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moirs" were published by M. Thierry. Died in 1805.

See THIERRY, "Le Despotisme dfvoile', ou M<moires de La-
tude," 3 vols.. 1792.

Masb/am, (ABIGAIL HILL,) born in London about
1670, was a cousin of the celebrated Duchess of Marlbo-
rough, upon whose recommendation she became waiting-
maid to the princess, afterwards Queen Anne. She
continued in this post after Anne ascended the throne,
and by her arts supplanted the Duchess of Marlborough
in the royal favour. She was married in 1707 to Mr.
Masham, who was made a peer in 1711. It appears
that her influence raised Harley and the Tories to power
in 1710, deprived the Duke of Marlborough of the com-
mand of the army, (1712,) and made important changes
in the politics of Europe. In allusion to her intrigues,
Macaulay says, " The great party which had long swayed
the destinies of Europe was undermined by bedchamber-
women." Died in 1734.

See MAOMJLAY'S Review of LORD MAHON'S "History of th
War of the Succession."

Masham, (Lady DAMARIS,) the daughter of Dr.
Ralph Cudworth, born at Cambridge, England, in 1658,

was married to Sir Francis Masham, of Essex. She was
distinguished for her piety and for her attainments in
history, philosophy, and divinity. cl - -"= ' f """ 1 '" H

She was a friend and

pupil of the celebrated Locke, who died at her house,
having resided there for some time. Lady Masham
wrote several religious treatises. Died in 1708.

See LORD KING. "Life of Locke."

Maa-I-nis'sa, [Gr. Maooavaomif,] King of Numidia,
the son of Gula.'who reigned in Massylia, was born about
250 E.C. In the second Punic war he fought at first for
the Carthaginians in Spain, but, having been generously
treated by Scipio Africanus, he became a zealous and
faithful ally of the Romans. He waged war with Syphax,
a Numidian prince, and was defeated by him twice. The
Romans under Scipio came to his assistance, and in 203
the allies gained a decisive victory. Among the captives
was the charming Sophonisba, a Carthaginian lady,
whom Masinissa married. Being sternly reproved by
Scipio for this impolitic act, he sent her a cup of poisonj

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, U, ?. short; a, e, j, Q, obscurt; far, fall, ftt; met; not; good; moon;




which she drank, it is said, with heroic spirit He con-
tributed to the victory of the Romans at the battle of
Zama, and was rewarded with the kingdom of Numidia.
He is said to have been a wise ruler and to have done
much to civilize his subjects. He died about the age of
ninety-seven, leaving the kingdom, under the guardian-
ship of Scipio y^imilianus, to his three sons, Micipsa,
Gulussa, and Mastanabal.

See NIBBUHR, "Lectures on Roman History," vol. i. ; LIVY,
"History of Rome," books xxiv.-xxx. ; SALLUST, "Jugurtha;"
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne"rale."

Masius. See MAES, (ANDREAS.)
Mas'ke^l, (WILLIAM,) an English author, born in
Bath in 1814. He graduated in 1836 at University Col-
lege, Oxford, was (1837-50) an Anglican clergyman, but
on account of the famous Gorham controversy became
in 1850 a Roman Catholic layman. He published a
number of theological works, also "Ancient and
Mediaeval Ivories," (1872,) etc. Died April 12, 1890.
Mas'ke-lyne, (NEVIL,) an English astronomer of
great merit, born in London in 1732. He was sent to
Saint Helena in 1761 to observe the transit of Venus,
in which enterprise he failed because the sun was ob-
scured by clouds. In 1765 he succeeded Mr. Bliss as
astronomer royal. He originated the " Nautical Alma-
nack," (1767,) and superintended its publication till his
death. It acquired a high reputation in Europe, and was
styled by Laiande "the most perfect Ephemeris that
had ever been made." For forty-seven years Maskelyne
made exact observations of the sky at Greenwich, and
was the first to give a standard catalogue of stars, (1790.)
In 1772 he visited Scotland, in order to ascertain the
density of the earth by observing the effect of the moun-
tain Schehallien upon the plumb-line. He was the author
of several astronomical treatises in the " Philosophical
Transactions," and was a Fellow of the Royal Society.
He was also a foreign associate of the Academy of Sci-
ences in Paris. Died in 181 1.

