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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Maroni, da, di ma-ro'nee, or Maron, ml-ron',
(THERESA,) a sister of the celebrated Raphael Mengs,
was distinguished as a painter of miniatures. Having
accompanied her brother to Rome, she was there mar-
ried to the Chevalier da Maroni, an artist. Died
in 1806.

Maroof- (or Marouf-) el-Karkhi, ma-roof el kaR'-
Kee, one of the founders of the Soofees, (Soufis,) or
Mussulman mystics, born near Bagdad about 750 ;
died about 815.

See HAMMER-PURGSTALL, " Literatureschichte der Araber."

Maroof- (or Marouf-) Mohammed-ben-Abdel-
Khalik, ma-roof mo-ham'mfd bSn ab'del Ka'lik, an
Arab lexicographer of the ninth century. His principal
work is an Arabic Lexicon, in which words are explained
in Persian.

Marot, ml'ro', (CLEMENT,) a French poet, born at
Cahors in 1495, was a son f J ean . noticed below. He
was patronized at the court of Francis I., and became a
page to his sister, Margaret of Valois. He was impris-
oned in 1526 on a charge of heresy, and during his con-
finement composed his "Enfer," (" Hell,") an allegorical
satire, and prepared a new edition of the " Roman du
Rose." After his release he visited Geneva, where he
professed Calvinism ; but he was subsequently obliged
to leave the place, on account of some misdemea-
nour, and, having renounced his new faith, accompanied
Francis I. in his Italian campaign of 1535. He was the
author of numerous lyric poems, epigrams, etc., which
were greatly admired for their grace and vivacity ; and
the style AI<irotiquc has been imitated by La Fontaine



a, e, 1, 6, u, J, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; mil; n&t; good; moon;



MAROT



1663



MARS



and other French writers. His version of the Psalms
was very popular at the time. Died in 1544-

See AucuiS, M Vie de Marot," prefixed to an edition of his works,
vols., 1823: BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary:'' JAN




Marot, (DANIEL,) son of the architect Jean Marot
noticed below, was born in Paris about 1660. He be-
came architect to William, Prince of Orange, whom he
accompanied to England in 1688.

Marot, (FRANCOIS,) a French painter, born in Paris
in 1667 ; died in 1719.

Marot, (JEAN,) a French poet, born near Caen in
1463, was patronized by Anne of Brittany, queen of
Charles VIII. He subsequently accompanied Louis
XII. in his expedition to Venice and Genoa, of which he
wrote an account Died in 1523-

See SAINTE-BEUVE, "La PoiSsie Francaise au seizieroe Siecle."

Marot, (JEAN,) a French architect and engraver, born
in 1'aris about 1630. He furnished the design for the
principal fa9ade of the Louvre. Although a Protestant,
be was appointed royal architect. Died in 1679.

Maroto, ma-ro'to, (Don RAFAEL,) a Spanish Carlist
general, born at Conca in 1785. On the death of Zu-
mala-Carreguy, he was appointed to the chief command
in Biscay, and soon after defeated Espartero at Arrigoria.
In 1839 he concluded with the queen's party the treaty
of Bergara, Died in 1847.

Maroun. See MARON.

Maroutha. See MARUTHA.

Marozia, ma-rot'se-a, or Mariuccla, mS-re-oot'cha,
a Roman lady, celebrated for her beauty and profligacy,
was the daughter of the famous Theodora. She was
successively married to Duke Alberic of Tuscany, Guido,
Marquis of Tuscany, and Hugo, King of Italy and Aries.
In 928 she caused Pope John X. to be murdered, and
afterwards raised three others to the tiara, among whom
was her son by Pope SergiusIII. Her son Alberic hav-
ing revolted against her, she was imprisoned for the
lemainder of her life.

Mar-pes'sa, [Gr. Mopmjffca ; Fr. MARPESSE, miti'-
pess',] a daughter of Evenus, beloved by Apollo.

See HOMER'S " Iliad," book ix.

Marpurg, maR'pooRG, (FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) an
eminent writer on music, born at Seehausen, in Prussian
Saxony, in 1718. Among his principal works are "Treat-
ises on Fugue," "Critical Introduction to the History
of Music," (1754,) and "Rudiments of Theoretic Music,"
(1760.) Died in 1 795.

