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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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in 1690.

Mayne, man, (JASPER,) an English divine and poet,
born in Devonshire in 1604. He obtained several offices
under Charles I., of which he was deprived after Crom-
well's usurpation. On the restoration he was appointed
chaplain-in-ordinary to Charles II., and Archdeacon of
Chichester. He was the author of a comedy entitled
"The City Match," and a tragi-comedy called "The
Amorous Warre." Died in 1672.

Mayno, mi'no, (JUAN BAUTISTA,) a Spanish painter,
born at Toledo about 1590, was drawing-master to Philip
IV. Among his best productions are "The Nativity"
and "The Resurrection." Died in 1654.

See QUILLIHT, " Dictionnaire des Pemtres tspagnols.'

Maynwaring, man'a-ring, (ARTHUR,) an English
satirist and political writer, born in Shropshire in 1668.
He was for a time attached to the cause of James II.,
and satirized the government of William III., to which,
however, he was afterwards reconciled. After the peace
of Ryswick he visited Paris, where he made the ac-
quaintance of Boileau. He was a member of Parliament
for Preston in 1705. Maynwaring's productions, both in
prose and verse, were much esteemed, and Sir Richard
Steele dedicated to him the first volume of the "Taller."
Died in 1712.

See OLDMIXON, "Life and Posthumous Works of A. Maya-

Mayo, ma'o, (AMORY DWIGHT,) an American divine,
born at Warwick, Massachusetts, in 1823, became pastor
of the First Congregational Unitarian Church in Albany.
He published '"Graces and Powers of the Christian
Life," ( 1 852,) " Symbols of the Capital," and other works.
His wife, S. C. EDGARTON MAYO, was the author of a
number of poems of great beauty, chiefly on religious
subjects. She died about 1850.

Mayo, (FRANK,) an American actor, born at
Boston in 1839. He began his theatrical career at
sixteen, became a star actor in Shaksperian and other
prominent parts in 1869, and produced " Davy Crock -
i ett" in 1872, in which he appeared more than two
thousand times. Died June 8, 1896.

Mayo, (HERBERT,) an English physician, became
professor of anatomy and physiology at King's Col-
lege, London, and acquired distinction as a lecturer.
He was the author of ' ' Outlines of Human Physiology, ' '
(1827,) "Outlines of Human Pathology," (1836,)
"The Nervous System and its Functions," (1842,)
I etc. Died near Mentz in 1852.

Mayo, (Mrs. ISABELLA,) an English author, was
i born at London, December 10, 1843. Sne was ^e
\ author of a number of novels, including " Gold and
| Dross," (1871,) "Crooked Places," (1874,) etc.

Mayo, (WILLIAM STARBUCK,) an American physician
and writer, born at Ogdensburg, New York, in 1812. He
published, in 1849, " Kaloolah," a fictitious tale of African
adventure, which was followed by " The Berber, or the
Mountaineer of the Atlas," (1850,) and "Romance-Dust
from the Historic Placer." Died in 1895.

Mayow, ma'o, ? (JOHN,) an English physician, born
in Cornwall in 1645, was the author of a valuable work
"On Nitre and Nitro-Aerial Spirit," in which he origi-

as/&; as*.- gbarJ: gas/.'G, H,K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: sasz; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 23.)




nated some of the most important modern discoveriei
in pneumatic chemistry. Died in 1679.

Mayr, von, fon miR, (JoHANN MARIE ECK,) a Ger-
man general, born in Vienna in 1716, fought for Frede-
rick the Great in the Seven Years' war. Died in 1759.

Mayseder, mi'zeh-der, (JOSEPH,) a German violinist
and composer, born at Vienna in 1789. Died in 1863.

Mazade, de, deh mS'zSd', (Louis CHARLES JEAN
ROBERT,) a French author, born at Castel-Sarrazin,
March 19, 1820. He became a journalist at Paris, and
published "Odes," (1841,) "L'Espagne moderne," (185=:,)
"L'ltalie moderne," (1860,) " Lamartine," (1872,) and
other works, chiefly on public questions. Died in 1893.

