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books on her views.

Martin, de, deh miR'taN', (JACQUES,) a French writer,
born in the diocese of Mirepoix in 1684. He published,
among other works, a " History of the Gauls and of
their Conquests," etc., and " The Religion of the Gauls."
Died in 1751.

Mar'tin-dale, (JOHN HENRY,) an American general
born at Sandy Hill, New York, about 1815, graduates
at West Point in 1835. He was a lawyer before the
civil war. He commanded a brigade at the battles of
Gaines's Mill, June 27, and Malvern Hill, July t, 1862.
He commanded a division of General Grant's army in
the summer of 1864. In November, 1866, he was elected
attorney-general of New York. Died Dec. 13, 1881.

Mar'tine, (GEORGE,) a Scottish physician, born in
1702, accompanied Lord Cathcart to America, where
he died in 1743. He published "Commentaries on the
Anatomical Tables of Eustachius," (in Latin,) and other
works.

Martineau, mar'te-no, (HARRIET,) an English mil-



a, e, i, o, u, y, long; 4, 6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; mt; not; good; moon :



MAR TINE A U



1669



MARTINI



cellaneous writer, born at Norwich in 1802, was de-
scended from a French Huguenot family. Being left in
limited circumstances on the death of her father, she
devoted herself to literature as a means of support, and
published, in 1823, " Devotional Exercises for the Use
of Young People," which was succeeded by a number
of popular tales, among which we may name " Christmas
Day," "The Rioters," (1826,) "Mary Campbell," (1827,)
"The Turn-Out," and "My Servant Rachel," (1828.)
Her "Traditions of Palestine" came out in 1831, and
were soon followed by a series of tales illustrating po-
litical economy, which were received with great favour
and were translated into French and German. In 1835
she visited the United States, where she spent about




1840 th

Her health becoming impaired about this time, she was
obliged to suspend her literary labours. After her re-
covery she published, besides other works, " Life in a
Sick-Room," (1845,) and " Forest and Game Law Tales,"
(1845.) Among her later publications are a " History
of England during the Thirty Years' Peace," (2 volf.,
1850,) " Letters between Miss Martineau and Mr. H. G.
Atkinson," etc., (1857,) and "Biographical Sketches,"
(London, 1869.) She was also a contributor to the" West-
minster Review" and other literary journals. Died June
27, 1876. Her Autobiography was published posthu-
mously in the fall of the same year, having been written
principally in the early part of 1855-

Martineau, (JAMES,) a Unitarian divine, brother of
the preceding, was born at Norwich, in England, about
1805. He became professor of moral and metaphysical
philosophy in Manchester New College, London, in 1853,
and in 1858 associate pastor of the Unitarian Chapel in
Little Portland Street. Among his principal works are
"Rationale of Religious Inquiry," (1839,) "Endeavours
after the Christian Life," (1843,) and " Studies of Chris-
tianity," (1858.) Mr. Martineau occupied a promi-
nent position both as theologian and philosopher,
being the representative on the one hand of Unita-
rianism as opposed to Trinitarian orthodoxy, and on
the other of Theism and Spiritualism as opposed to
the materialistic tendencies of the age. His latest
works were "The Seat of Authority in Religion,"
(1890,) and "Studies, Reviews, and Addresses,"
(1891.) Died January 12, 1900.

Martinelli, maR-te-nel'lee, (DOMENICO,) an Italian
architect and painter, born at Lucca in 1650. Among
his best works is the palace of Prince Lichtenstein at
Vienna. Died in 1718.

Martinelli (TOMMASO,) an Italian cardinal, born at
Lucca, February 3, 1827. In 1873 he was created a
cardinal-priest and made prefect of the Congregation
of the Index. Died March 30, 1888.

Martinengo, maR-te-nen'go, (GlROLAMO SILVIO,)
COUNT, an Italian poet, born at Venice in 1753, pub-
lished a translation of Milton's "Paradise Lost" ("II
Paradise Perduto") into Italian verse. Died in 1834.

Martinengo, (Trro PROSPERO,) a learned Italian
ecclesiastic, born at Brescia, published a number o;
devotional poems, in Latin and Greek. Died in 1595.

Martinengo-Coleoni, maR-te-nen'go ko-IA-o'nee,
(GIOVANNI ETTORE,) an Italian officer and diplomatist,
born at Brescia in 175.'., entered the French service.
Died about 1830.