See FETIS, "Biographie TJniverselle des Musiciens."

Marquard. See FREHER, (MARQUARD.)

Marquet, mSR'ki', (FRANCOIS NICOLAS,) a French
botanist, and physician to Leopold, Duke of Lorraine,
was born at Nancy in 1687. He wrote several medica*
and botanical works. Died in 1759.

Marquette, maR'keV, (JACQUES,) a celebrated French
missionary and discoverer, was born in Picardy. He
travelled and laboured several years in Canada and other
regions. The first Europeans who are certainly known
to have discovered and explored the Mississippi River
were Father Marquette and M. Joliet, who in 1673 con-
ducted a small exploring party from Quebec. Entering
the great river at the mouth of the Wisconsin, they de-
scended in canoes nearly to the mouth of the Arkansas,
or to latitude 34, which they reached in July, 1673. They
were deterred from pursuing the voyage by reports that
the river below was infested by armed savages, and they
returned in canoes to the mouth of the Illinois, which
they ascended. Marquette wrote a narrative of this
expedition, which was published in Paris in 1681. " He
writes," says Professor Sparks, " as a scholar and as a
man of careful observation and practical sense. In every
point of view, this tract is one of the most interesting
among those that illustrate the early history of America."
Having resumed his missionary labours among the
Miamis on Lake Michigan, he died there in 1675.

See CHARLHVOIX, " Histoire de la Nouvelle France ;" MORBRI,
' Dicrionnaire Historique;" SPARKS, "American Biography," vol.
x., ist series.
Marquia, miRlce', (ALEXANDRE Louis,) a French



botanist, born at Dreux in 1777. He published ' Frag'
ments of Botanic Philosophy," and other works. Died
in 1828.

Marracci, mar-rat'chee, (LuiGl,) an Italian priest,
eminent as an Oriental scholar, was born at Lucca in
1612. He became professor of Arabic in the College della
Sapienza, Rome. His principal work is an excellent
edition of the Koran in Arabic, with a Latin version,
(1698.) "This," says Hallam, "is still esteemed the
best." (" Introduction to the Literature of Europe.")
Died in 1700.

See NICBRON, " Me"moires. lf

Marrast, mi'ras', (ARMAND,) a French republican
journalist and political writer, born in Haute-Garonne
in iSor. Soon after the revolution of 1830 he became
associate editor of the " Tribune," the organ of the ultra-
Liberal party. He was imprisoned in 1834 on a charge
of being implicated in the "Conspiracy of April," but
he soon effected his escape, and repaired to England,
where he married Lady Fitz-Clarence. On his return
to France he succeeded Armand Carrel (1836) as prin-
cipal editor of " Le National," a popular daily journal,
which he conducted with great ability for nearly twelve
years. After the abdication of Louis Philippe, (1848,)
Marrast became successively secretary of the provisional
government, mayor of Paris, and president of the Con-
stituent Assembly. He made valuable contributions to
the " Paris Revolutionnaire" and other works. Died in
1852.

See REGNAULT, "Armand Marrast," in "Le Siecle," 1859;
"Nouvelle Biographie GeWraJe,"

Marre, van, vSn maR, (JAN,) a Dutch poet, born at
Amsterdam in 1696. His principal works are tragedies
entitled "Jacqueline of Bavaria" and " Marcus Curtius."
Died in 1763.

Marrier, mfre-V, (MARTIN,) a learned French Bene-
dictine monk, born in Paris in 1572. He published

Bibliotheca Cluniacensis," (1614.) Died in 1644.

Marron, mi'roN', (MARIE ANNE CARRELET,) Ba-
ronne de Meillonaz, a French artist and dramatic writer,
born at Dijon in 1725. She was a friend and corre-
spondent of Voltaire. Died in 1778.

See VOLTAIRE, " Correspondance."

Marron, mt'rAN', (PAULHENPI,) a Protestant divine,
of French extraction, born at Leyden in 1754. He be-
came pastor of a church in Paris in 1788, and favoured
the Revolution. He contributed numerous valuable
articles to the " Biographie Universelle," and published
other works, on various subjects. He died in 1832,
leaving a large collection of engraved portraits, which
were purchased by Louis Philippe.

