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TIN,) a son of the preceding, born in 1714, rose through
various high offices to be chancellor of France in 1768.
In this post he directed all his efforts towards the over-
throw of the parliament, which, by his intrigues, was
accomplished in 1771. The president Lamoignon and
several distinguished members were exiled ; but on the
accession of Louis XVI. (1774) they were recalled, and
the former system was re-established. Maupeou was ban-
ished to his estate, near Les Andelys, where he died
in 1792, having bequeathed to the nation the sum of
800,000 livres. He was the last chancellor of the
ancient monarchy.

See " Lettres de Madame du Deffand :" DB TOCQUEVILLE, " Hiv-
toire de Louis XV ;" SISMONDI, " Histoire des Francais."

Maupertuis, de, deh mo'pe'R'tu-e', (PIERRE Louis
MOREAU,) an eminent French mathematician, bom at
Saint-Malo in 1698. He finished his studies in Paris,
was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1723, and in
1727 became a Fellow of the Royal Society, London.
In 1736 he was the chief of a party of savants, in-
cluding Clairaut and Lemonnier, who were sent to
Lapland by the Academy in order to measure a degree
of the meridian. The result of this experiment, which
is his chief title to celebrity, exposed the error which
had been made by Dominic and Cassini in their measure-
ment in France, and tended to confirm Newton's theory
of the oblate form of the earth. On the invitation of
Frederick II. of Prussia, Maupertuis repaired in 1740 to
Berlin, where he was appointed president of the Acad-
emy of Sciences. He was the author of an " Essay on
Moral Philosophy," "The Balistic Arithmetic," "The
Measure of the Northern Degree," " Discourse on the
Figure of the Stars," and several able treatises on geom-
etry. Died in 1759.

Seel*. A. DE LA BEAUMELLB, " Vie de Maupertuis," 1856 ; DAM*-
RON, "Miimoire sur Maupertuis:" VOLTAIRE, " Conespondano
Gi*ne>ale;" J. H. FORMEY, " Eloge de Maupertuis," 1761 : "Nou-
velle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Mauquest de la Motte, mo'kj' deh 11 mot, (GuiL-
LAUME,) a French surgeon, born at Valognes in 1655,
wrote a "Treatise on Surgery," (3 vols., 1722.) Dierl
in 1737.


Maurand or Mauran, mo'riN', (PIERRE,) the first
leader of the Albigenses, was born at Toulouse. It is
said that, under the pressure of severe persecution, he
abjured his doctrines. Died in 1199.

Maureillan, mo'ri'yftN', (CASIMIR POITEVIN,) Vi-
COMTE, a French general, born at Montpellier in 1772,
succeeded the Duke of Ragusa as Governor of Dalmatia
in 1806. Died in 1829.

as/&; 9asj: ghard; gas/',- G, H, Y., guttural; N, nasal; R. trilltd: sass; th as in this.

lanations, p. 23.)




Maurepas, de, deh moR'pa', (JEAN FREDERIC Fhe-
lypeaux fa'le'po',) COMTE, a French statesman, born
it Versailles in 1701, was a grandson of Chancellor Pont-
chartrain. He succeeded his father, Jer6me de Pontchar-
train, as secretary of state in 1715, and in 1725 became
minister of marine. Though frivolous in his character
and superficial in his attainments, he was a liberal patron
of learned men, and promoted the scientific expeditions
of Maupertuis and his companions to Lapland and of
Jussieu to South America. Having offended Madame
de Pompadour by an epigram, he was banished from
court ; but after twenty-five years be was recalled. The
principal measure of his subsequent administration was
the restoration of the parliaments. Died in 1781.

See CONDORCET, "filoge de M. de Maurepas," 1782; VOLTAIRE,
"Siecle de Louis XV ;" Duoz, " Histoire de Louis XVI;" MAR-
MONTRL, "Me'moires;" " Nouvelle Biographic Gine'rale."

Maurer, mSw'rer, (CHRISTOPH,) a Swiss painter and
engraver, son of Josias, noticed below, was born at Zurich
in 1558. He was a pupil of Tobias Slimmer. Died in

Maurer, mow'rer, (GEORG LUDWIG,) a German jurist,
t orn near Durkheim, in Bavaria, in 1790, became min-
ister of foreign affairs and of justice in 1847. He published
a number of legal treatises. Died May 9, 1872.

