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band and father, and of Wyatt himself. In July, 1554,
Mary was married to the son of Charles V., afterwards
Philip II. of Spain. In the November following, Par-
liament passed acts restoring the authority of the pope
and reviving the former statutes against heresy. From
this time began a fierce persecution of the Protestants,
and it is estimated that two hundred and eighty victims
died at the stake between the years 1555 and 1558.
Among the most eminent of these martyrs were Bishops
Latimer of Worcester and Ridley of London, and Cran-
mer, Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1557 Mary was
induced to assist Philip in his war against France, and
the united forces of England and Spain obtained a victory
over the French at Saint-Quentin. But the following
year Calais was taken by tbe Duke of Guise. This
was a severe blow to Mary, and probably hastened her
death, which took place in November, 1558. She wa
succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth.

Without defending the cruelties with which Mary's
reign has been reproached, the candid historian will find

, 9as.f; gharJ; gas ;'; G, H, Yi, guttural ; N, nasal; R t trilled; sass; thasinMu. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




many palliations for her conduct in the spirit of that age,
which favoured persecution, in the injustice with which
she had been treated by her father, and in the state of
her health during that part of her reign when the per-
secutions were at their height, which made it impossible
for her to know the true state of affairs. Froude, who
will hardly be suspected of any bias in her favour, says,
" To the time of her accession she had lived a blameless
and, in many respects, a noble life ; and few men or
women have lived less capable of doing knowingly a
wrong thing." He adds that her trials and disappoint-
ments, "it can hardly be doubted, affected her sanity."
And he ends with laying the chief blame of the persecu-
tions of her reign first on Gardiner, and secondly, and
more especially, on Cardinal Pole.

See FROUDH, "History of England," vol. v. chap, xxviii., and
ehe whole of vol. vi. : STRICKLAND, "Queens of England;" also,
HUMB'S and LINGARD'S " History of England."

Mary IL, Queen of England, the eldest daughter of
fames II. by Anne Hyde, his first wife. She was born in
London, April 30, 1662, was bred a Protestant, and in
1677 married her cousin, the Prince of Orange, with
whom as William III. she reigned conjointly as sover-
eign of Great Britain, being proclaimed February 13,
1689. Died of smallpox, December 28, 1694, (O.S.)

Mary, [Gr. ttapia ; Lat. MARI'A; Fr. MARIE, mitre';
It, MARIA, ma-ree'i,] SAINT, a Hebrew woman, cele-
brated as the mother of the Lord Jesus Christ, and styled
by the Roman Catholics the Blessed Virgin Mary,
(Beata Virgo Maria,) also the Mother of God and Queen
of Heaven.

See Matthew i. : Luke i. ; John i. and xix. 25; DUVHRGIER ca
HAURANNE, " Vie de la sainte Vierge," 1664; F. W. GHNTHH, " pie
Jungfrau Maria," etc., i8j: CARLO MASSINI, "Vitadella santissima
Vergine Maria," 1830: ORSINI, "La Vierge: Histoire de la Mere
de Dieu," etc., 1837.

Mary of Burgundy, [ Fr. MARIE DE BOUR(;OGNE,
miTre' deh booR'gofi',] daughter of Charles the Bold
and Isabella de Bourbon, was born at Brussels in 1457.
On the death of her father, in 1477, she became heiress
of Burgundy, and was married the same year to the
archduke Maximilian, son of the Emperor of Germany.
She died in 1482, in consequence of a fall from her horse.
She left two children, Philip, the father of Charles V.,
and Margaret, Duchess of Savoy.

See BARANTB, " Histoire des Dues de Bourgogne ;" GAILLARD,
"Histoire de Marie de BouTEOgne;" MUNCH, Marie von Bur-
gund," 1832.