See HAAG. " La France protestaute."

Marryatt, (FLORENCE.) See ROSS-CHURCH.

Mar'ry-at, (FREDERICK,) a popular English novelist
and naval officer, born in London in 1792. lie entered
the service as midshipman under Lord Cochrane in
1806, and distinguished himself during the three follow-
ing years in numerous engagements in the Mediterra-
nean and off the French coasts. He was made a captain
In 1815, and in 1821 commanded the Rosario, which
brought to the English government the news of the
death o'f Napoleon. He assisted in the attack on Ran-
goon in 1823, and in the expedition against the Malays
in 1824. He published, besides other novels, " Peter
Simple," (1834,) "Jacob Faithful," (1834,) "Japhet in
Search of his Father," (1836,) "Mr. Midshipman Easy,"
(1836,) and "Maslerman Ready," (1841.) Among his
works is "Valerie," an Autobiography, and a "Diary
in America," (6 vols., 1839.) Died in 1848.

See "Edinburgh Review" for October, 1839.

Mars, [Gr. 'Aprc, (Ares;) It, MARTE, maR'ti,] the
name of the Roman god of war, was a contraction of
MAYORS. He was supposed to be a son of Jupiter and
Juno, and was identified with the Ares of Greek my-
thology. According to Ovid, he was a son of Juno, but
had no father. He was worshipped with extraordinary
honours by the Romans, of whom he was one of the
tutelary deities. Homer and other poets relate that
Mars fought for the Trojans at the siege of Troy and
was wounded by Diomede. He was called Gradivus,



; 5 as*; ghard; gas/; G,H,}i,guttural; it, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in this. (gJp'See F.xplanations, p. 23.)



MARS



1664



MARSHALL




f\einua, \^uplU) Ami in f f^ I A ' o

of the twelve great Olympian gods of the ureeks, ana enlarged and re-wntten, and issued in 1074 under the

was especially worshipped in Thrace. According to title of "The Earth as Modified by Human Action." He

tradition, he fled to Egypt during the contest between died July 24, 1882. His wife, Caroline C. Marsh, has

Tvphon and the gods, and changed himself ir.to a fish, published a number of poems and made translations

Having killed a son of Neptune, he was prosecuted from the Geriian.

before the Areopagus (Mars Hill) at Athens, and was Marsh, (HERBERT,) a learned English theologian,

acquitted. Mars was believed to love war for its own born in London in 1757. He became professor of di-

sake, and to delight in carnage. He is usually repre- vinity at Cambridge in 1807, and rose to be Bishop of

sented as a grim soldier in full armour, sometimes as Peterborough in 1819. He published several religious

driving furiously in a war-chariot. and controversial treatises, and translated Michaelis's

Mars marz or miRs, (ANNE FRANCHISE HIPPOLYTE " Introduction to the New Testament" into English.

Boutet' Monvel boo'tV m&u'vel',) MADEMOISELLE, Died in 1839.

a celebrated French actress, born in Paris in 1779. She Marsh, (JAMES,) an English chemist, born in 1789,
was the daughter of Monvel, a popular actor at the was the inventor of an apparatus, called by his name.
Theatre Franfais, and an actress named Mars, and which detects the presence of arsenic in liquids, how-
was early trained for the stage. She excelled in genteel ever minute the quantity. Its utility and certainty were
comedy, in which she was considered unrivalled among verified by Orfila and other lexicologists. Died in 1846.
the actors of her time. She retired from the stage in Marsh, (JAMES,) D.D., a distinguished American
1841. Died in 1847. scholar and divine, born at Hartford, Vermont, in 1794.