Maurer or Murer, moo'r?r, (JosiAS,) a Swiss artist
and litttrattur, born at Zurich in 1530, excelled as an
engraver and painter on glass. Died in 1580.


Maurice, the French for MAURICIUS, which see.

Maurice, mS'ress', (ANTOINE,) a French Protestant
theologian and Orientalist, born in Provence in 1677.
He became professor of history, Oriental languages, and
theology at Geneva. Died in 1756.

Maurice, (ANTOINE,) a theological writer, a son of
the preceding, born at Geneva in 1716, succeeded his
father in the chair of theology in that city, (1756.) Died
in 1795.

writer, son of Antoine, (the second of the name,) born
>t Geneva in 1750, was one of the founders of the "Bi-
bliotheque Britannique," (1796,) and published several
agricultural works. Died in 1826.

Maurice, mau'riss, (JOHN FREDERICK DENISON,)
an English divine and prominent leader of the " Broad
Church" party, born in 1805. He studied at Trinity Col-
lege, Cambridge, and subsequently became editor of the
London "Athenaeum." Among his principal works are
his "Theological Essays," "Prophets and Kings of the
Old Testament," "Unity of the New Testament," "The
Kingdom of Christ," (1841,) "Religions of the World,"
" Philosophy of the First Six Centuries," " Doctrine of
Sacrifice deduced from the Scriptures," " Lectures on
National Education," " Philosophy of the Middle Ages, 1 '
"Claims of the Bible and of Science," (1862,) and "The
Conflict of Good and Evil in our Day," (1865.) He was
appointed professor of moral philosophy at Cambridge
in 1866. Died April I, 1872.

See " Fraser's Magazine" for April, 1854 ; " New American Cy-

Maurice, (Rev. THOMAS,) an English divine and
scholar, born in Hertford in 1755, became vicar of Cud-
ham, in Kent. He was the author of " Indian Antiqui-
ties," (7 vols., 1797,) "History of Hindostan," (3 vols.,
1799,) and "Modern History of Hindostan," (2 vols.,
1804.) He also translated into verse the "CEdipus
Tyrannus" of Sophocles, and published several poems
and dramas. Died in 1824.

See "Memoirs of Rev. Thomas Maurice," 1819, by himself;
''Gentleman's Magazine," 1824.


Maurice, mau'riss, [Ger. MO'RITZ ; Lat. MAURITIUS, ]
Elector of Saxony, a celebrated general and champion
of the Protestant cause, was born at Freiberg, March
21, 1521. He succeeded his father, Henry, Duke of
Saxony, in 1541, and married Agnes, a daughter of Philip,
Landgrave of Hesse. In 1546 he formed a secret alliance
with the emperor Charles V. against the Protestant
League of Schmalkalden, with a design to supplant John
Frederick as Elector of Saxony, whose dominions he
invaded with success. The title of elector was trans-

ferred to him by Charles V. In consequence of his un-
expected hostility to the Protestants, the Imperial army
gained a decisive victory at Miihlberg in April, 1547, and
the Protestant cause was apparently ruined. Having
changed his policy, and formed, in 1551, a secret treaty
with Henry II. of France, Maurice, aided by several Ger-
man princes, in the spring of 1552 took arms for the
assertion of religious liberty, and marched against Charles
V., who was at Innspruck. Surprised by this sudden
movement, Charles was compelled to retreat, the Council
of Trent was dispersed in confusion, and hostilities were
terminated by the memorable treaty of Passau, August
22, 1552, which secured religious liberty to the Protest-
ants of Germany. Maurice was killed in a battle against
Albert of Brandenburg, at Sievershausen, in July, 1553.

See J. CAMHRARIUS, "Vita Mauritii Electoris Saxoniz," 1569;
GEORG ARNOLD, "Vita Mauritii," 1719; F. A. VON LANGENN,
" Moritz Herzog und Churfiirst von Sachsen," a vols., 1841 ; SCHLEN-
KBRT, "Moritz Churfiirst von Sachsen," 4vols., 1798-1800; "Nou-
velle Biographic Gnerale."

Maurice, mau'riss, [Fr. pron. mo'ress',] SAINT, a
Christian martyr, was commander of the Theban Legion,
which was composed entirely of Christians. Being or
dered by the emperor Maximian to make a sacrifice to
the gods for the success of the Roman arms, he refused
to comply, and was put to death, together with the greater
part of the legion he commanded, (286 A.D.)

