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France, captured Milan, and compelled Maximilian to
jive up Verona to the Venetians for 200,000 ducats. By
;he treaty of Bale (1499) he had been obliged to acknow-
ledge the independence of Switzerland. Though often
unsuccessful in his wars, he had the fortune to acquire
extensive territories by the marriage of his son Philip
with the Infanta of Spain, and of his grandchildren Fer-
dinand and Maria with the son and daughter of Ladislaus,
King of Hungary and Bohemia. His daughter Mar-
garet was married to the Spanish prince Don Juan, a
on of Ferdinand and Isabella. Among the important
acts of his reign were the establishment of the Imperial
Chamber and Aulic Council, and the abolition of the
Secret Tribunal of Westphalia ; he also created a stand-
ing army and introduced military discipline. He was a
liberal patron of learned men, and was the author of
several works in prose and verse. He died in January,
1519, and was succeeded by his grandson, Charles V.

See COXH, " History of the House of Austria;" HBGEWISCH,
" Geschichte der Regierung Maximilians 1.," 1782; KARL HALTAUS,
"Geschichte des Kaisers Maximilian." 1850: VAN DER VOORT,
"Maximilian van Oostennjk," 1844;

rVTai-lmilian U^ born in 1 527, was the son of Fer-
dinand I., whom he succeeded in 1564 as Emperor of
Germany. He was soon after engaged in a war with the
Turks, who had established themselves in Hungary.
After the death of Solyman II. a truce of eight years
was concluded between his successor and the emperor
Maximilian was favourably inclined towards the Protest-
ants, whom he allowed to fill important offices ; but the
influence of the pope, the King of Spain, and the Catho-
lic princes of Germany prevented him from formally
embracing their doctrines. He died in 1576, and was
succeeded by his eldest son, Rudolph.

See COXH, " History of the House of Austria ;" DK THOU, " His-
toria sui Temporis;" " Nouvelle Biographic Generale."

Maximilian L, Elector of Bavaria, born in 1573.
On the formation by the Protestants of the confederacy
called the Union, (1608,) Maximilian put himself at the
head of the opposing Catholic faction of the League.
In conjunction with the emperor Ferdinand II., he fought
in the Thirty Years' war against the Palatine Frederick V.,
and conquered the Upper and Lower Palatinate. In 1623
he obtained the electoral dignity of the Palatinate and
the hereditary domains of Frederick V. Maximilian was
an able ruler, and founded a number of colleges and other
useful institutions. Died in 1651.

See KARL MARIA VON AKKIIH. "Geschichte des Herzog und
Kurfursten Maximilian L," 1842.

Maximilian II, (JOSEPH,) King of Bavaria, the
eldest son of King Lewis, was born in 1811. He mar-
ried in 1842 a daughter of Prince Frederick William of
Prussia. In March, 1848, he succeeded his father, who
abdicated the throne. He opposed the project to unite
the German peoples into one nation or confederacy of
which the King of Prussia should be the head. He died
in March, 1864, and was succeeded by his son Lewis.

Maximilian, (FERDINAND JOSEPH,) Emperor of



a, e, I, o, u, y, long: i, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 5, u, y, short: a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; m?t; not; good; moon;



MAXIMILIAN



1687



MAXWELL



Mexico and Archduke of Austria, born in July, 1832,
was a brother of the emperor Francis Joseph. He
married Carlotta, or Charlotte, a daughter of Leopold,
King of Belgium, about 1858. In 1859 he was appointed
an admiral and commander-in-chief of the Austrian navy.
In 1863 he was tempted by Napoleon III. to act the part
of emperor in Mexico, then partly conquered by the
French and partly governed by the republican President
Juarez. He arrived at the Mexican capital in June, 1864.
He issued a decree that all who adhered to the republic
or resisted his authority should be shot. Many prisoners,
including General Orteaga, accordingly suffered death by
his order. According to the New York " Evening Post, '
July i, 1867, he ordered the enslavement of the whole
labouring population of Mexico. The United States
refused to recognize him as emperor, and required Na-
poleon to withdraw his army. Maximilian was much
embarrassed by the want of money, and offended the
clerical party (which had favoured him) by refusing to
restore the property of the Church, which had been
confiscated by the Liberals. The French troops de-
parted about the end of 1866, after which the republicans
gained several victories and the empire quickly collapsed.
Maximilian was captured at Queretaro in May, and shot
on the igth of June, 1867.