Mazarin, maz'a-reen', [Fr. pron. mf ziPrlN' ; It. MA-
ZARINI, mad-za-ree'nee ; Lat, MAZARI'NUS,] (GiULio or
JULES,) CARDINAL, a celebrated courtier and prime min-
ister of France, was born in Italy in 1602. He was edu-
cated in a college of Jesuits at Rome, (where his father,
Pietro Mazarini, resided,) and adopted the profession of
law. He had acquired the reputation of an adroit nego-
tiator in the service of the pope, when, in 1630, he met
Cardinal Richelieu, who secured his attachment to the
interest of France. When the French and Spanish were
about to engage at Casal, he prevented a battle, and ne-
gotiated the treaty of Cherasco in 1631. He was nuncio
extraordinary to France in 1634, and gained the favour
of the French king, who sent him as ambassador to
Savoy in 1640. Through the influence of the French
court, Mazarin was made a cardinal in 1641. The next
year he was admitted into the supreme council. The
death of Richelieu (in 1643) and of Louis XIII. (in 1643)
opened a wider sphere to the ambition of Mazarin, whom
Richelieu recommended as his successor. By the will
of the late king he was declared sole adviser of the
queen-regent, Anne of Austria, in respect to ecclesiastic
affairs, and he soon acquired the principal power in the
government, as well as the confidence of that queen. He
used his power at first with moderation, and courted
popularity by gracious and affable manners. He prose-
cuted the war against Spain which began under his pre-
decessor, and in which Conde and Turenne maintained
the honour of the French arms. A dispute which arose
between the court and the Parliament of Paris was fo
merited by Cardinal de Retz into the revolt of the Paris-
'ans called "the Day of the Barricades," (August 27,
1648,) and was followed by the civil war of the Fronde.
The queen, with her son, Louis XIV., and Mazarin, were
driven out of Paris in 1649 by the Frondeurs. This civil
war was more remarkable for the levity of the people than
for their military exploits. Ladies directed the several
factions, and cabals were made or broken by amorous
intrigues. In the midst of these domestic broils, Maza-
rin had been so fortunate or politic as to conclude with
the German emperor the famous treaty of Westphalia,
(1648,) by which the latter ceded to France the province
of Alsace. In 1651 the cardinal was exiled to Cologne ;
but about two years later he returned to the capital in
triumph, and the end of the rebellion, in 1654, restored
him to his former power. He made in 1655 a treaty of
alliance with Cromwell, who, being solicited as an ally
by the French and the Spanish courts, preferred the
former. He acquired the same influence over the king,
who had attained his majority, as he had exerted over
the queen. It is said that Louis XIV. wished to marry
Marie Mancini, a niece of his minister, but the latter
discouraged the match, and in 1659 negotiated a marriage
with a Spanish princess. Mazarin once said "Louis con-
tained the material for four kings and one honest man."
He died at Vincennes in March, 1661. His person was
remarkably handsome, and his manners fascinating.
"Mazarin," says Mignet, "had a far-seeing and invent-
ive mind, a character rather supple than feeble. His
device was 'Le Temps et moi.'" Much diversity of
opinion exists respecting his merit as a statesman ; but
it may safely be affirmed that he was able and skilful,
and, though avaricious, he was not a cruel or revengeful

See AUBERY, " Histoire du Cardinal Mazarin," 1751; MIGNET,
" Me"moires relatifs a la Succession d'Espagne;" SAINT-AULAIRB,
" Histoire de la Fronde ;" BAZIN, " Histoire de France sous le Mi-
niitere du Cardinal Maztrin ;" VOLTAIRE, " Siecle de Louis XIV ;"
GUALDO-PRIORATO, "Vita del Cardinal Mazarini," 1662; JOHN

CALVBRT, " Life of Cardinal Uazarin," 1670; RETZ, "M<moire;'
SISMONDI, "Histoire des Francais;" GKAMONT, " M^moires ;" V
COUSIN, " La Jeunesse de Mazarin ;" " Nouvelle Biographic G^n*-
rale :" " Fraser's Magazine" for November, 1831, and February, 1833.

Mazarini See MAZARIN.
Mazarinus. See MAZARIN.

Mazarredo y Salazar, ma-thar-ra'Do e sl-ll-
thaR', (Josft MARIA,) a Spanish admiral, born at Bilbao
in 1714, distinguished himself by his defence of Cadiz
against the English in 1797. He was appointed by Joseph
Bonaparte minister of the marine in 1808. Died in 1812.
Mazdak, maz'dak, or Maz'dek, a Persian impostor,
who was born about 470 A.D., professed to be a prophet,
and advocated a community of property. He induced
King KobSd to adopt his system, and effected great
change^ m tne social order.
Mazdek. See MAZDAK.