See DELAMBRE, "Notice sur la Vie de N. Maskelyne," 1813;
REES, " Cyclopedia ;" DELAMBRB, "Histoire de I'Astronomie au
dix-huitieme Siecle ;" " Monthly Review" for March, 1786.

Mas-Latrie, de, deh ma'lftRe', (JACQUES MARIE
JOSEPH Louis,) a French archaeologist and historical
writer, born at Castelnaudary in 1815. He published a
"Historic Chronology of the Popes, General Councils,"
etc., (1837,) "History of the Isle of Cyprus under the
Rule of the Princes of the House of Lusignan," (1852,)
and " Chronicles of Ernoult and Bernard the Treasurer,"
(1872,) etc. Died January 5, 1897.

Maso da San Friano. See MANZUOLI.

Ma'spn, (ALEXANDER MACOMB,) an American
soldier, born at Washington city in 1841. He joined
the navy, fought on the Confederate side in the civil
war, afterwards served as a soldier in Chili, China,
and Cuba, and in 1870 went to Egypt, where he be-
came a favourite of the Khedive. He surveyed
Lake Albert Nyanza, was made governor of equatorial
Africa, served with General Gordon at Khartum in
1878, and in 1884 was appointed Governor of Masso-
wah and high commissioner of the Soudan. Died in

Ma'spn, (CHARLES,) an English astronomer, who
assisted Dr. Bradley in the Royal Observatory at Green-
wich. He published an improved edition of Mayer's
"Lunar Tables," and, in company with Mr. Dixon, was
sent to America to determine the limits of Maryland and
Pennsylvania. They measured a degree of the meridian,
ind in 1768 Dr. Maskelyne published an account of their
operations in the " Philosophical Transactions" for that
year. Died in 1787.

Mason, (FRANCIS,) D.D., a learned Baptist divine and
missionary, born at York, England, in 1799. Having
emigrated to America, he studied theology at Newton,
Massachusetts, and sailed for India in 1830. He pub-
lished a "Memoir of Mrs. Helen M. Mason," (1847,)
"Burmah, its People and Natural Productions," (1852,)
" Life of Kotha-byti, the Karen Apostle," a translation
of the Bible into the Karen language, (1853,) and other
works. He was also editor of a Karen journal, entitled
"The Morning Star." He died March 3, 1874.

Mason, (GEORGE,) COLONEL, an English statesman
and soldier under the reigns of Charles I. and Charier
II., emigrated to America about 1654, and settled ic
Virginia. Died in 1686.

Mason, (GEORGE,) an American statesman, a de-
scendant of the preceding, was born in Stafford county,
now Fairfax county, Virginia, in 1726. He wrote the
Declaration of Rights and the Constitution of Virginia,
(1776,) after which he served in the legislature. In 1777
he was elected to the Continental Congress. He was
reputed one of the ablest debaters that Virginia ever
produced. He was a member of the national convention
which framed the Constitution of the United States, but
he refused to sign that Constitution, and vehemently
opposed its adoption in the Virginia Assembly, for the
alleged reason that it tended to monarchy. He was
highly eulogized by Jefferson. Died in 1792.

Mason, (GEORGE,) an English littlrateur, who wrote
a "Life of Lord Howe," an "Answer to Thomas Paine,"
and an " Essay on Designs in Gardening." Died in 1806.

Mason. (GEORGE HEMMING,) an English artist, born
at Whitley, in Staffordshire, in 1818. He studied medi-
cine, but abandoned that profession for art, working
mostly at Rome. His pictures are realistic presentations
of homely and unambitious scenes, but, notwithstanding
the fine poetic qualities of his works, they were not pop-
ular during his lifetime. Died October 22, 1872.

Mason, (JAMES,) a distinguished English engraver,
born about 1710, executed a number of landscapes after
Claude Lorrain, G. Poussin, Hobbema, and other artists
Died about 1780.