See J. DB LISLE, " Defense de la Virile' du Martyrc de la Ldgioa
The'be'enne," 1737.

Mauriceau, mo're'sc/, (FRANC.OIS,) a French phy-
sician, born in Paris, published a " Treatise on the Dis-
eases of Pregnancy," which was translated into several
languages. Died in 1709.

Mauricianus, mau-rish-I-a'nus, (JUNIUS,) a Roman
jurist under the reign of Antoninus Pius.

Mauricius or Mauritius, mau-rishl-us, [Gr. Mov-
oi/cioj-; Fr. MAURICE, mo'ress'; It. MAURISIO, m8w-
ree'se-o,] (FLAViys TIBERIUS,) Emperor of the East,
born in Cappadocia in 539 A.D. Having been appointed
by the emperor Tiberius commander of his armies
against the Persians, he gained several important victo-
ries, and was, on his return, rewarded by Tiberius with
his daughter's hand. After carrying on war for some
time with the Abares, a barbarous tribe on the Danube,
a mutiny broke out among his soldiers, who chose for
their leader a centurion named Phocas. Mauritius was
put to death, having previously witnessed the execution
of five of his sons, (602.)

See GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire:" Lm
BEAU, " Histoire du Bas- Empire ;" " Nouvelle Biographic G^n<-

Maurisio, mow-ree'se-o, (GERARDO,) an Italian jurist
and historian, born at Vicenza, lived about 1200-1240.
He served under the Ghibeline commander Ezzelino
da Romano, and subsequently wrote a history of his
achievements, which enjoys a high reputation.

Mauritius. See MAURICE of Saxony, and MAURI-

Mauro, FRA, fRj mow'ro, an eminent Italian geog-
rapher, was a monk of the order of the Camaldules,
near Venice. His principal work is an excellent map
of the world, executed about 1458. Several copies of
it have been made ; one of the best of these is in the
British Museum.

See PLACIDO ZURLA, "II Mappamundo di Fra Mauro," 1806.

Maurocenua. See MOROSINI.

Maurocordato. See MAVROCORDATOS.

Maurolico, mow-ro'le-ko, (FRANCESCO,) a celebrated
Sicilian geometer, born at Messina in 1494, was for many
years professor of mathematics in his native city. He
was the author of a "Treatise on Conic Sections," "Op-
tical Theorem," and other valuable works in Latin, and
made translations from Euclid, Apollonius, and Auto-
lycus. Died in 1575.

See F. MAUROLICO, "Vita del Abbatc Francesco Maurolico,'
1613; D. SctNA, " Elogio di F. Maurolico," 1808.

Mau'rus Terentia'uus, (te-reVshe-a'nus,) a Latin
writer, supposed to have been a native of Carthage, was
lh< author of a poem on the rules of Latin versification,
entitled "De Literis, Syllabis, Pedibus," etc.

Maury, m5're', (JEAN SIFFREIN,) a celebrated French
prelate and pulpit orator, born in the Venaissin in 1746.

a, e, T, o, u, y, Imij;: A. e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 0, obscure; far, fill, fit; mft; n6t; g6"6d; moon;



He repaired to Paris about 1766, and soon acquired a
high reputation by his " Funeral Oration on the Dauphin,"
and his " Eulogy of Fenelon." He published in 1777
his "Treatise on Pulpit Eloquence," and in 1778 was ap-
pointed to preach the Careme (Lent) sermon before the
king. His " Panegyric on Saint Vincent de Paul, "which
is esteemed his master-piece, appeared in 1785, and he
was soon after chosen a member of the French Academy.
In 1789 he was a deputy of the clergy of Peronne to the
States-General, where he was conspicuous as the elo-
quent advocate of the Church and of the royalist party
and the most powerful opponent of Mirabeau. On the
dissolution of the Constituent Assembly he was obliged
to leave the country, and at the invitation of Pius VI.
he took up his residence at Rome, where he was made
a cardinal in 1794. In 1804 he wrote a letter of con-
gratulation to the emperor Napoleon, and henceforth
attached himself to the interests of the new sovereign.
He was successively created by him a member of the
Institute, first almoner of Jerome Bonaparte, and Arch-
bishop of Paris, (1810.) After the restoration of the
Bourbons, Cardinal Maury was deprived of his place,
and retired to Rome, where he died in 1817. Maury was
noted for his brilliant repartee, of which the following
instances may be given. Being asked by Napoleon how
he stood with regard to the Bourbons, he replied, " Sire,
my respect for them is unalterable ; but I have lost faith
and hope, and there remains to me only charity." Once,
in the Assembly, some ladies of rank, known for their
republican opinions, attempted by their loud conversa-
tion to drown his voice, when, turning to the president,
he said, " I pray you silence those Sans-culottes."