See his "Recollections of my Life," 3 vols., 1868; F. HALL,
" Life of Maximilian," 1868.

Maximilian, (ALEXANDER PHILIPP,) Prince of Neu-
wied, a German naturalist and traveller, born at Neu-
wied in 1782. In 1815 he set out on a journey through
Brazil, where he spent two years and made a rich col-
lection of specimens. On his return he published his
" Travels in Brazil" and a " Description of the Natural
History of Brazil." In 1833 he visited the western part
of the United States. His "Journey through North
America," a magnificent work, illustrated with eighty-
one engravings, came out in 1843, an< ^ ' s sa ^ to be
tuperior to anything of the kind that had hitherto
appeared in Germany. Died in 1867.

Maximilian Joseph, " Duke in Bavaria," a German
prince and author, the head of the ducal line of the Ba-
varian royal family, was korn at Bamberg, December 4,
1808, and became a general of cavalry in the Bavarian
army. He published " Wanderung nach Orient," " No-
vellen," " Skizzenbuch," etc., and compiled a collection
of Bavarian popular songs and melodies. One of his
daughters became Empress of Austria. Died in 1888.

Maximil'iaD Mari'a Eman'uel, Elector of Bavaria,
born in 1662, was a grandson of Maximilian I. In 1685
he married Maria Antonia, daughter of the emperor
Leopold I., and was appointed in 1692 Governor of the
Netherlands. Having taken part with the French in
the war of the Spanish succession, he delivered up to
them the Spanish Netherlands. After his defeat at the
battle of Schellenberg, he was obliged by the emperoi
to give up his possessions, which, however, were restoree
at the peace of Baden in 1714. Died in 1726.

Maxl-min, [Lat. MAXIMI'NUS; Fr. MAXIMIN, mik'
e'man',] or, more fully, Cai'us Ju'lius Ve'rus Max-
uni'nus, a native of Thrace, born in 173 A.D., servec
In the Roman army under Septimius Severus. Haying
followed Alexander Severus in his German campaign
he caused him to be assassinated, A.D. 235, and was
proclaimed emperor in his stead. In consequence of hii
cruelties, the province of Africa soon after revolted, am
Gordianus was made emperor by the senate of Rome
A.D. 237. Maximinus, having defeated and slain Gor
dianus, laid siege to Aquileia, during which he was killer.
in a mutiny of his soldiers, together with his son, in 23!
A.D. If we may trust the concurrent testimony of ancien
writers, Maximin was above eight feet high, well propor
tioned, and of such strength that he could easily draw a
loaded wagon, and with a kick break the leg of a horse
He is said to have used his wife's bracelet for a finger

ring-
See TILLKHONT, " Histoire des Empereurs."
Max-I-mi'nus Da'za, an Illyrian peasant, a relativ
of Galerius, was raised by him to the dignity of Caesar
A.D. 305. He ruled over Syria and Egypt, and perse
cuted the Christians. On the death of Galerius, in 311
Maximinus took possession of all the Asiatic provinces



He afterwards made war on Licinius, but was defeated,
and died by poison at Tarsus in 313 A.D.

MaxT-muB, [Fr. MAXIME, mik'sem'; It. MASSIMO,
mas'se-mo, ] (MAGNUS CLEMENS,) a usurper of the
Roman empire, was a native of Spain. Having for sev-
eral years commanded the Roman army in Britain with
success, he revolted against Gratian about 381 A.D.,
and was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers. He then
invaded Gaul to offer battle to Gratian, who was defeated,
or fled without fighting, and was killed in 383. Theo-

osius and Valentinian recognized him as Emperor of
3aul, Spain, and Britain. Attempting to obtain Italy

Iso by conquest, he was defeated by Theodosius, taken

risoner, and executed in 388 A.D.
See LB BEAU, " Histoire du Bas-Empire ;" TILLHMONT, " Hu-

oire des Empereurs."