Marsais, du. See DUMARSAIS. He was appointed professor of classics at Hampdeu-

Marsand, maR-sand', (ANTONIO,) an Italian litttra- Sidney College, Virginia, and in 1826 president of the

teur, born at Venice in 1765. He published an excellent University of Vermont He translated from the German

edition of Petrarch's poems, with a memoir, and several Herder's " Spirit of Hebrew Poetry," and contributed

original works on various subjects. Died in 1842. religious and philosophical essays to the "Christian

Marachall von Bieberstein, maR'shil fon beeTjer- Spectator" and other journals. Died at Colchester,

stin', (FRIEDRICH,) FREIHERR, a German botanist, born Vermont, July 3, 1842.

in 1766, removed to Russia, where he became a council- Marsh, (NARCISSUS,) a learned prelate, born in Wilt-

lor of state. He published " Flora Taurico-Caucasica," shire in 1638, became successively Archbishop of Dublin

(1808-19) Died in 1826. and of Armagh. He wrote an " Essay on an Introduc-

Marschner, maRsh'ner, (HEINRICH.) a German com- tion to the Theory of Sounds," which was inserted in

poser and musician, born at Zittau in 1795, was appointed the " Philosophical Transactions" of the Royal Society,

chapel-master at Hanover. Among his most popular Died in 1713.

works are the operas of " The Vampyre," " The Templar Marsh, (OTHNIEL CHARLES,) an eminent American,

and the Jewess," and "Hans Heiling." Died in 1861. paleontologist, born at Lockport, New York, October

Mars'd?n, (\VILLIAM,) an eminent Orientalist, of 29, 1831. He graduated at Yale in 1860, studied (1862-

English extraction, born at Dublin in 1 754. Having en- 65) at Berlin, Breslau, and Heidelberg, and in 1866 was ap-

tered the service of the East India Company, he sailed pointed professor of palaeontology in Yale College. Pro-

in 1771 to Bencoolen, Sumatra, where he was appointed fessor Marsh was distinguished for the astonishing num-

principal secretary to the government and devoted him- ber and great importance of his discoveries of new

self to the study of the Malay language. He returned species of extinct vertebrate animals, very largely from

in 1779 to England, and was soon after elected a Fellow the Rocky Mountain region. He was author of

of the Royal Society. He published in 1782 his "His- "Odontornilhes," (1880,) " Dinocerata," (1884,)
tory of Sumatra," which was very favourably received
ana was translated into French and German. He was
subsequently appointed chief secretary to the board of

admiralty, with the war salary of ,4000 per annum. _

Having resigned this post in 1807, he brought out in political economy at Cambridge in 1885. His best-

1812 his "Grammar" and "Dictionary of the Malay km , wn work is .. p r i nc ip| es of Economics," (1890.)

language, which are esteemed standard works. He also Mai'sbaU, (CHARLES KlMBALL.) an American Meth.

made an excellent translation of the "Travels of Marco odfst divin - bom at Dur h a m, Maine, in 1812, became

Polo," wrth a commentary and wrote a description of r of a church at Natche2 ^ M iss i ss ippi.

Eastern coins, entitled "Nunnsmata Orientals Illus- r Mar ' B h a ll, (EMMA, /< Martin,) an English novelist,

trata," (1823) He gave up his pension to the goy- born ne ar 'Cromer about 1832. Of her very numerous

ernment in 1831, and soon after presented his valuable tales> ,, Mrs Mainwarin g's Journal" (1874) and "Life's

collection of coins and medals to the Bnt.sh Museum, Aftermath (l876) are a"' the best-known.

and his library to King's College. Died in 1836. Marshall, (HUMPHREY,) an American soldier and

Marsh, (ANNA CALDWELL,) MRS., an English au- lawyer, born in Frankfort, Kentucky, January 13, 1812.

thoress, born in Staffordshire about 1798. Among her He graduated at West Point in 1832, but left the army

most popular works are "Tales of the Woods and in 1833, and became a prominent lawyer and politician,

Fields," (1836.) " Ravenscliffe," "Mount Sorel," (1843.) being twice sent to Congress. He was a colonel of vol-

and " Emilia Wyndham," (1846.) Died October 5, 1874. unteer cavalry in the Mexican war, and a major-general

Marsh, (CATHERINE,) an English writer, born at Col- j n tne Confederate service, 1861-65. Died at Louisville,

Chester about 1815. Among her works are " Memorials M arc h 28, 1872. He was a grandson of Humphry Mar-

of Captain Hedley Vicars," "English Hearts and Eng- shall, noticed below.