Martinet, miR'te'ni', a French officer, who lived
about 1660-80 and introduced great improvements into
military tactics and the organization of the army.

Martinet, maVte'n^', JAN FLORENS,) a Dutch divine
and writer, born about 1735, was pastor of the Men-
nonite church at Zutphen. Died in 1796.

Martinet, (Louis ACHILLE,) a French engraver, born
in Paris in 1806, gained the grand prize in 1830. He
engraved several works of Raphael and other old
masters. Died December 9, 1877.

Martinez, mar-tee'ne'th, ( DOMINGO, ) a Spanish
painter, born at Seville in 1690 ; died in 1750.

Martinez, (GREGORIO,) a Spanish landscape-painter.



born at Valladolid, worked at Madrid. Among his best
works is a " Holy Family with Saint Francis d'Assisi."
Died about 1610.

Martinez, (]ost,) a Spanish painter, born at Sara-
gossa in 1612, became painter to King Philip IV. Died
in 1682.

Martinez, (SEBASTIAN,) a Spanish painter, born at
Jaen in 1602. On the death of Velasquez he became
first painter to King Philip IV. Among his master-
pieces are a " Nativity" and a 'Taint Jerome." Died
in 1667.

Martinez, (ToMAS,) a Spanish painter, was a native
of Seville. He imitated successfully the style of Mu-
rillo. His " Mater Dolorosa" is esteemed a master-
piece. Died in 1734.

Martinez del Barranco, n_aR-tee'neth del blr-rin'-
ko, (BERNARDO,) a Spanish painter, born at Cuesta in
1738; died in 1791.

Martinez de la Plaza, maR-tee'neth da 11 pli'thj,
(Luis,) a Spanish poet, born at Antequera in 1585 ; died
in 1635.

Martinez de la Rosa, rr.s.R-tee'ne'th da 11 ro'sS,
(FRANCISCO,) a celebrated Spanish poet, orator, and
statesman, born at Granada in 1789. On the breaking
out of the war of 1808, he ably defended the cause of
the patriots both by his tongue and pen. About 1811
he was sent on a mission to London, where he published
his first poem, entitled " Zaragoza." After his return to
Spain he wrote his tragedy "The Widow of Padilla,"
(" La Viuda de Padilla,") and the comedy of " The
Consequences of Holding Office," (" Lo que puede un
Empleo,") which were brought out on the stage at Cadiz
while that city was besieged by the French, and were
received with enthusiasm. In 1812 he was chosen a
deputy to the Cortes. On the restoration of Ferdinand,
in 1814, he was imprisoned six years in the fortress of
Gomera, on the African coast. In 1821 he obtained an
office in the ministry ; but, being accused of want of zeal
by the Liberal party, he retired to Paris. Having re-
turned to Spain, he became prime minister in 1834, and
drew up the " Estatuto Real," granting a new constitu-
tion. He was obliged to resign his post in 1836, and
resided for a time in Paris and London. In 1851 he
was chosen president of the Chamber of Peers. Among
his most popular productions are the dramas entitled
"The Conspiracy of Venice" and "CEdipus," "The
Girl at Home and the Moth-r at the Masquerade," a
comedy, and "El Arte poetica," a didactic poem. He
also published a historical work, called " El Espiritu del
Siglo," ("The Spirit of the Age,") in 10 vols., and the
romance of "Isabel de Solis." Martinez held the post
of perpetual secretary at the Spanish Academy. Died
in February, 1862.



Lo:

d

Martini, maR-tee'nee, (ANTONIO,) an Italian prelate,
born at Prato in 1720, was created Archbishop of Flor
ence in 1781. He published an Italian translation of the
Old and New Testaments, and several original works.
Died in 1809.

Martini, maR-tee'nee, (CORNELIS,) a Belgian writer
on logic and metaphysics, born at Antwerp about 1567;
died in 1621.

Martini, maR-tee'nee, (FERDINAND HEINRICH WIL-
HELM,) a German naturalist, born in the duchy of Gotha
in 17^9. Among his works are the first three volumes
of a "Systematic Cabinet of Shells," ("Conchylien-
Cabinet," 10 vols., 1768-88.) Died in 1778.