Mary of Guise, (gweez,) [Fr. MARIE DE GUISE,
mi're' deh gu-ez',1 or Mary of Lorraine, [Fr. MARIE
DE LORRAINE, mS re' deh lo'r&n',] a daughter of Claude,
Duke of Guise, born in 1515, was married in 1534 to
Louis d'Orldans, Duke of Longueville, who died the
following year. In 1538 she was married to James V.
of Scotland, and after his death became, for a short time,
regent of the kingdom. She is described by the histo-
rian De Thou as naturally inclined to justice and tolera-
tion, but she was influenced by the court of France and
her brothers, the Duke and Cardinal of Guise. She
died in 1560, leaving a daughter Mary, afterwards the
celebrated Queen of Scots.

See BURTON, " History of Scotland," vol. iv. chaps, juccvii. and
rrjcviii. : DK THOU, " Historia sui Temporis ;" ROBERTSON, " His-
tory of Scotland ;" FROUDE, " History of England."

Mary Magdalene. See MAGDALENE.

Mary de' Medici See MARIE DE MBDICIS.

Mary Stu'art, Queen of Scots, born at Linlithgow
about the 7th ol December, 1542, was the only surviving
child of James V. and Mary of Guise, (or Lorraine,) who
was a daughter of the French Duke of Guise. James
V. died a few days after the birth of Mary, who was
crowned in September, 1 543, by Cardinal Beatoun. This
ambitious and unscrupulous prelate, who was the head
of the Roman Catholic party, usurped the office of re-
gent. A treaty having been negotiated for the marriage
of Mary with the Dauphin of France, she was sent to
France in the summer of 1548 to complete her education.
Before the year just mentioned, Scotland had been in-
volved in a war against Henry VIII. of England, who
wished to obtain the hand of Mary for his son and thus
unite the two countries under one crown.

Educated at the polite and voluptuous court of Paris,
Mary excelled in various accomplishments, and at an

early age became mistress of the Latin, French, and Ital-
ian languages. About the age of fourteen she composed
and pronounced before Henry II. a Latin oration, in
which she maintained that it is becoming for women to
learn literature and liberal arts. Her rare and radiant
personal beauty, her intellectual graces, and her fasci-
nating manners rendered her a general favourite and the
chief ornament of the French court. " Graceful alike in
person and intellect," says Froude, " she possessed that
peculiar beauty in which the form is lost in the expres-
sion, and which every painter, therefore, has represented
differently. Rarely, perhaps, has any woman combined
so many noticeable qualities as Mary Stuart : with a
feminine insight into men and things and human life,
she had cultivated herself to that high perfection in
which accomplishments were no longer adventitious
ornaments, but were wrought into her organic constitu-
tion. . . . She had vigour, energy, tenacity of purpose,
with perfect and never-failing self-possession, and, as the
one indispensable foundation for the effective use of all
other qualities, she had indomitable courage." (" History
of England," vol. vii. chap, iv.)

In April, 1558, she was married to the dauphin, who
on the death of his father, Henry II., ascended the
throne of France, as Francis II., in 1559. On the death
of the English queen Mary, Francis and Mary assumed
the titles of King and Queen of England, refusing to
recognize the right of Elizabeth to the throne. The
brilliant prospects of Mary were suddenly clouded by
the death of Francis, who died, without issue, in De-
cember, 1560. One great obstacle to her prosperity
was her zealous attachment to the Roman Catholic re-
ligion, which was rejected or abhorred by a majority of
her subjects. The Scottish Estates sent Lord James
Stuart, Mary's half-brother, to invite her to Scotland
and to offer her the free exercise of her religion. Having
resolved to return to her native land, she requested
permission to pass through England on her way thither ;
but Elizabeth would not grant this favour to a rival
claimant of her crown. Mary was thus reduced to the
alternative of a voyage by sea, with the risk of being
captured by the English fleet. She embarked in August,
1561, and parted with regret from la telle France, at
which, with eyes bathed in tears, she continued to gaze
until it was hidden by the darkness. After a passage of
four days, she arrived safely at Leith, and chose for her
chief advisers Lord James Stuart and William Maitland,
of Lethington, both Protestants. She made friends even
among the Protestants, but failed to propitiate John
Knox, with whom she had an interview. According to
Randolph, he made her weep on this occasion.