lish Hands." and "Light for the Line, or the Story of Marshall, (HUMPHRY,) an American botanist, was

Thomas Ward," which have gained extensive popularity. a resident of Pennsylvania. He published in 1785 his

Marsh, (DEXTER,) an American geologist, born in "Arbustum Americanum," or catalogue of the trees and

1806, made a large and choice collection of specimens shrubs of America, which was translated into French,

of fossil footprints, obtained chiefly in the Connecticut He was born in 1722, and died in 1801.

valley. Died in 1853. Marshall, (JoHN,) an eminent American jurist and

Marsh, (GEORGE PERKINS,) LL.D., an American phi- statesman, born at Germantown, Fauquier county, Vir-

lologist, born at Woodstock, Vermont, March (5, 1801. ginia, on the 24th of September, 1755. He was the

He was appointed minister to Turkey in 1849, in 1852 eldest son of Colonel Thomas Marshall and Mary Keith,

was sent on an embassy to Greece, and in 1861 was ap- who had fifteen children. He never attended a college,

pointed minister to Italy. His chief published works but he was well educated under the care of his father,

are a "Compendious Grammar of the Old Northern or He enlisted in the army in 1776, became a captain in

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, lung; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon:



" Sauropoda," (1888,) etc., with a large number of
scientific papers. Died March 18, 1899.

Mar'shall, (ALFRED,) an English economist, was
born at London in 1842, and became professor of




. by F. Giitekunst.



JOHN MARSHALL.



MARSHALL



1665



MARSOLLIER



May, 1777, and served at the battles ot Brandywine,
September, 1777, Germantown, and Monmouth, June,
1778. Having resigned his commission in 1781, he be-
gan to practise law, and was chosen a member of the
House of Delegates in 1782. In 1783 he married Mary
Willis Ambler, of York, Virginia, and became a resi-
dent of Richmond. As a member of the Convention
of Virginia, in 1788, he advocated the adoption of the
Federal Constitution by several powerful speeches. He
contributed more to the adoption of this Constitution
by Virginia than any man except James Madison. He
became identified with the Federal party, and cordially
supported the administration of Washington. His
reputation was widely extended by a speech in the
Assembly of Virginia in favour of the treaty negotiated
by John Jay with Great Britain in 1794. In 1797 he
was associated with General Pinckney and Mr. Gerry in
a special mission to the French Directory. His incli-
nation or interest induced him to decline several high
offices, but, at the special request of General Washing-
ton, he became a candidate for Congress, and was elected,
in 1799. He made a great speech in Congress, defend-
ing President Adams for his surrender of Thomas Nash,
alias Robbins, who was claimed by the British govern-
ment as a fugitive from justice. This speech settled
forever the question whether such cases should be
decided by the executive or the judiciary. "That argu-
ment," says R. W. Griswold, "deserves to be ranked
among the most dignified displays of human intellect."
He was appointed secretary of state by President Adams
in May, 1800, and displayed great diplomatic ability in
his correspondence with Rufus King, minister to Eng-
land. On the 3ist of January, 1801, he was appointed
chief justice of the supreme court of the United States.
He performed the functions of this high office for thirty-
four years, and rendered important services by the just
and liberal principles according to which he construed
the Constitution. His profound learning and wisdom,
his moral courage, and his high-toned virtue secured for
him universal respect and confidence. His services as
an expounder of constitutional law are commended by
Judge Story in the following terms : " If all others of
the chief justice's judicial arguments had perished, his
luminous judgments on these occasions would have
given an enviable immortality to his name." In 1804
he published a "Life of George Washington," (5 vols.,)
which is highly esteemed. Judge Marshall was distin-
guished for his benevolence, modesty, urbanity, and
simplicity. He was a devout believer in Christianity,
and was happy in his domestic relations. He died in
Philadelphia (whither he had gone for medical advice)
in July, 1835. "To one who cannot follow his great
judgments," says R. W. Griswold, "in which at the same
time the depths of legal wisdom are disclosed and the
limits of human reason measured, the language of just
eulogy must wear an appearance of extravagance. In
his own profession he stands for the reverence of the
wise rather than for the enthusiasm of the many."