Martini, (GEORG HEINRICH,) a German archaeologist,
born in Misnia in 1722. He wrote on Greek and Roman
antiquities. Died in 1794.

Martini, (GIAMBATTISTA,) an eminent Italian musi-
cian and composer, sometimes called PADRE MARTINI,
born at Bologna in 1706. His compositions are chiefly
of a religious character, and possess great merit ; but his
reputation rests principally on his "History of Music"
(3 vols., 1757-81) and "Essay on Counterpoint," (1775.)
He has been styled "the most profound harmonist, and
the best acquainted with the art and science of music, in
Italy." Died in 1784.



as k; casi; Qhard; gas/;G, H, K.futtural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in Mir.



xplanations, p. 23.)



MARTINI



1670



MARTYN



Martini, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian musician, a native j
of Milan, visited England, where he was patronized by j
Frederick, Prince of Wales. He was an excellent per- '
former on the hautboy, and composed a number of con-
certos and sonatas, which are greatly admired. Died
in 1750.

Martini, (JEAN PAUI.EGIDIUS,) often called MARTINI
IL TEDESCO, ("the German,") a German musician and
composer, whose original name was SCHWARTZENDORF,
born at Freistadt in 1741. In 1767 he went to Paris,
where he was patronized by the Duke of Choiseul and
the Prince of Conde. He brought out in 1771 his opera
of " The Lover of Fifteen," (" L'Amoureux de quinze
Ans,") which had a brilliant success ; it was followed
by " Henri IV," " Sapho," " Annette et Lubin," and
other works of the kind, which had great popularity.
Martini was also distinguished for his improvements in
military music. Died in Paris in 1816.

See Fins, "Biographic Universellc des Muskiens;" "Nouvel]*
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Martini, (MARTINO,) a Jesuit missionary, born at
Trent in 1614, visited China, and published after his
return a " History of the Tartar War in China," (" De
Bello Tartarico in Sinis,") which was translated into
the principal European languages ; also an excellent
map of China, ("Atlas Sinensis,") and a "History of
China previous to the Christian Era," (in Latin.) Died
in 1661.

Martini, (MATTHIAS,) a German philologist, born
in Waldeck in 1572, published a good "lexicon Philo-
logicum" (1623) of the Latin language. Died in 1630.

Martini, (ViNCENZO,) a celebrated Spanish composer,
born at Valencia in 1754. He visited Italy and Germany,
where his operas were received with great favour, and in
1788 took up his residence at Saint Petersburg. He was
appointed director of the Italian Opera in that city by the
emperor Paul I. Among his best works we may name
" Ipermnestra," " L'accorta Cameriera," ("The Prudent
Chambermaid,") and " La Cosa rara," from which Mo-
rart borrowed a portion of his "Don Giovanni." Diei'
in 1810.

See F^TIS, '' Biographic Universelle des Musiciens."

Martini, di, de mar-tee'nee, or Martino, mar-tee'no,
an Italian painter, sometimes called SIMONE DI MEM-
MI, and SIMON OF SIENNA, was born in Sienna about
1280. He was a pupil of Giotto, and a friend of Petrarch,
for whom he painted a portrait of Laura. Among his
master-pieces are the frescos in the church of Santa
Maria Novella at Florence. Petrarch dedicated two
sonnets to Martini, who was esteemed one of the greatest
painters of his time. Died in 1344.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters," etc.

Martiniere, de la, deh IS m9R'te'ne-aiR', (ANTOINE
AUGUSTIN Bruzen bRii'zoN',) a French writer, born
3t Dieppe about 1680, was appointed first geographer
to Philip V., King of Spain. His works are numerous
and valuable. Among the most important we may name
" The Historical, Geographical, and Critical Dictionary,"
(10 vols., 1726,) and a "Life of Moliere." Died at the
Hague about 1748.

See " Biographic Universelle."

Martiniere.de la, (PIERRE MARTIN,) a French phy-
sician and traveller, born at Rouen, accompanied the
expedition sent by the King of Denmark to the Arctic
regions in 1653, and published, after his return, his " New
Voyage to the North," etc., (1671.)

Martino. See MARTINI, (DI.)