Mason, (JAMES MURRAY,) an American Democratic
politician, born in Fairfax county, Virginia, about 1798.
He became a member of Congress in 1837, and was
elected a Senator of the United States by the legisla-
tuie of Virginia in 1847. He continued to be a member
of the Senate for fourteen years, and was the author of
the fugitive-slave law of 1850. He was sent with J.
Slidpll on a mission to England by Jefferson Davis in
1861. During the passage in the steamer Trent they
were seized by Captain Wilkes, of the Federal na' 7, in
November, 1861. They were claimed by the British
government, and were liberated in January, 1862, after
which Mr. Mason passed several years in England,
remaining abroad during the civil war. Died in 1871.

Mason, (JEREMIAH,) an American statesman and
lawyer of high reputation, born at Lebanon, Connecticut,
in April, 1768, graduated at Yale College. He practised
law many years at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, to
which he removed in 1797. He was a Federalist, and
a friend of Daniel Webster, who expressed a very high
opinion of him. He represented New Hampshire in the
Senate of the United States from 1813 to 1817. In 1832
he removed to Boston, where he died in October, 1848.
He was considered in the early part of the present cen-
lury to be the foremost lawyer in New England.

Mason, (Sir JOHN*,) an English statesman, born at
Abingdon in 1500. He was privy councillor in the reigns
of Henry VIII., Edvard VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. Died
in 1566.

Mason, (JoHN,) a native of England, born in 1600,
emigrated to America, where he became Deputy Gov-
ernor of Connecticut. He was the author of a " History
of the Pequot War." Died in 1677.

See G. E. ELLIS, "Life of John Mason," in SPARKS'S "Amer-
ican Biography," vol. iii.. 2d series.

Mason, (JOHN,) an English divine and religious writer,
born in Essex in 1706, was the author of a popular work,
entitled "Self- Knowledge," (1745,) which was translated
into several languages. Died in 1763.

Mason, (JOHN MITCHELL,) a celebrated American
theologian and pulpit orator, born in New York in 1770.
He graduated at Columbia College in 1789, and subse-
quently finished his theological studies in Edinburgh.
In 1793 he succeeded his father as pastor of the Reformed
Presbyterian Church in Cedar Street, New York, where
he attracted great numbers by his eloquence. He was
the founder of the first theological seminary in the United
States, of which he was appointed professor. He be-
came editor of the " Christian's Magazine" in 1807, and
was elected in 1811 provost of Columbia College, and

works. He was also editor of a Karen journal, entitled came editor of the " Christian's Magazine" in 1807, and
"The Morning Star." He died March 3, 1874. was elected in 1811 provost of Columbia College, and

eas*;casj; g hard; g as/; G, H, n, guttural ; ft, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (JJ^'See Explanations, p. 23.)




in 1821 president of Dickinson College, Pennsylvania.
Among his most admired writings is his " Oration on
the Death of Alexander Hamilton," who was his intimate
friend. Dr. Mason died in 1829. His works (in 4 vols.
were edited by his son, the Rev. Ebenezer Mason.

See "Memoirs of J. M. Mason," by J. VAN VECHTKN, 1856:
DUVCKINCK, "Cyclopzdia of American Literature," vol. i : CLEVE-
' AND, " Compendium of American Literature."

Mason, (JOHN THOMSON,) an American lawyer and
statesman, son of Thomson Mason, noticed below, was
born in Stafford county, Virginia, in 1764. He was a
personal friend of Jefferson, who appointed him to seve-
ral high offices. Died in 1824.

Mason, (JOHN Y.,) born in Sussex county, Virginia,
about 1795, was secretary of the n*y under President
Tyler, and attorney-general and secretary of the navy
(1846-49) under President Polk. He was afterwards
appointed minister to France by President Pierce. Died
in Paris in 1859.

Mason, (LOWELL,) an American composer and teacher
of music, born at Medfield, Massachusetts, in 1792. He
received the degree of doctor in music from the New
York University in 1855. He was a contrioutor to the
" Musical Review," and published numerous works on
music, both original and compiled. Died August II,

Mason, (OTIS TUFTON,) an American ethnologist,
born at Eastport, Maine, in 1838. He graduated at
Columbian University in 1861, and became curator of
ethnology in the National Museum in 1884. He
wrote " Woman's Share in Primitive Culture,"
" Origin of Inventions," " Primitive Transportation,"
" Cradles of the North American Indians," etc.