Maze, (HiPPOLYTE,) a French historian and states-
man, born at Arras in 1839. He held professorships
in history at Douai and Versailles, was elected to the
Chamber in 1879, and became a Senator in 1886,
interesting himself in co-operative provident associa-
tions. He wrote histories of the United States and
France, " La Lutte centre la Misere," etc. Died in

Mazel, mt'ziSl', (ABRAHAM,) one of the leaders of
the Camisards in France, born at Saint-Jean-du-Gari
After the insurrection of the Cevennes, in 1702, he was
imprisoned, but, having escaped, he again attempted to
rouse the people to revolt, and was killed in a skirmish
near Uzes in 1710.

Mazeline, mjz'len', (PIERRE,) a French sculptor,
born at Rouen in 1633. The palace of Versailles is
adorned with several of his works. Died in 1708.

Ma-zep'pa, (I VAN STEPANOVITCH,) a celebrated Po-
lish adventurer, born in the government of Kief in 1644,
was educated at the court of John Casimir, King of
Poland. Having been detected in an intrigue with the wife
of a nobleman, he was bound by his orders to one of the
wild horses of the Ukraine and carried to the country
of the Cossacks. He was kindly received by them,
and rose to be hetman, t>r commander-in-chief of their
armies, about 1687. When Peter the Great attempted
to take possession of the Ukraine, Mazeppa strongly
opposed the measure, but, finding resistance vain, en-
tered into a negotiation with Charles XII. of Sweden
for the independence of his country. The plan being
discovered, and Mazeppa deserted by his troops, he
joined the Swedish army, and after the battle of Pultava
tooK refuge in Turkey, where he died in 1709. The ad-
ventures of Mazeppa have formed the subject of one of
Byron's poems.

Mazois, mi'zwl', (CHARLES FRANCOIS,) a French
architect and antiquary, born at Lorient in 1783, was
employed by Murat, King of Naples, to restore the
Portici palace, and other edifices. He afterwards in-
vestigated the antiquities of Pompeii. He published in
iSn his principal work, "The Ruins of Pompeii," the
last two volumes of which appeared after his death.
Died in 1826.

Mazo-Martinez. del, del ma'tho maR-tee'nSth,
JUAN BAUTISTA,) a Spanish painter, born at Madrid
about 1620, was a pupil and son-in-law of Velasquez,
whom he succeeded in 1661 as painter to Philip IV. His
portraits and landscapes are highly esteemed. Died in

Mazure, mfziiR', (F. A. J.,) a French journalist and
litterateur, born in Paris in 1776, wrote a "History of
the English Revolution of 1688," and a " Life of Vol-
:aire." Died in 1828.

Mazza, mat'sa, (ANDREA,) an Italian philologist,
jorn at Parma in 1724. He published "Select Chap-
ters of Church History," (in Latin, 1757.) Died in 1797.

Mazza, (ANGELO,) an Italian poet, born at Parma in

1741, became professor of Greek in his native city, (1768.)

rle was the author of an ode entitled "Aura Armonica,"

and a number of lyrics, which obtained for him a high

eputation. Died in 1817.

See TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italiani illustri."

Mazza, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian sculptor, born at Bo-
ogna in 1652 ; died in 1741.

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mSt; not; good; moon;




Mazzinghi, mJt-sen'gee ? (JOSEPH,) an English mu-
sician and composer, born in London in 1768, was
patronized by George III. and George IV. Among his
most popular operas we may name "The Blind Girl,"
" The Exile," and " Paul and Virginia." Died at Bath
in 1844.

Mazzini, mit-see'iiee, (GIUSEPPE,) a distinguished
Italian patriot and writer, born at Genoa, June 28, iHo8,
was educated for the profession of law. In his youth he
wrote a number of literary articles for the " Indicatore
Genovese" and other journals, and was an adherent of
the romantic school. He devoted himself at an early
age to the liberation and unity of Italy, which was then
degraded and oppressed by Austria and by various petty
despots. In 1830 he joined the Society of Carbonari,
which he proposed to reform. Having been banished
or proscribed, he retired in 1831 to Marseilles, where he
organized a political association called " Young Italy,"
(La Giovint Italia,) whose watchword was " God and
the People," and whose fundamental idea was that the
liberty of the Italians can only be secured by the union
of the several states or kingdoms into one nation. He
propagated his principles by writings, and, during a
long period of exile and adversity, pursued his purpose
with invincible constancy.