Martinet, mSR'te'no', (HENRI,) a French mecha-
nician, born in Paris in 1646, was patronized by Louis
XTV., who employed him to make the clocks for Ver-
sailles and the Trianon. Died in 1725.

Martins, mtu'taN', (CHARLES KR^D^RIC,) a French
botanist, born in Paris in 1806, became professor of
botany at Montpellier in 1847. He published several
scientific works, among which we may name his treatise
"On Vegetable Teratology," and "Botanical Journey in
Norway, ' (1841.) Died March 7, 1X0}.

Martinus. See MARTENS and MARTI.

Mar-ti'nus Po-lo'nua or Bo-he'mua, a Polish
chronicler and ecclesiastic, born at Troppau, in Silesia.
He became chaplain and confessor to Pope Clement IV.



and several of l.is successors, and was appointed in 1278
Archbishop of Gnesen. He wrote a valuable work,
entitled "Chronicon de Summis Pontificibus," ("Chron-
icle of the Popes.") Diert in 1278.

See NICBRON, " Me'moires."

Martirano, maR-te-rl'no, (CoRiOLAN",) an Italian
littfrateur, born at Cosenza, was Bishop of San Marco,
in Calabria. He wrote a number of dramas. Died in

'557-

Martire, (PIETRO.) See PETER MARTYR.

Martius, von, fon maRt'se-us, (KARL FRIEDRICH
PHILIPP,) an eminent German botanist, born at Krlangen
in 1794. He studied medicine in his native city, and in
1817 joined the scientific expedition sent by the Austrian
and Bavarian governments to Brszil. After his return
he published, in 1824, his " Brazilian Travels," a work
very attractive in its style, and full of valuable infor-
mation concerning the natural history of that country.
In 1832 he brought out his "Nova Genera et Species
Plantarum," (3 vols., with coloured plates,) and in 1845
his superb "Genera et Species Palmarum," being a
complete description of the palms, (3 vols., with 219
coloured plates.) Besides the above, we may name the
"Flora Brasiliensis," and "The Plants and Animals of
Tropical America," (1831.) Von Martius was appointed
director of the botanic garden at Munich, and chosen
a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, and other
institutions of the kind. Died in December, 1868.

See the " Foreign Quarterly Review" for February, 1830.

Martorelli, maR-to-rel'lee, (GlACOMO,) an Italian
antiquary, born at Naples in 1699. He published a treat-
ise "On the Ancient Colonies of Naples," and other
works. Died in 1777.

Martos, mar'tos, (!VAN PETROVITCH,) a Russian
sculptor, born in Little Russia about 1760. Among his
best works are the mausoleum of the emperor Alexander
at Taganrog, the colossal group in bronze of the patriots
Minin and Pozharsky at Moscow, and the monument of
Potemkin at Cherson, also the bas-relief on the monu-
ment of the grand duchess Helena Paulovna. Martos
was director of the Academy of Fine Arts at Saint Peters-
burg. Died in 1835.

See NAGLHR, "Neues A'.!gemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon."

Mar'ty, (.MARVIN,) D.D., a bishop, born at Schwyz,
Switzerland, January 12, 1834. He was educated at
Schwyz, Friburg, and Einsiedeln, became a Benedictine
monk in 1855, and a professor in the College of Einsie-
deln, removed to Indiana in 1860, and was Abbot of Saint
Meinrad, Indiana, 1870-79. In 1880 he was consecrated
Bishop of Tiberias and made Vicar- Apostolic of Dakota,
where his chief work has been among the Indians. He
is author of a " History of the Benedictine Order," in
German. Died September 19, 1896.

Mar'tjfn, (HENRY,) an able English h-vyer and ex-
cellent scholar, known as a contributor to the " Specta-
tor." His name appears in No. 555 of the "Spectator"
at the head of a list of contributors given by Steele, who
says, " He can hardly be mentioned in a list wherein he
would not deserve the precedence." He was appointed
inspector-general of imports and exports, to reward him
for the service he rendered the government by the
publication of "The British Merchant, or Commerce
Preserved," (about 1713.) Died in 1721.