Mason, (RICHARD B.,) grandson of George Mason,
noticed above, served with distinction in the Mexican
war of 1848, and became civil and military Governor of
California. Died in 1850.

Mason, (STEVENS THOMSON,) a nephew of George
Mason, was born in Virginia in 1760. He served in the
war of the Revolution, and was elected to the United
States Senate in 1794. Died in 1803.

Mason, (STEVENS THOMSON,) grandson of the pre-
ceding, was born in Loudoun county, Virginia, in 1811.
He was elected in 1835 first Governor of the State of
Michigan. Died January 4, 1843.

Mason, (THOMSON,) younger brother of George Ma-
son, noticed above, was born in 1730. He distinguished
himself as a jurist and a patriot, and was the author of
several able political essays. Died in 1785.

Mason, (\VILLIAM,) an English poet, born at Hull i
'725. He was chosen a Fellow of Pembroke College in
1747, and, after taking orders, became chaplain to the
king. Mason is chiefly remembered as the friend and
biographer of the poet Gray. His principal works are
two tragedies, entitled " Elfrida" and " Caractacus,"
several odes, and " The English Garden," a descriptive
poem. He was also distinguished for his skill in paint-
ing and music. Died in 1797.

Masoodee Alee-Abool-Hassan, Mas'Odi All-
Abul-Hassan, or Masoudy Ali-Aboul-Hassan,
ma-soo'dee a'lee' a'bool' has'san, often called Al-Ma-
soodee, (or Al-Mas'udS,) an eminent Arabian historian
born at Bagdad in the ninth century. His profound and
various attainments in almost every department of know-
ledge have obtained for him the admiration of Europeans
as well as of his own countrymen. He travelled over a
great part of Asia, and as far west as Morocco and Spain
Among his most important works are his " History cf
the Times," and his "Meadows of Gold and Mines of
Gems," the latter of which comprises the history, poli-
tics, religion, and geography of Eastern and European
nations. Masoodee is supposed to have died at Cairo,
in 956 A.D.

Masotti, ma-sot'tee, (DoMENico,) a distinguished
Italian surgeon, born at Faenza in 1698, was appointed
professor of physiology and surgery at Florence, and
afterwards of lithotomy. In 1763 he published his prin-
cipal work, entitled " Lithotomy for Women Perfected."
Died in 1779.

Masoudi. See MASOODEE.

Maspero, mts'pa'Ro', (GASTON CAMILLE CHARLES)
a French Egyptologist, born in Paris, June 24, 1846. He
studied at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand and the Ecole Nor-
male, and in 1874 became professor of Egyptian archz-
ology and philosophy in the College de France. He has
published translations of various papyri, and many me-
moirs on archaeological questions, besides *' De Carche-
mis Situ et Historia," (1873,) " Histoire ancienne des
Peuples de 1'Orient," (1875,) and other works. His
monumental work is " History of the Ancient Peoples
of the Classic East," (1894-1900.)

Masque de Fer, mSsk deh feR, (L'Homme au,
lorn 6,) (the "Man with the Iron Mask,") an unknown
person, who in 1662 was imprisoned in the chateau of
Pignerol, afterwards conveyed to the isle of Sainte-Mar-
guerite, and in 169810 the Bastille, where he died in 1703.
Various conjectures have been formed concerning this
mysterious prisoner, who was evidently a person of high
rank and refined tastes. Some writers have supposed
him to have been a twin brother of Louis XIV. ; others,
thai he was the Count of Vermandois, the Duke of
Keaufort, or Count Mattioli.

See G. J. W. A. ELLIS, (LORD DOVER,) " History of the Stat
Prisoner called The Iron Mask," 1826 ; PAUL LACROIX, " L'Hommt
au Masque de Fer," 1837 ; L. LETOURNEUR. " Histoire de 1'Homme
au Masque de Fer," 1849 ; VOLTAIRE, " Siecle de Louis XIV."

Masquelier, misk'le-4', (Louis JOSEPH,) a French
engraver, born near LillVin 1741. In 1802 he obtained
from the gallery of Florence a gold medal for his en-
gravings. Diedin 1811.