Soon after her arrival in Scotland, Mary sent Secretary
Maitland to London as ambassador. He made overturej
of peace and friendship, requiring, however, as an indis-
pensable condition, that Elizabeth and the English Par-
liament should recognize Mary as her successor in case
the former should die without issue. On this condition
Mary promised she would not claim the English crown
during the life of Elizabeth. " Elizabeth," says Froude,
"refused positively to name Mary Stuart her successor,
knowing that she would be signing her own death-
warrant." These words suggest the probable assassina-
tion of Elizabeth by the partisans of her rival. Mary
attempted to open the chapel royal for public Catholic
service, but the Protestant mob drove away the priest
with a broken head, and the queen made concession to
the popular will by ordering that the service should be
performed privately. In 1562 Mary wrote a letter to
Elizabeth, and expressed a great desire to have an inter-
view with her. Several courteously-worded letters were
exchanged by them, and their correspondence grew more
and more cordial ; but a serious difference arose on the
choice of a husband for Mary. Elizabeth objected to
her proposed marriage with Don Carlos of Spain, anrf
suggested Lord Robert Dudley, her own favourite ; but
Mary preferred her cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley,
(a son of the Earl of Lennox,) whom she married on
the 2gth of July, 1565. By this act she provoked the
violent hostility of the English queen, and estranged
from her support her half-brother, James Stuart, Earl
of Murray, the ablest Scottish statesman of his time.

i, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; i, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 5, 6, it, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, tat; met; not ; good; moon




" Her gentle administration," says Robertson, " had
secured the hearts of her subjects, who were impatient
for her marriage and wished the crown to descend
in a right line from their ancient monarchs. She
herself was the most amiable woman of her age. . . .
No event in that age excited stronger political fears and
jealousies, none interested more deeply the passions
of several princes, than the marriage of the Scottish
queen." (" History of Scotland.") Mary made an un-
wise choice at last ; for the character of Darnley was at
once weak, capricious, and obstinate. She gave him
the title of king, by a stretch of her prerogative which,
according to Robertson, was a strong proof of the vio-
lence of her love or the weakness of her counsels. In-
stigated by Queen Elizabeth, the Scottish malcontents,
including the Earl of Murray, took arms against Mary
in August, 1565 ; but this revolt was quickly suppressed
by the queen, who rode on horseback at the head of her
army, and the leaders of the insurgents took refuge in
England. Elizabeth disclaimed all responsibility for their
conduct, and expressed her abhorrence of their treason.

In 1566 Mary Stuart joined the King of France, the
pope, and others, in a Catholic league for the extirpation
of heresy, and began to attempt the restoration of popery
in Scotland. "To this fatal resolution," says Robertson,
" may be imputed all the subsequent calamities of Mary's
life." She took into her confidence and favour David
Rizzio, (or Ritzio,) an Italian musician, who became her
French secretary and inseparable companion, even in
the council-room. " He had the control, ' says Froude,
"of all the business of the state." Mary soon repented
of her union with the insolent and dissolute Lord D.\rn-
ley, who treated her with rudeness and neglect and
became jealous of Rizzio, whom he resolved to remove
by violence. Rizzio was dragged from the queen's pres-
ence by the accomplices of Darnley, and killed, in March,
1566. This act was the result of a plot in which the
Earl of Morton, Ruthven, Maitland, and other Protestants
united for political reasons. Deserted and betrayed by
Darnley, they failed to recover power, and fled to Eng-
land. Although Mary deeply resented the conduct of her
husband, she plied him with caresses and gained him over
to her interest. About this time a new favourite acquired
an ascendant over her heart and began to influence her
counsels. This was James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell,
a man of some ability, but unscrupulous and reckless to
the last degree. In June, 1566, occurred an event which
apparently tended to confirm the power and promote
the interest of Queen Mary, the birth of her son James. I
In January, 1567, Darnley was attacked with a severe
illness at Glasgow, where Mary visited him, and, having
employed her artifices to gain his confidence, persuaded
him to be removed to the vicinity of Edinburgh. He I
was lodged in a detached house at Kirk-a-Field, very
near the capital. Mary attended her husband assidu-
ously, and slept two nights in the house at Kirk-a-Field,
which she left on the gth of February at u P.M. About
three hours later the house was blown up by gunpowder,
and Darnley was found dead in the garden. Suspicion
fell on Bothwell as the chief perpetrator of this crirre,
and on Mary as an accessary. She outraged public sen-
timent so far that she not only screened Botl.well from a
fair trial, but married him in May, 1567. Robertson and
Froude agree in the opinion that Mary was responsible
for the death of Darnley.