Martyn, (HENRY,) an eminent English missionary
and Orientalist, born at Truro, in Cornwall, in 1781. He
studied at Saint John's College, Cambridge, where he
distinguished himself by his attainments in the classics,
and was chosen a Fellow of the college in 1802. Having
become acquainted with the Rev. Charles Simeon about
this time, and experienced deep religious convictions, he
embarked in 1805 as a missionary for India. He made
rapid progress in acquiring the language of the country
and was soon able to translate the New Testament into
Hindostanee, and subsequently into Persian. He also
made a Persian translation of the Psalms. His health
at length gave way under his devoted labours, and he
died at Tokat, in Asia Minor, while on his way to Eng-
land, in 1812.

See REV. J. SARGENT, " Memoir of the Rev. Henry Martyn,"
182: ; J. W. KAYE, " Lives of Indian Officers," 1867 ; "Quarterly
Review" for July, i^ji



e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, ?, j, o, obscure; fir, fill, lit; mt; not; good; moon;



MARTYN



1671



MARY



Martyn, (JoHN,) an English physician and botanist,
born in London in 1699. He was elected to the Royal
Society in 1727, and in 1733 became professor of botany
at Cambridge. His " History of Rare Plants," (in Latin,
1728,) illustrated by Van Huysum, was the best work
of the kind then published, and was translated into
German. Martyn also made an excellent translation
of Virgil's "Bucolics" and "Georgics," and was a con-
tributor to the "Grub Street Journal." The genus
Martynia was named in his honour. Died in 1768.

See GORHAM, "Memoirs of John and Thomas Martyn," 1830.
CUVIER. " Histeire des Sciences naturelles."

Martyn, (THOMAS,) son of the preceding, was born at
Chelsea in 1735. He succeeded his father as professor
of botany at Cambridge in 1761. He wrote several bo-
tanical works and miscellaneous treatises. Died in 1825.

KFartyn, (WILLIAM,) an English writer, born at
Exeter in 1 562. was the author of the " History and Lives
of the Kings of England from William the Conqueror
o the End of the Reign of Henry VIII." Died in 1617.

Martyr. See JUSTIN MARTYR.

Martyr, (PETER.) See PETER MARTYR.

Martyr, (PETER.) See ANGHIERA.

Marucelli, mj-roo-chel'lee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian
scholar and philanthropist, born at Florence in 1625,
was a liberal patron of learned men. Died in 1713-

Marucelli, (GIOVANNI STEFANO,) an Italian painter
and architect, born at Umbria in 1586 ; died in 1646.

Marnllo, ml-rool'lo, (MicHELE Tarcagnota tan-
kan-yn'tj,) [Lat. MARUL'LUSTARCHANIO'TES,] a modern
Greek scholar and poet, born at Constantinople. He
was the author of numerous Latin hymns and epigrams
of great elegance. Died in 1500.

See GINGUBNK, " Histoire de la Litte'rature Italienne."

Marullus. See MARULLO.

Ma-rul'lus, (MARCUS,) a Latin satiric poet in the time
of Marcus Aurelius. His style is commended by Saint
Jerome. There is only a fragment of his works extant.

Marum or Marwm, van, vtn mi'room, (MARTiNO
a 1 'utch electrician and natural philosopher, born at Delft,
March 20, 1750. He was educated at Groningen, and
became a physician, and professor of physics at Haarlem.
Among his works are " Dissertatio de Motu Fluidorum
in Plantis," (1773,) and a noted " Treatise on Electricity,"
(1776.) Died December 26, 1837.

Marut [Hindoo pron. mur'oot] or Marut, m^'root,
a Sanscrit word, signifying " wind," and applied in the
Hindoo mythology to the genii (or gods) presiding over
the winds. In the Vedas the Maruts are often ad-
dressed as the attendants and allies of Indra, and are
called the sons of Prisni, (or Pri9ni,) or the Earth ; they
are also called Rudras, or the sons of Rudra, (rood'ra.)

See the Introductions to the several volumes of PROFESSOR WIL-
SON'S translation of the " Rig- Veda ;" MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon."

Ma-ru'tha or Maroutha, ma-roo'tha, SAINT, a Syrian
prelate, became Bishop of Marryropolis. He was a
friend of Saint Chrysostom, and wrote a " History of
the Council of Nice," and other works. Died about 420.