See "Viedu Cardinal Maury," 1827, by his nephew; POUJOULAT,
" Le Cardinal Maury, sa Vie et ses CEuvres," 1855 ; " Nouvelle Bio-
graphie Gene>ale;" "Monthly Review," voL Ixiz., 1812, (Appen-

Maury, m8w-ree', QUAN MARIA,) a Spanish poet
and critic, born at Malaga, published in 1826 a collection
of Spanish lyrics, entitled " Poetical Spain," ("Espagne
poetique,") which were translated into elegant French
verse and accompanied with critical and biographical
notices. Died in 1845.

Maury, (Louis FERDINAND ALFRED,) a French anti-
quarian writer, born at Meaux in 1817. He became a
member of the Academy of Sciences in 1857. He pub-
lished a number of works, the most valuable of which
is his " History of the Religions of Ancient Greece,"
(3 vols., 1857.) Died at Paris, February n, 1892.

Mau'ry, (MATTHEW FONTAINE,) LL.D., an American
hydrographer and naval officer, born in Sppttsylvania
county, Virginia, in 1806. About 1826 he sailed in the
Vincennes on a voyage around the world, and after his
return was made a lieutenant in 1836. He published a
"Treatise on Navigation," (about 1835,) "Letters on the
Amazon and the Atlantic Slopes of South America,"
"Relation between Magnetism and the Circulation of
the Atmosphere," "Astronomical Observations," (1853,)
and "Physical Geography of the Sea," (1855 ; sixth edi-
tion, 1856,) a work which has been highly praised by
competent judges. Died February I, 1873.

See the " North British Review" for May, 1858.

Mau-so'lus, [Gr. Mawu/lof / Fr. MAUSOLE, mo'zol',]
son of Hecatomnus, became King of Caria, in Asia
Minor, about 377 B.C., being, however, nominally a satrap
of the Persian empire. He made considerable conquests
in Persia and in different parts of Greece, and was, ac-
cording to Demosthenes, one of the instigators of the
Social war. From his name is derived the word "mau-
soleum." The colossal statue of Mausolus, now in the
British Museum, is one of the finest extant relics of,
ancient art. (See ARTEMISIA.)

See CLINTON, " Fasti Hellenid."

Maussac, de, deh mo'sSk', [Lat. MAUSSA'CUS,]
(IIUI-IP JACQUES,) an eminent French critic and scholar,
\ia n near Beziers about 1590. He became first president
of the Chambre des Comptes at Montpellier in 1647.

Maussac was one of the first Greek scholars of his time,
and was an intimate friend of Salmasius. Died in 1650.

Maussacua. See MAUSSAC.

Mautour, de, deh mo'tooR', (PHILIBERT BERNARD
MOREAU,) a French antiquary, born at Beaune in 1654.
Among his works is a " Dissertation on the History <?
the Amazons." Died in 1737.

Mauvais, mo'vi', (FELIX VICTOR,) a French astron-
omer, born at Maiche, in Doubs, in 1809; died in 1854.

Mauvillon, m6've'y6N', (ELEAZAR,) a French littl-
ratfur, born in Provence in 1712, became secretary to
Frederick Augustus, King of Poland. He published a
"History of Prince Eugene of Savoy," (5 vols., 1740,)
a "History of Peter the Great," (1742,) "History of
Gustavus Adolphus," (1764,) and other works, (in
French.) Died at Brunswick in 1779.

Mauvillon, (JACOB,) son of the preceding, born at
Leipsic in 1743, became professor of military science at
Cassel in 1771. He wrote a "Historical Essay on the
Art of War," etc, (in French, 1784,) and other works
in French and German, also " The Prussian Monarchy,"
("La Monarchic Prussienne,") in conjunction with
Mirabeau, who was his intimate friend. Died in 1794.