Impelled byajustand burning indignation, the Scottish
lords and people, both Protestant and Catholic, rose in
arms against Mary and Bothwell, who, in June, 1567,
met them at Carberry Hill with a small army. The
troops of the queen, however, refused to fight, and she
was compelled to surrender herself to her ridversaries,
who confined her on a little island in Loch Leven. Queen
Elizabeth now interposed in favour of Mary, thinking
the treatment she received a dangerous example, and de-
manded her release, without effect. The captive queen
abdicated in favour of her son, and the Earl of Murray
became icgent, (July, 1567.) Letters which Mary had
written to Bothwell were produced in the Scottish Par-
liament, by which she was declared to be accessory to
the murder of the king. By the aid of George Douglas,
a youth of eighteen, she escaped from prison in Ma/,

1568, and was quickly y ined by an army of six thousand
men, which Regent Murray routed at Langside on the
I3th of May. Mary fled to England, and rashly threw
herself on the generosity of her rival, who refused to
admit her into her presence because she was not yet
cleared from the charge of murder. Treated as a pris-
oner, Mary was confined at Bolton Castle, Coventry, and
Fotheringay. She had many adherents in England, who
made several attempts against the power and life of
Elizabeth. In 1586 she was accused of complicity in
Babington's conspiracy, for which she was tried by a
commission, and condemned without proof. She was be-
headed at Fotheringay Castle on the 8th of February, 1 587.

"All contemporary authors," says Robertson, "agree
in ascribing to Mary the utmost beauty of countenance
and elegance of shape of which the human form is ca-
pable. Her hair was black, her ejes were a dark gray,
her complexion was exquisitely fine, and her hands and
arms remarkably delicate both as to shape and colour.
Her stature was of a height that rose to the majestic,"

See BURTON, "History of Scotland:" FROUDK, "History of

of Scots," 1818 ; Miss BHNGER, " Life of Mary, Queen of Scots,"
1823 ; BELL, " Life of Mary Stuart," 1831 ; BUCKINGHAM, " Life of
Mary, Queen of Scots," 1844; Da MARSY, " Vie de Marie Stuart,"

STRICKLAND, "Lives of the Queens of Scotland," 8 vols., 1854;
LABANOFP, " Recucil des Lettres de Marie Stuart," 7 vols., 1844.

Marzari - Fencati, maRd-zJ ree p?n-k;.'tee, ( GIU-
SEPPE,) COUNT, an Italian mineralogist, born at Vic'nza
in 1777, discovered in 1810 the mine of fossil coal at
Borgo di Valsugna. He invented an instrument for
measuring angles, called " Tachigonimetro." Died in

Mar'zl-als, (THEOPHILE,) an English song- writer, born
in Brussels, December 21, 1850. His father was a French
(Gascon) Protestant pastor, and his mother was English.
He was educated in Belgium, Switzerland, and England.
In 1870 he obtained employment in the British Museum.
He has published "The Gallery of Pigeons, and other
Poems," (1873,) an d many song,, ballads, rondeaux, etc.
He has also composed music for many songs and ballads,
and is a successful vocalist.