About 1842 he became a resident of London, and
began to contribute political and scientific articles to
Tarious journals, among which was the " Westminster
Review." His letters were opened in the post-office in
1844 by the British secretary for the home department,
Sir James Graham. The revolutionary movements of
1848 restored him to his native country. He issued a
journal called "Italia del Popolo," and, although he
preferred a republic, was disposed to co-operate with
King Charles Albert in resistance to Austrian domina-
tion, and he enlisted under the standard of Garibaldi.
In February, 1849, he went to Rome, in which a republic
had recently been organized after the flight of the pope.
He was quickly recognized as the leader and master-
spirit of the republicans, and in March of that year
Mazzini, Sam, and Armellini were appointed triumvirs.
They defended Rome resolutely against the French
army, by which that city was at length captured in July,
1849. Mazzini then went into exile, and chose London
as the base of his operations. He associated himself
with Kossuth and Ledru-Rollin to form an international
revolutionary committee about 1851.

In 1857 he incited an insurrection in Northern Italy,
nd went to Genoa to direct it ; but the movement failed.
He co-operated with Garibaldi in his victorious expedi-
tion to Sicily in 1860, and opposed the project which
Napoleon III. formed for a confederation of Italian
states. In 1861 he republished, with additions, an es-
say " On the Unity of Italy," in which he says, " I know
that the idea of a confederation is both the counsel and
design of one whom many Italians still regard as the
friend and protector of Italy ; but I know, too, that he is
treacherous, a foreigner, and a despot. That he should
seek to weaken in order to dominate us is easily under-
stood ; but the mere fact that the suggestion springs
from such a source ought to be one of the most powerful
warnings against it."

Some of his predictions have been verified by recent
events in Italy, which have tended to raise his reputation
for sagacity and practical wisdom. He is the author of
a work entitled "The Duties of Man," (1858; English
version, 1862,) which enjoys great popularity in Italy,
and of many other works. The " Life and Writings ol
Joseph Mazzini," in English, have appeared in 6 vols.,
(1864-70.) He died at Pisa, March 10, 1872, and was
buried in his native town.

The character of Mazzini is well described by Thomas
Carlyle in a letter to the London "Times," June, 1844
reprinted in the " Westminster Review" for September
of that year. He says, " I have had the honour to know
M. Mazzini for a series of years ; and I can, with great
freedom, testify to all men that he, if I have ever seen
one such, is a man of genius and virtue, a man of sterling
reracity, humanity, and nobleness of mind, one of those
rjje men, numerable, unfortunately, but as units in this
d, who are worthy to be called martyr-souls ; who

n silence piously in their daily life understand and
Jractise what is meant by that"

See his "Autobiography," 6 vols., 1864; JULES DB BRBVAL,
' Mazzini juge par lui-meme," 1853 ; " Jahrbuch zum Conversations-
Ijexikon" for 1859.

Mazzocchi, mat-sok'kee, or Mazzoccolo, mat-sok'-
co-lo, (ALESSIO SIMMACHO,) an Italian antiquary, born
at Santa Maria di Capua in 1684. He became professor
of Greek and Hebrew at Naples, and was a member of
the Academy of Inscriptions of Paris. He wrote many
valuable treatises in Latin and Italian. Died in 1771.

Mazzoccolo. See MAZZOCCHI.

Mazzola, mjt-so'15, (GIROLAMO BEDOLO,) an Italian
jainter, sometimes called MAZZOLINO, born near Parma
n 1503, was the most distinguished pupil of Parmigiano.
He excelled as a colorist and in perspective. Among
lis best productions are a " Madonna with Saint Cathe-
rine," and "Miracle of the Multiplication of Loaves."
Died about 1590.