Maximua, [Fr. MAXIME, mSk'sem',] SAINT, sur-
amed THE CONFESSOR and THE MONK, an eminent
Greek theologian, born at Constantinople about 580
IL.D. He zealously opposed the heresy of the Monothe-
'tes, and wrote many works on theology, which were
ighly esteemed in the middle ages. Died in 662 A.D.

Maxl-mus THE GREEK, a native of Albania, was
nvited to Russia by the grand duke Vassili Ivanovitch,
n order to examine numerous Greek manuscripts re-
:ently discovered. He made translations of the princi-
lal ones into Latin, which were rendered by others into
ilavonian. At the request of the Czar, he undertook
o revise the early translations of the books of the
3reek Church; but the numerous corrections which he
made gave great offence, and he was excommunicated
as a heretic in 1525. Died in 1556.

Maximus Fabius. See FABIUS.

Maxl-mus Pe-tro'nl-us, an ambitious Roman cour-
tier, born in 395 A.D. He was twice chosen consul.
n 455 he procured the assassination of Valentinian
II., was proclaimed emperor, and married Eudoxia, the
widow of Valentinian. Genseric the Vandal, invited by
iudoxia, marched an army towards Rome, when Maxi-
mus attempted to escape by flight, but was killed by his
soldiers, or by the officers of Eudoxia, in 455 A.D.

Maxl-mua Ru-tUI-UB, a Roman jurist, supposed to
lave lived under Severus and Caracalla. He was the
author of " Ad Legem Falcidiam," or Commentary on
;he Lex Falcidia.

Maxl-mua T^rl-us, [Fr. MAXIME DE TYR, mik'-
sem' deh teR,] an eminent Platonic philosopher, born at
Tyre iii the second century, lived at Athens and Rome
n the reigns of the Antonines and of Commodus. He
wrote, in Greek, numerous philosophical dissertations,
:he style and sentiments of which are commended. Two
of these are entitled " On the Daemonium of Socrates
and " On Plato's Opinion respecting the Deity."
Max-Muller. See MOLLER, (MAX. )
Max'well, (Sir HERBERT EUSTACE,) a British
author, born at Edinburgh in 1845, and educated at
Eton and Oxford. His publications since 1887 have
been numerous, including novels, historical works, etc.

Max'well, (JAMES CLERK,) an eminent British phys-
icist, born at Edinburgh, June 13, 1831. He studied at
the Universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge, gradu-
ating with highest honours in 1854. He was professor of
natural philosophy in Marischal College, Aberdeen,
1856-60, professor of physics in King's College, London,
1860-68, and professor of experimental physics in the
University of Cambridge, 1871-79. His life was full of
fruitful labours in the field of experimental physics and
applied mathematics. Among his works are an admi-
rable "Theory of Heat," (1871,) "Matter and Motion,"
and "Electricity and Magnetism," (1873,) t he latter a
treatise of the highest value to science. Died at Cam-
bridge, November 5, 1879.

Max'well, (Sir MURRAY,) a Scottish naval officer,
barn near Perth in 1766, served with distinct ; on in sev-
eral campaigns against the French and Spaniards, and
in 1815 accompanied Lord Amherst on his embassy to
China, He was made a knight in 1818. Died in 1831.
Maxwell, (ROBERT,) one of the Scottish lords of the
regency during the absence of James V. in France, had
a share in the mutiny at Solway Moss. In the first



< as k: r as ,; g hard: g ay; G, H K ,fuffral; N. nasal: R, trilltd; s as ; th as in tf. (J^See Explana,



MAXWELL



1688



MA YER



Parliament of Mary Queen of Scots, (1543,) he intro-
duced a bill to allow the reading of the Scriptures in the
vulgar tongue, which was passed in spite of the oppo-
sition of the lord chancellor, the bishops and priests.
Died in 1546.

Maxwell, (WILLIAM HAMILTON,) a writer, born in
Ireland in 1795. He published, besides several novels,
a " Life of Wellington," and contributed to " Bentley's
Miscellany." Died in 1850.

Maxwell, (WILLIAM STIRLING.) See STIRLING.

May, (CAROLINE,) an American writer, and resident
of New York, has published several poems and prose
works, and prepared an edition of the "American Female
Poets," with notes.

May, (EDITH.) See DRINKER.