Masaccio Guidi da San Giovanni, ma-sat'cho
goo-ee'dee di sin jo-van'nee, (To.MMASO,) an eminent
Italian painter of the Florentine school, born near
Florence in 1401 ranks first among the artists of the
second or middle age of modern painting. His works
were studied by Raphael, Michael Angelo, and Leonsvao
da Vinci. His figures are characterized by great anima-
tion and fidelity to nature and graceful arrangement of
the draperies. He also excelled in perspective, which
he learned under Brunelleschi. " Masaccio," says Fuseli,
" was a genius, and the head of an epoch in the art He
may be considered as the precursor of Raphael, who
imitated his principles and sometimes transcribed his
figures." Among his most admired works are the frescos
of San Flctro del Carmine at Florence, and the picture
of "Christ Curing the Demoniacs." Masaccio died in
1443, and is generally supposed to have been poisoned.

See VASARI. "Livesof thePa'nters,"etc. : MRS. JAMKSON,"MC-
moirs of Early Italian Painters."

Masaniello. ma-sa-ne-el'lo, or TOMMASO Aniello,
born at Amalf;, in Italy, in 1622, was the son of a fisher-
man, and in 1647 became leader of a revolt against the
Duke of Arcos, Spanish Viceroy of Naple- . At the head
of 50,000 insurgents, he compelled the duke to abolish
a tax which he had imposed, and also to give up the
charter of exemption granted to Naples by Charles V.
The intoxication produced by this sudden change of
fortune seems to have affected the reason of Masaniello
and, having by his conduct alienated his friends, he
was soon after assassinated by the adherents of the

See " History of the Rise and Fall of Masaniello," by FRANCIS
MIDON, London, i72o;A. GIRAFFO, " Rivoluzionidi Napoli," 1647 ;
MEISSNER, "Masaniello; historisches Bruchstuck," 1785; "Nou-
velle Biographic G<*ne>ale :" " Foreign Quarterly Review" for Au-
gust, 1829.

Mascagni, mSs-kan'yee, (DoNATO,) an Italian monk

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.

Explanati ins, p. 23.)




and painter, called FRA ARSENIO, born at Florence in
1579 ; died in 1636.

Mascagni, (i'AOLO,) an Italian anatomist, born near
Sienna in 1752. He became professor of anatomy in
the University of Sienna in 1774. He wrote an admi-
rable work entitled " History and Iconography of the
Lymphatic Vessels of the Human Body," an outline
of which had previously obtained the prize offered
by the Academy of Sciences in Paris. In 1801 he was
appointed professor of anatomy, chemistry, and physi-
ology at the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova at Florence.
Among his works is "Anatomia universa." Died in


SeeG. SARCHIANI, " Elogio del P. Mascagni," 1816: TIPALDO,
" Biosrana degli Italian* illustri ;" DESGENETTES, article in the Bio-

graphie Me"dicale."

Mascagni, (PiETRO,) an Italian composer, was
born at Leghorn in 1863. He achieved in 1890 a
brilliant success with his one-act opera "Cavalleria
Rusticana." Later operas were " L'Amico Fritz,"
" Nerone," " Zanetto," etc. He became director of
the Conservatorium at Pesaro in 1896.

Mascardi, mas-k.1:<'dee,(AGOSTlNO,)an Italian writer,
born at Sarzana in 1591. He was appointed by Pope
Urban VIII. professor of rhetoric in the College della
Sapienza at Rome, (1628.) He published, among other
works, " Five Treatises on the Art of Writing History."
Died in 1640.

See TlRABOSCHt. " Storia della Letteratura Italiana."
Mascaron, mls'kjf r6N', (JULES,) an eminent French
prelate and pulpit orator, born at Aix in 1634. He
acquired a high reputation by his funeral oration on
Anne of Austria, (1666,) and was soon after appointed
pre..cher-in-ordinary to Louis XIV. He was created
Bishop of Tul'e in 1671, and of Agen in 1679. He is
said to have converted many Calvinists in the latter dio-
cese to Catholicism. He died in 1703, leaving all his
property to the poor, to whom his virtues had greatly
endeared him. A volume of his " Funeral Orations
was published in 1704. That on Marshal Turenne is
eulogized by La Harpe as a master-piece.

