about 1740. He commanded the
army which was opposed to Massena in Switzerland in
1799. He was killed in a battle near Zurich, in Sep-
tember, 1799.



Houard, OO'!R',* (DAVID,) a French jurist, born at
Dieppe in 1725 ; died in 1802.

Houbigant, //oo'be'goN',* (CHARLES FRANCOIS,) a
French priest, born in Paris in 1686, was a member of
the Oratory, and an excellent biblical scholar. After
teaching rhetoric at Marseilles and philosophy at Sois-
sons, he became deaf about 1722, and thenceforth de-
voted himself to study and writing. He gave especial


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 13 of 425)