May, (EDWARD COLLETT,) an English musician, born
at Greenwich, October 29, 1806. He began life as an
organist, but subsequently devoted himself with great
success to the teaching of vocal music. Died in 1887.

May, (EDWARD H.,) an American painter, of English
extraction, born in 1828. He resided in New York and
in Paris. He studied under Couture, in Paris, and pro-
duced pictures highly commended by French critics.
Among his master-pieces are "Jewish Captives at Baby-
lon," " Francis I. at Prayer after hearing of the Death
of his Son," and a "Scene from Waverley." Died 1887.

See TUCKKRMAN, " Book of the Artists."

May, (SAMUEL JOSEPH,) an American Unitarian min-
ister, born in Boston, Massachusetts, September 12, 1797.
He graduated at Harvard College in 1817, and became
distinguished as an anti-slavery writer and speaker and
as an advocate of popular education. Died at Syracuse,
New York, July I, 1871.

May, (THOMAS,) an English writer, born in Sussex
bout 1595, was appointed by Cromwell secretary and
historiographer to the Parliament He was the author
of a " History of the English Parliament which began
November, 1640," which is commended by Warburton ;
also the tragedies of " Antigone" and "Agrippina," a
comedy entitled "The Heir," and other works. He
likewise translated Lucan's " Pharsalia," and wrote a
continuation of it, in Latin and English. It is eulogized
by Dr. Johnson and other critics. Died in 1650.

May, (THOMAS ERSKINE,) an English historian and
writer on law, born in 1815. He published, besides
other works, " A Constitutional History of England from
1760 to 1860," (1861-63.) and "Democracy in Europe;
a History," (1877.) He was made Companion of the
Bath in 1860. Died May 13, 1886.

May de Romain-Motier, mi deh ro'maN' mo'tg-i',
(EMMANUEL,) a Swiss writer, born at Berne in 1734,
published a " Military History of the Swiss," etc., (1772.)
Died in 1799.

Maya, mi'yi, a Sanscrit word, signifying " Illusion,"
and applied by the Hindoos in a philosophical or mys-
tical sense to that Power which caused or created the
visible phenomena of the universe, it being assumed that
external objects have no absolute existence, but that
they are mere impressions on the mind, according to
the theory held by Berkeley and some other European
philosophers. The MayS of the Hindoo mythology is,
according to some, a mighty goddess, regarded as the
wife or consort of Brahmi.

See MOOR, " Hindoo Mythology ;" WILSON, " Sanscrit Dic-
tionary."

Mayans y Siacar, mi-ins' e ses-kaR', [Lat. MAIAN'-
SIUS.I (GREGORIO,) a Spanish jurist and scholar, born
at Ohva in 1699. He published a "Life of Miguel Cer-
vantes, "(1 738,) and a number of legal and critical works
of a high character. Died in 1781.

See TICKNOR, " History of Spanish Literature;" STRODTMANN,
"G. Maiansii Vita," 1756.

Maydieu, mi'de-uh', ()EAN,) a French littfraieur,
who was born at Troyes, and lived about 1760-1800. H<
wrote several works of fiction. He was a priest, anc
was banished at the Revolution.

Mayenne or Madeline, de, deh mi'ySn', (CHARLES
DE LORRAINE,) Due, an able French general, born in
1554, was the second son of Francis, Duke of Guise,
He fought against the Huguenots in the civil wars



under Charles IX. and Hemy III. His brother Henry
and he organized the Catholic League in 1577. (See
JUISE, DE, HENRY, DUKE.) On the death of his brother
rlenry, in 1588, the Duke of Mayenne became com-
mander-in-chief of the army of the League. He occupied
'aris in February, 1589, and opposed the succession of
rlenry IV., who defeated Mayenne at Ivry in March,
1590. The duke retained possession of Paris until 1593,
and concluded a treaty of peace with Henry IV. in 1596.
Died in 1611.

See NERvilH, " Histoire de la Vie du Due de Mayenne," 1618;
SISMONDI, "Histoire des Francais ;" DAVIUA, "History of tht
Civil Wars of France ;" H. MARTIN. " Histoire de France.

Mayenne, de, (HENRI DE LORRAINE,) Due, a son
of the preceding, born in 1578. He acted a prominent
jart in the tumults and violent feuds which prevailed
luring the minority of Louis XIII. In 1621 he was
dlled at Montauban, where he fought against the Prot-
estants.