Maasa, mas'si, (NICCOL6,) an Italian physician and
medical writer, born at Venice ; died about 1563.

Mass ud, mfsjR', (JEAN,) a French engraver, born
at Belleme in 1740. He became a member of the Acad-
emy of Painting in the reign of Louis XVI., and, on the
restoration of the Bourbons, was made, in 1814, engraver
to the king. His most admired works are " The Family
of Charles I.," after Van Dyck, and "The Death of
Socrates," after David. Died in 1822.

ful French engraver, son of the preceding, was born in
Paris in 1775. He engraved some works of Raphael.
Giulio Romano, and David. Died in 1849.


Massari, mls-sa'ree, (Lucio,) an Italian painter, jorn
at Bologna in 1569, was a pupil of Ludovico Caracci.
He was intimate with Albano, and took part in some of
his labours. Among his master-pieces are the "Mar-
riage of Saint Catherine," and a " Noli me Tangere."
" Soine of his works," says E. Breton, " are so graceful
that they defy the severest criticism." Died in 1633.

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy;" BALDINUCCI, " No-
tizie;" MALVASIA, " Felsinapittrice."

Massaria, mas-sa-ree'i, (ALESSANDRO,) a learned
Italian physician, born at Vicenza about 1510. He
studied under Fracantianus and Fallopius, and in 1587
succeeded Mercuriale as professor of medicine in the
University of Padua. He was the author of a " Treatise
on the Plague" and a "Treatise on Bleeding," which are
highly esteemed. Died in 1598.

See PORTAL, " Histoire de 1'Anatomie."

Mas'sa-soit. an Indian chief of the Womponoags,
born in Massachusetts. In 1621 he formed a league with
the colonists at Plymouth, which was never violated. He
wa the father of the celebrated warrior King Philip.
Died in 1661.

Masse, mf'sa', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French artist,
born in Paris in 1687, engraved the pictures which Le-
brun had executed for the gallery of Versailles. Masse 1
became painter to Louis XV. Died in 1767.

Masse, mS'sa', (VICTOR,) a French musical composer,
born at Lorient, March 7, 1822. He was educated at
the Paris Conservatory, taking the prix de Rome in
1844. His first work for the stage, the operetta of " La
Chanteuse voilee," (1852,) was at once successful, and
he followed it up with a large number of pieces for the
stage. The best-known of these are " Galatea," " The
Seasons," and " Paul and Virginia," The last is the
only one of his operas well known in this country. Died
July 6, 1884.

Massena, mS'sa'ni', [It. MASSENA, mis-sa'ni,] (AN-

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, p, obscure; far, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; moon;




ORE,) Prince of Esslir.g, Duke of Rivoli, and one of
the most distinguished marshals of Napoleon I., was
born of Jewish parentage at Nice in 1758. He enlisted
in 1775 as a private of the royal Italian regiment, from
which he retired at the expiration of fourteen years,
having attained no higher rank than that of a sergeant.
At the beginning of the French Revolution he again en-
tered the army, and in a short time was successively pro-
moted to the rank of colonel, general of brigade, and
general of division. In 1794 he gained a victory over the
Austrians near Tanaro, took Ormea, and rendered effi-
cient service at the battle of Saorgio. The following year,
while serving under General Scherer, he drove the Aus-
trians from their position at Vado and gained over them
the decisive victory of Loano. In 1796 he acquired
great distinction at the engagements of Montenotte, Mil-
lesimo, Castiglione, and Arcola. His gallant conduct at
the battle of Rivoli, in 1797, subsequently procured for
him the title of Duke of Rivoli. The next year he was
appointed to the command of the army in the Papal
States ; but his rapacity and avarice excited so great
hostility both in his soldiers and in the inhabitants that
he was soon after compelled to resign. In 1799, as com-
mander-in-chief of the armies of Switzerland and the
Danube, he exhibited the highest order of military talent,
especially at Zurich, where he gained an important and
brilliant victory over the Russians. In 1804 he was
created a marshal of France. The next year he was sent
to Italy, to command against the Archduke Charles,
whom he finally succeeded in driving back into Germany.
In 1806 he reduced the insurgent Calabrians to subjec-
tion, took the fortress of Gaeta, and enabled Joseph
Bonaparte to seat himself firmly upon the Neapolitan
throne. He reaped further laurels in 1809, at the battles
of Landshut and Eckmuhl and by the capture of the
fortress of Ebersdort The same year he was created
Prince of Essling, for his distinguished services at the
battle of that place. Massena was appointed in 1810
general-in-chief of the army in Portugal, where, although
he exhibited his usual courage and military skill, he was
ultimately obliged to yield to the superior genius of Sir
Arthur Wellesley. He has, however, received the highest
commendation from English as well as French historians
for the strategic skill with which he conducted his re-
treat into Spain. In 1812 Marmont was appointed to
succeed him. The year following, Massena joined the
Bourbons. He acknowledged the authority of Napoleon
when he returned from Elba, but took no part in the
affairs of government during the Hundred Days. He
was subsequently appointed commander-in-chief of the
National Guard in Paris, and also received several marks
of distinction from Louis XVIII. He died in Paris,
April 4, 1817.