See HAAG, "La France protestante ;" "Nouvelle Biographie

Mauzinho Quevedo de Castello Branco, mow-
zen'yo ki-va'do da kas-tel'Io bRan'ko, a Portuguese
poet, wrote a poem entitled " Alphonso the African,"
commemorating the achievements of King Alphonso V.

Ma'vpr, (WILLIAM FORDYCE,) a Scottish writer, born
near Aberdeen in 1758, became tutor to the children
of the Duke of Marlborough. He published a number
of useful compilations, among which we may name a
" Historical Account of the Most Celebrated Voyages,"
" Elements of Natural History," and " The British Cor-
nelius Nepos." Died in 1837.

Mavors. See MARS.

Mavrocordatos, mav-ro-kor-da'tos, or Mavrocor-
dato, miv-ro-kor-da'to, (ALEXANDER,) a modern Greek
physician, statesman, and scholar, born about 1636. He
studied at Rome and Padua, and took his medical degree
at Bologna. Having settled at Constantinople, his pro-
found knowledge of both Oriental and European lan-
guages procured for him the post of grand dragoman to
the Ottoman Porte, (1673.) He was afterwards employed
in important embassies to Vienna, and negotiated the
treaty of Carlowitz, (1698.) His services to Austria on
this occasion were rewarded by the emperor Leopold
with the title of count of the empire, while he was ap-
pointed secretary of state by the Sultan, and obtained
other distinctions. He was the author of a medical
work entitled " Pneumaticum Instrumentum," etc., which
was translated into French, German, and Spanish, a
"Modern Greek Grammar," and a collection of letters.
Died in 1709.

See VON HAMMER, "Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs:"
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Mavrocordatos, (ALEXANDER,) a Greek statesman,
born at Constantinople in 1791. He took arms against
the Turks in 1821, and was appointed president of the
executive committee in January, 1822, soon after which
he took command of the army. Having been rendered
almost powerless by the dissensions among the Greeks
and by the enmity of Colocotronis and Ypsilanti, he re-
signed or refused the office of president in 1823. In 1832
he was appointed a member of the cabinet by King Otho,
whom he served as ambassador to Munich, Berlin, and
London between 1834 and 1840. He was prime minis-
ter for a short time in 1841, and president of the council
in 1844. About May, 1854, he was restored to power,
which he resigned a few months later. Died in 1865.

See TRICOUFIS, " History of the Greek Revolution," (in modern
Greek.) 4 vols., 1853-56; "Nouvelle Biographie G^ne'rale;" L. D
LOM^NIE, " Galerie des Contemporains. "

Mavrocordatos, ( CONSTANTINE, ) was appointed
Hospodar of Wallachia in 1735. He abolished serfdom,
and introduced great improvements in the agriculture
of the country. Died in 1765.

Mavrocordatos, (NICHOLAS,) son of Alexander,
(the first of the name,) was appointed successively
dragoman to the Sultan, Hospodar of Moldavia (1709)
and of Wallachia, (1711.) Died in 1730.

Mavromicbalis, mav-ro-me-Kl'lis, known also as

as*; casf,- ^hard; gas/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal: R. trilled; sasi, th as in this. (JjySee Explanations, p. 23.)




PlETRO BEY, a modern Greek patriot, born in the Morea
about 1775. He fought against the Turks in the revo-
lution which began in 1821, and became a member of
the provisional government. Died in 1848.

Mawe, maw, (JOSEPH,) an English naturalist, born in
Derbyshire in 1 764, published " Travels in the Interior of
Brazil," etc, (1812,) "Treatise on Diamonds and Precious
Stones," (1813,) "Mineralogy of Derbyshire," and other
scientific treatises. Died in 1829.

Mawmoisine, maw'moi-zin, or Malvoisine, de,
deh mal'vo-zin, (WILLIAM,) a prelate, supposed to have
been a native of France. Having visited Scotland, he
was made Bishop of Saint Andrew's in 1202. He estab-
lished many monasteries in that country, and was active
in promoting a crusade to the Holy Land.