May'er, (ALFRED MARSHALL,) an able American
scientist, born in Baltimore, November 13, 1836, a nephew
of Brantz Mayer. He was educated at Saint Mary's
College in Baltimore, and in the University of Paris, and
leld (1856-71) professorships of science in various col-
eges, becoming a professor of physics in the Stevens
Institute of Technology, at Hoboken, New Jersey, in
1871. Electricity, magnetism, and acoustics were the
subjects to which he gave especial attention. He was
he author of many scientific papers, a treatise on
'Sound," etc. Died July 13, 1897.

Mayer, ml'er, (ANDREAS,) a German astronomer,
born at Augsburg in 1716 ; died in 1782.

May'er, (BRANTZ,) an American lawyer and writer,
born at Baltimore in 1809. He published " Mexico
Aztec, Spanish, and Republican," (1851,) "Observa-
tions on Mexican History and Archaeology," etc., and
'Mexican Antiquities," (1858.) Died in 1879.

Mayer, mi'ya', (CHARLES JOSEPH,) a French novel-
st and historical writer, born at Toulon in 1751 ; died
about 1825.

Mayer, (CONSTANT,) a French-American painter,
born at Besan9on, in France, October 4, 1832. He was
educated at the ficole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and in 1857
became a resident of New York. He has made many
life-size genre pictures and portraits, and in 1869 was
created a chevalier of the legion of honour. Among
his best works are "Consolation," "Recognition,"

Good Words," "Love's Melancholy," "The Sewing-
School," " Ttie Song of the Shirt," etc.

Mayer, (JOHANN CHRISTOPH ANDREAS,) a German
anatomist, born at Greifswalde in 1747, became physician
to the King of Prussia in 1789. Died in 1801.

Mayer, (JonANN FRIEDRICH,) a German divine and
polemist, born at Leipsic in 1650. He held professor-
ships of divinity at Wittenberg, Kiel, and Greifswalde.
He published over three hundred and seventy books and
pamphlets, and was noted for his extreme hostility to
Spener and the Pietists. His works are nearly forgotten.
Died at Stettin in 1712.

Mayer, (Junus ROBERT,) a German physicist, born
at Heilbronn, November 25, 1814. He was educated at
Tubingen, Munich, and Paris, and became a surgeon at
Heilbronn. He was distinguished as an able theorist on
thermodynamics. His principal work is " Die Mechanik
der Warme," (1867.) Died March 20, 1878.

Mayer, ml'er, [Lat. MAYE'RUS,] (JOHANN TOBIAS,)
an eminent German mathematician and astronomer, born
at Marbach in 1723. At an early age he devoted him-
self to the study of the exact sciences, and in 1750
became professor of mathematics in the University of
Gottingen, and the next year director of the observatory
in that place. In 1755 he published his " Lunar Tables,"
a work of the greatest accuracy and which at once
gained him a high reputation. Among his many able
productions we may name the " Zodiacal Catalogue," a
treatise " On the Libration of the Moon," " Solar Tables,"
and " Terrestrial Refractions." Mayer also discovered
the principle of the repeating circle, since developed by
Borda and employed by him to measure the arc of the
meridian. After Mayer's death, which took place in
1762, the British Parliament, at the suggestion of the



a. e. T. o, ii, y, /oneva, e, 6, same, lessproloiged; a, e, 1, 5, u, y, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; fir, fall, fat; mil; not; good; moon'



MA YER



1689



MAYOW



Doard of longitude, paid to his widow the sum of ^3000,
heing the prize offered for the "Lunar Tables."

Mayer or Mayr, miR, (SiMON,) a celebrated German
composer, born at Mendorf, in Bavaria, in 1763. He I
studied under Lenzi and Bertoni in Italy, and in 1802 '
became chapel-master at Bergamo. He composed a
great number of operas, among the most popular of
which are his " Medea," " Lodoiska," and " Music-Mad,"
(" II Fanatico per la Musica.") Died in 1845.

Mayerne-Turquet, de, (THEODORE,) born, of
French parentage, at Geneva in 1573, became physi-
cian-in-ordinary to Henry IV. of France. In 161 1 he was
appointed first physician to James I. of England, and
held the same office under Charles I. He was the
author of several valuable medical works in Latin. Died
in 1655.