See GRISWOLD, "Prose Writers of America;" JUDGE JOSEPH
STORY, notice of John Marshall, in the "National Portrait-Gallery
of Distinguished Americans," vol. i. ; HORACE BINNEY, " Eulogy
on the Life and Character of John Marshall :" " North American
Review" for January, 1828, and January, 1836.

Mar'shall or Mareschal, (THOMAS,) an English
scholar, born in Leicestershire about 1621. He became
successively rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, chaplain-
in ordinary to the king, and Dean of Gloucester, (1681.)
He was distinguished for his knowledge of the Oriental
tongues and of the Anglo-Saxon, and published " Ob-
servations on Two Ancient Versions of the Gospels,
the Gothic and the Anglo-Saxon," (in Latin, 1665,) also
a " Life of Archbishop Usher." Died in 1685
See WOOD, " Athenx Oxonienses. "
Marshall, (THOMAS FRANCIS,) an American lawyer,
a nephew of Chief-Justice John Marshall. He was born
at Frankfort, Kentucky, June 7, 1801, and became a
highly successful lawyer of Louisville. He was also a
judge and a member of Congress. As a political orator
and wit he had great fame. Died at Versailles, Ken
tucky, September 22, 1864.

Marshall, (THOMAS WILLIAM M.,) an English theo
logical writer, born in 1815. He was educated at Trinity



College, Cambridge, and took orders in the Anglican
-hurch. In 1845 he became a Roman Catholic, and in
lis " Comedy of Convocation" and " My Clerical Friends
and their Relations to Modern Thought" (1873) he
showed himself a vigorous satirist of his former re-
igious associates. Among his other works are "Chris-
tian Missions, their Agents, their Methods, and their Re-
sults," (1862,) "Catholic Missions in Southern India,"
11865,) and "Protestant Journalism," (1874.) Died at
Surbiton, Surrey, December 14, 1877.

Marshall, (WILLIAM CALDER,) a Scottish sculptor,
born in Edinburgh in 1813, was a pupil of Chantrey.
rle visited Rome about 1836, and settled in London in
1839. Among his chief works are " Sabrina," " Una
and the Lion," the "Dancing-Girl Reposing," (1846,)
which gained a prize of five hundred pounds, and a
statue of Sir Robert Peel. Died June 16, 1894.

Marshall, (WILLIAM HUMPHREY,) an English bota-
nist and agricultural writer, born in 1745. He published
a number of works which contributed greatly to the im-
provement of agriculture in England. He also wrote
" The American Grove ; or, Catalogue of the Trees, etc.
of the United States." Died in 1818.

Marshall, (WILLIAM RAINEY,) an American gen-
eral, born in Missouri in 1825. He was a member of
the legislature of Wisconsin in 1848 and of Minnesota
in 1849, took part in the civil war, and was made
brigadier-general by brevet. He was elected Govr
ernor of Minnesota in 1865 and 1867. Died in 1895.
Marsh/am, (Sir JOHN,) an English chronologist, born
in London' in 1602. He embraced the cause of the
royalists in the civil war. He was the author of a work
entitled " Chronologicus Canon jEgyptiacus, Ebraicus,"
etc., (1672,) in which he attempts to reconcile Egyptian
chronology with the Hebrew Scriptures, by supposing
four collateral dynasties of Egyptian kings reigning at
the same time. This theory has been adopted by several
eminent scholars. Died in 1685.

Marsh/man, (JoSHUA,) an eminent English divine
and Orientalist, born in Wiltshire in 1767. Being sent
by the Baptist Missionary Society to India in 1799,
he became a proficient in the Chinese, Sanscrit, and
Bengalee languages. He translated the four Gospels
into Chinese, and assisted Dr. Carey in preparing a
Sanscrit Grammar and a Bengalee-and-English Diction-
ary. He also translated the works of Confucius, and
wrote a " Defence of the Deity and Atonement of Jesu
Christ, in Reply to Rammohun Roy," (1822.) Died in
1837.

Marsigli, maR-sel'ye 6 . (Luici FERDINANDO,) a dis-
tinguished Italian naturalist and mathematician, born
at Bologna in 1658. He served in the Austrian army
against the Turks in 1683 and in several succeeding


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 130 of 425)