Mar'vell, (ANDREW,) an eminent English patriot and
satirical writer, born at Kingston-upon-Hull in 1620.
Having travelled through France, Spain, Italy, and Hol-
land, where he acquired the languages of those countries,
he was, after his return to England, appointed assistant
to Milton, then Latin secretary to Cromwell, (1657.) He
was first elected to Parliament in 1660, and in this office
gave such entire satisfaction to his constituents that he
continued to represent them till his death. Marvell's
wit and distinguished abilities rendered him formidable
to the corrupt administration of Charles II., and attempts
were made to win him over by the offer of a large sum
of money, which he promptly refused, thus proving his
integrity to be equal to his talents. As a writer he is
chiefly known by his " Rehearsal Transposed," written
in answer to Dr. Parker, afterwards Bishop of Oxford, a
fanatical defender of absolute power. Died in 1678.

See the "Life of Andrew Marvel!," by JOHN DOVE: HARTLEY
COLERIDGE, "Lives of Distinguished Northerns;" CAMPBELL,
"Specimens of the British Poets;" DISRAELI, "pnarreh of Au-
thors ;" "Retrospective Review," vols. x. and xi., (1824, 1825-)
"Edinburgh Review" for January, 1844: "Westminster Review"
for January, 1833.

Marville, de, (VIGNEUL.) See ARGONNE, D'.



Mar'vjn, (ENOCH M.,) D.D., an American Methodist
bishop, born in Warren county, Missouri, June 12, 1823.
He entered the ministry in 1841, and was chosen a
bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church South in
1866. He published " Transubstantiation," "Christ's
Atonement," " Life of W. G. Capels," and " To the East
by Way of the West." Died November 26, 1877

Marwaii. See MERwAN.

Marx, maRks, (ADOLPH BERNHARD,) a German com-
poser and writer on music, born at Halle in 1799, becamt
professor of music in the University of Berlin in 1830.
Among his works are "The Theory of Musical Compo-
sition," (1837,) and " General Theory of Music," (" Allge-
neine Musiklehre," 1839.) Died at Berlin, May 17, 1866.

Marx, (KARL,) a German socialist and agitator, bora
at Treves in 1818. Educated at Bonn and Berlin, he
became an editor at Cologne in 1842, but in 1843 was
Tpelled from Germany. He retired to Paris and en-
gaged in literary work, but in 1846 was sent out of the
country. In 1848 he was driven out of Belgium. He,
however, was actively engaged in the German revolu-
tionary movements of 1848-49, when he was again ban-
ished. From that time he lived mostly in London, where
he became one of the leading spirits of the International
Association. Among his works are " Misere de la Phi-
losophic," (1847,) "Zur Kritik der politischen Oekono-
mie," (1859,) "Das Kapital," (1859,) etc. Died March
16, 1883.

Ma'ry, daughter of Henry VII. of England, was born
in 1497. She became in 1514 the third wife of Louis
XII. of France, who died in the following year. A few
months after she was married to Charles Brandon, Duke
of Suffolk. She left one daughter, named Frances, who
was the mother of Lady Jane Grey. Died in 1534.

Mary, commonly called BLOODY QUEEN MARY, on
account of her cruel persecution of the Protestants,
daughter of Henry VIII. by his first wife, Catherine
of Aragon, was born at Greenwich in 1516. During her
childhood several negotiations were entered into for her
marriage, none of which, however, were carried into
effect. After the divorce of Catherine, the title of
Princess of Wales was transferred from Mary to the
princess Elizabeth. In 1536, on the execution of Queen
Anne, Mary was induced to acknowledge Henry's eccle-
siastical supremacy and the nullity of his marriage with
her mother. Having, by her outward compliance with
her father's whims, in some degree gained his favour,
the inheritance was secured to her, after her brother
Edward and his heirs, in the act of succession of 1544.
When Edward succeeded to the throne, Mary resisted all
his entreaties, and those of his ministers, to change her
religious views, upon which, by the advice of Northum-
berland, he made over the crown to Lady Jane Grey.
(See GREY, Lady JANE.) Mary's first act when estab-
lished on the throne was to restore to their sees Bonner,
Gardiner, and other bishops who had been deposed during
the late reign ; and shortly afterwards Cranmer and Lati-
mer were committed to the Tower. These measures gave
rise to an insurrection of the Protestants, headed by Sir
Thomas Wyatt, in 1554, which, being soon quelled, was
followed by the execution of Lady Jane Grey, her hus-


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 132 of 425)