See GENERAL KOCH, " Me'moires de Massena," 1849; NAPIER,
' History of the Peninsular War ;" MAJOR-GENERAL J. MITCHELL,
" Biographies of Eminent Soldiers of the Last Four Centuries,"
1865 ; PONS, " Notice historique sur le Mare"chal Masse'na," 1837 :
THIERS, " History of the Consulate and of the Empire ;" " Nouvelle
Riographie G^ne'rale."

Massenbach, von, fon mas'sen-baK', (CHRISTIAN,)
a Prussian officer, born at Schmalkalden in 1768. He
published several historical works. Died in 1827.

Massenet, mts'seh'ni', (JULES SMILE FREDERIC,) a
French composer, born at Montaud, May 12, 1842. He
was educated at the Paris Conservatoire, where he be-
came professor of composition. Among his operas are
" Poeme d'Avril," " Scenes hongroises," " Marie-Made-
leine," " Eve," a mystery, " Le Roi de Lahore," " La
Herodiade," " Manon Lescaut," etc.

Mas'sey, (GERALD,) an English poet, born in Hert-
fordshire in 1828. The child of indigent parents, he
was obliged at an early age to work in a factory, and re-
ceived no other instruction than that of a penny school.
He published in 1847 "Poems and Chansons," which
were followed in 1853 by "The Ballad of Babe Chris-
tabel, with other Lyrical Poems," " A Tale of Eternity,
and other Poems," (1870,) etc. He also won some dis-
tinction as a lecturer.

Massiac, de, deh mfse'ik', (GABRIEL,) a French
officer and historical writer, born at Narbonne in 1657.
He wrote " Memoirs of the Most Important Events of
the War from 1688 to 1698." Died in 1727.

Massias, mj'se'as', (NICOLAS,) BARON, a French littf-
rateur, born at Villeneuve d'Agen in 1764. Among his
philosophical works is an " Essay on Instinct, Intelli
gence, and Life," (4 vols., 1822.) Died in 1848.

Massie, mas'se, (NATHANIEL,) an American soldier
and pioneer, born in Goochland county, Virginia, in 1763,
settled in Ohio, where he became one of the largest land-
owners in the State. He founded in 1796 the town of
Chilicothe. Died in 1813.

Massieu, mt'se-uh', (GUILLAUME,) a French lit-
tfrateur, born at Caen in 1665. He was appointed in
1710 professor of Greek in the College of France. He
translated the Odes of Pindar, and wrote a " His-
tory of French Poetry," brought down to the reign of
Francis I. Died in 1722.

See GROS DE BOZE, "filoge de Massieu ;" THERY, " Notice sur
1'Abbe 1 Massieu."

Massieu, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French ecclesiastic,
born in Picardy, became constitutional Bishop of L'Oise
in 1791. He voted for the death of Louis XVI. in the
National Convention. Died in 1818.

Massillon, mi'sel'ydN' or mi'se'y6N', (JEAN BAP-
TISTE,) a French pulpit orator of great celebrity, born
at Hieres, in Provence, in 1663. He was educated in

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 134 of 425)