Maxentiua, maks-e'n'shle-ijs, [Fr. MAXENCE, mtk'-
sftNss',] (MARCUS AURELIUS VALERIUS,) a Roman em-
peror, was the son of Maximian, who abdicated in 305
A.D. He married the daughter of the emperor Galerius.
He thought himself slighted by the promotion of Con-
stantine to the rank of Csesar in 306, and excited a
revolt among the Praetorian guards, who proclaimed him
emperor at Rome in the same year. Galerius, who was
then in a distant province, sent against him an army
under Severus, who was defeated and killed by the aid
of Maximian. Maxentius and his father reigned together
for a short time, and made an alliance with Constantine,
who married Fausta, a sister of Maxentius. Maximian
was expelled from Rome in 308, in consequence of a

3uarrel with his son. In 312 the army of Constantine
efeated that of Maxentius, who, in the retreat, was
drowned in the Tiber.

See GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire:" TlLLB-
aioNT, " Hisloire des Empereurs."

Max'ey, (SAMUEL BELL,) an American Senator, born
at Tompkinsville, Kentucky, March 30, 1825. He grad-
uated at West Point in 1846, served in the Mexican war,
and afterwards was a lawyer in Texas. He served in
the Confederate army, and was made a major-general.
He was sent to the United States Senate in 1875, an d
was re-elected. Died in 1895.

Max'im, (HIRAM STEVENS,) an American in-
ventor, born at Sangerville, Maine, in 1840. He
worked as a coach-builder and an engineer, and after
1867 took out patents for various inventions, the best
known of which is the Maxim machine-gun, which
uses the power of the recoil for reloading. He also
invented cordite, a smokeless powder, and in 1894 a
flying machine. He resided in England after 1881.

Maxime. See MAXIMUS.

Maxime de Tyr. See MAXIMUS TYRIUS.

Max-iml-an, [Fr. MAXIMIEN, m5k'se'me-lN' ; Lat
MAXIMIA'NUS, ] or, more fully, Mar'cus Vale'rius
Maximia'nus, a Roman emperor, born in Pannonia,
was the son of a peasant He had obtained high rank in
the army when Diocletian, in 286 A.D., adopted him as
his colleague in the empire. In the division of the em-
pire, Italy and Africa were assigned to Maximian. In
305 Diocletian and Maximian formally abdicated in
favour of Galerius and Constantius Chlorus. The next
year he joined his son Maxentius in an effort to recover
power, and was proclaimed emperor. In the war that
ensued between him and Constantine he was taken
prisoner, and executed in 310. (See MAXENTIUS.)

See GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" TIL
MONT, " Histoire des Empereurs."

Maximianus. See MAXIMIAN.

Maximien. See MAXIMIAN.

Max-I-mill-an [Ger. pron. mak-se-mee'le-an ; Fr.
MAXIMILIEN, mik'se'me'le'aN'; Lat. MAXIMILIA'NUS ;
It MASSIMILIANO, mas-se-me-le-a'no] L, Emperor of
Germany, born at Neustadt in 1459, was the son of
Frederick III. and Leonora of Portugal. He married,
in 1477, Mary of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of
Charles the Bold, who died in 1482, leaving two children
Philip and Margaret. In accordance with the stipulations
of the peace of Arras, (1482,) he betrothed his daughtei
Margaret to the Dauphin, (afterwards Charles VIII. ol
France,) with Burgundy, Artois, and Flanders for her

lortion. For several years following he was involved in
a contest with France, and with his subjects in the Neth-
erlands, incited to revolt by Louis XI. About 1492 he
prepared to make war on Charles VIII., who not only
efused to keep his engagement with Maximilian's daugh-
er, but had deprived him of his intended bride, Anne,
he wealthy heiress of Brittany. By the mediation of
Philip, Elector of the Palatinate, a treaty of peace was
concluded between the two sovereigns at Senlis, (1493,)
jy which Charles was compelled to give up the doirr)
of the princess. Maximilian was crowned Emperor of
3ermany, and in 1494 married Bianca Sforza, daugh-
ter of the Duke of Milan, which alliance gave rise to a
succession of wars in Italy. He soon after joined the
League of Cambray, formed between Pope Julius It.,
Ferdinand of Spain, and Louis XII. of France, against
:he Venetians ; but, that republic having soon after
Decome reconciled to the pope, Maximilian joined the
so-called Holy League between England, Spain, Venice,
and the pope, in opposition to the French, who were
signally defeated by the forces of Henry VIII. and the
emperor, in the " battle of the spurs," near Guinegate,
[1513.) Francis I., having succeeded to the throne of

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 137 of 425)