Maach, mash, (ANDREAS GOTTLIEB,) a German
writer and theologian, born in Mecklenburg in 1724.
He published, besides other works, "Contributions
towards the History of Remarkable Books," (1769,) and
an excellent edition of Lelong's " Bibliotheca Sacra."
Died in 1807.

Mascheroni. nias-ki-ro'nee, (LORENZO,) an Italian
mathematician, born near Bergamo in 1750. He became
professor of Greek at Pavia, and subsequently of geom-
etry at Bergamo. On the invasion of Italy by the French,
he was elected a member of the legislative body in the
Cirrilpine Republic. He published " Researches on the
Equilibrium of Vaults," (1/85,) and other mathematical
treatises of a high character, also a curious work called
"The Geometry of the Compass," (1797.) and a number
of poems. Died in Paris in 1800.

Masclet, mls'klef, (FRANCOIS,) a French Orientalist,
born at Amiens in 1662. He published a "Hebrew
Grammar," ("Grammatica Hebraica,") in which he op-
poses the use of vowel-points. It is regarded as one of
the best works of the kind. Died in 1728.
See QUKRARD, " La France Litte'raire."
Mascov, mas'kof, (GOTTFRIED,) a German jurist,
born at Dantzic in 1698. He lectured at Gbttingen, and
published several works. Died in 1760.

German jurist and historian, born at Dantzic in 1689,
was a brother of the preceding. He became professor
of law at Leipsic in 1719, and was the author of
treatise " On the Origin and Progress of Public Law,"
and other legal works, in Latin. He also wrote a
" History of Germany to the Commencement of the
Franconian Monarchy," (unfinished.) Died in 1761.
See "Memoria J. J. Mascovii," Leipsic, 1761.

Mascovius. See MASCOV.

Mascrier, Le, leh mts'kRe-i', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a
French litttrattvr, born at Caerf in 1697. He assisted
in the translation of De Thou's "Universal History.' 1
and published several original works. Died in 1760.

Masden, mSs'dl-oo, (JUAN FRANCISCO,) a Spanish
Jesuit and historian, was born at Barcelona in 1740. He
wrote a " Critical History of Spain and of Spanish Cul-
ture in every Department," (20 vols., 1783-1800,) which
has a high reputation for learning and accuracy. Died
in 1817.

Masen. See MASENIUS.

Masenius, mi-sa'ne-us, or Masen, ma'sen, (JAMES,)
a Flemish writer, born in the duchy of Juliers in 1606.
He became professor of eloquence in the college of
Cologne, and was the author of a Latin poem entitled
" Sarcotis," or " Sarcothea," which, it is pretended by
Lauder, suggested to Milton the idea of " Paradise
Lost." Died in 1681.

Maseres or Mazeres, mffzaiR', (FRANCIS,) BARON,
a distinguished mathematician, of French extraction,
born in London in 1731. He was for a time attorney-
general for Canada, and in 1773 was appointed cursitor-
baron of the exchequer. He was the author of a "Dis-
sertation on the Use of the Negative Sign in Algebra,"
and other similar works, and reprinted at his own ex-
pense a collection of the writings of Kepler and other
mathematicians, also one containing the optical works
of Descartes, Huyghens, Gregory, and Halley. The
latter was completed by Mr. Babbage. He was recorder
of the city of London for about forty years. Died in

See " Gentleman's Magazine," 1824.

Masers de Latude, mf zaiR' deh iftiid', (HENRI.)
was born in Languedoc in 1725. Having given offence
o Madame de Pompadour, he was by her orders im-
prisoned in the Bastille. After remaining captive nearly
hree years, he effected his escape, (1756,) with the assist-
ance of a fellow-prisoner and by means of the most
jersevering toil. He was soon arrested, with his com-
union, D'Alegre, and, after suffering an imprisonment
of thirty years, was at length released, by the efforts
of Madame Legros, who interested Cardinal Rohan,
Madame Necker, and others, in his behalf. His " Me-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 133 of 425)