Mayerus. See MAYER, (JUHANN TOBIAS.)
Mayeur de Saint-Paul, mi'yuR' deh saN'pol',
(FRANC.OIS MARIE,) a French actor and dramatist, born
in Paris in 1758, published a number of comedies,
romances, and poems. Died in 1818.

May'hew, (AUGUSTUS SEPTIMUS,) an English author,
a brother of Henry Mayhew, noticed below, and author
of several books, among them "Kitty Lamere," (1858,)
"Paved with Gold," (1866,) and "Blow Hot and Bluw
Cold," (1869.) He also assisted Henry and Horace
Mayhew in producing the "Brothers Mayhew" series of
humorous tales. Died December 25, 1875. EDWARD
MAYHEW, (born in London in 1813,) a brother of the
above, was a theatrical manager, and the author of some
farces, and of a series of illustrated and humorously-
written books on veterinary practice. These had a wide
sale in America and England. HORACE, another brother,
was associated in the authorship of the " Brothers May-
hew" series, and wrote several comic books of his own.
He was born in London in 1819, and died April 30,
1872. THOMAS, the eldest of the five brothers, was born
in 1810, and published the " Penny National Library,"
including a " Penny Dictionary," " Penny Grammar,''
etc. He was also editor of a radical paper.

May'hew, (HENRY,) an English littlrateur and jour-
nalist, born in London in 1812. He was one of the found-
ers of the periodical entitled " Figaro in London," and
in 1841 became the first editor of " Punch." He sub-
sequently edited the "Comic Almanac." Among his
works may be named " What to Teach, and How to
Teach it," (1842,) "London Labour and the London
Poor," ( 1 85 1,) " The Wonders of Science," " The Greatest
Plague of Life," " Whom to Marry and How to get Mar-
ried," " Magic of Kindness," etc. Died July 21, 1887.

May'hew, (JONATHAN,) D.D., an American divine,
born in Martha's Vineyard in 1720, was distinguished as
a preacher and controversialist, and published a number
of theological works. Among these we may name
" Observations on the Charter and Conduct of the So-
ciety for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts," and
"Christian Sobriety." Died in 1766.

May'nard, (CHARLES JOHNSON,) an American
naturalist, born at West Newton, Massachusetts, in
1845. He made special studies in ornithology and
on the land shells of the West Indies, and wrote
various works on the birds of the United States and
American butterflies, also " Naturalist's Guide,"
"Contributions to Science," "Nature Studies," etc.

May'nard, (EDWARD,) an American inventor,
born at M'adison, New Jersey, in 1813. He became
a dental surgeon, and invented many dental instru-
ments. He was appointed court dentist by Nicholas
I. of Russia, and for many years was professor in the
Baltimore College of Dental Surgery. His later in-
ventions were in firearms and ammunition, and in-
cluded the tape system of primers, a breech-loading
rifle, etc. The Maynard rifle was adopted by the
United States and by several European governments.
Died in 1891.

Maynard, mi'niR', (FRANC.OIS,) a French poet, born
at Toulouse in 1582, was an intimate friend of Malherbe.
He was the author of odes, epigrams, and other poems,
which are characterized by La Harpeas possessing great



eloquence of diction, but are deficient in warmth. Died
in 1646.

May'nard, (HORACE,) LL.D., an American statesman,
born at Westborough, Massachusetts, August 30, 1814.
He graduated at Amherst College in 1838. He removed
to Knoxville, Tennessee, where he was (1838-42) pro-
fessor of mathematics in the University of East Ten-
nessee. He became a lawyer, was a member of Congress,
1857-63 and 1865-75, attorney-general of Tennessee,
1863-65, United States minister at Constantinople, 1875-
80, and postmaster-general, 1880-81. Died at Knoxville,
May 3, 1882.

May'nard, (Sir JOHN,) an English lawyer, born in
Devonshire in 1602. He became Cromwell's sergeant
in 1653, and, after the restoration, filled the same office
under Charles II. He was active in promoting the Revo-
lution of 1688, and was appointed in 1689 one of the
lords commissioners of the great seal of England. Died


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 138 of 425)