Mazzola, Mazzuola, mat-soo-o'll, or Mazzuoli,
mjt-soo-o'lee, (GIROLAMO FRANCESCO MARIA,) an emi-
nent Italian painter, surnamed IL PARMIGIANO, ("the
Parmesan,") born at Parma in 1503. He visited Rome
in 1523, and was employed by Clement VII. to execute
a number of works in that city. His style, formed
on that of Correggio and Raphael, is characterized by
exceeding grace and delicacy of form and softness of
colouring, and it was said by his admirers that " the
spirit of Raphael had passed into him." Among his
master-pieces are the " Madonna delta Rosa," in the
jallery of Dresden, an "Annunciation," in the principal
:hurch of Viadana, the "Madonna with Saint Margaret,
Saint Jerome," etc., in the Museum at Bologna, the
" Madonna dello Lungo Collo," at Florence, and the
" Vision of Saint Jerome," in the National Gallery, Lon-
don. Mazzola was the first Italian artist who engraved
with aquafortis. Died in 1540.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters," etc. ; AFPO, "Vita di F-
Mazzola," 1784 ; MRS. JAMESON, " Memoirs of Early Italian
Painters;" F. BELLINI, "Cenni intomo alia Vita ed alle Opere di
F. Mazzola," 1844; MOKTARA, " Memoria della Vita di F. Max-
zuola," 1846.

Mazzolari, mat-so-li'ree, (GIUSEPPE MARIA,) called
also MARIANO PARTENIO, an Italian writer and excellent
Latin scholar, born at Pe'saro in 1712. He published
poems, orations, critical essays, commentaries, etc. Died
in 1786.

See MONTRNARI, "Biografia di G. M. Maztolari," 1837.

Mazzoli See MAZZOLA.

Mazzolino, mjt-so-lee'no, (LuDOVico,) a celebrated
Italian painter, surnamed IL FERRARESE, was born at
Ferrara in 1481. His "Adoration of the Magi," and
"Christ in the Midst of the Scribes," are ranked among
his master-pieces. Died about 1530.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters," etc.

Mazzoni, mat-so'nee, (GlACOMO,) an Italian writer,
born at Cesena in 1548. He produced several critical
and philosophical works, the most important of which
is his "Defence of Dante," ("Defesa di Dante," 1573.)
He was an intimate friend of Tasso. Died in 1598.

See SERASSI, "Vita di G. Mazzoni," 1790; GINGUKNB, " Histoire
de la Litterature Italienne."

Mazzuchelli, mat-soo-kel'lee, (GIOVANNI MARIA,)
COUNT, an Italian biographer, born at Brescia in 1707.
He was the author of " Historical and Critical Notices
of the Lives and Writings of Learned Italians," (" Scrit-
tori d'ltalia, cioe Notizie storiche e critiche intorno alle
Vite ed agli Scritti de letterati Italian!,") a work of great
merit, which he did not live to complete. He published
two volumes of this work, (1753-63.) Among his other
works are a "Life of Archimedes," (1737,) and a "Life
of Pietro Aretino," (1741.) Died in 1765.

See RODELLA, "Vita del Conte G. Mazzuchelli," 1766; FABRONI,
" Vitae Italorum doctrina excellentium :" TIPALDO, " Biografia degll
Italiani illustri;" "Nouvelle Biographie Ge"nerale."

Mazzuchelli, (PiERO FRANCESCO,) an Italian painter,
surnamed IL MORAZZONE, was born at the village of that
name in 1571. He studied at Milan, where he after-
wards established a school. Among his principal works
are a " Flagellation," and " Saint Michael Triumphant"
Died in 1626.

as k; 9 as s; g hard: g as /; G, H, K, guttural ; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as *; th as in this. (J=See Explanations, p. 23




Mazzuola. See MAZZOL_

Mazzuoli See MAZZOLA.

Mazzuoli, mat-soo-o'lee, or Mazzola, mat'so-lJ,
(FiLiPPO or GIUSEPPE,) an Italian painter, surnamed IL
BASTARUOLO, born at Ferrara about 1530 ; died in 1589.

McKinley, (\VILLIAM.) See MAcKiNLEY.

Mead, (LARKIN GOLDSMITH,) an American sculptor,
was born at Chesterfield, New Hampshire, January 3,
18^5, and became a citizen of Vermont. He became in
1852 a pupil of H. K. Brown. Among his works are
'The Recording Angel," (1855,) "Vermont," (1857.)
statues of Ethan Allen, (1861, 1874,) "The Returned
Soldier," (1866,) and a great part of the Lincoln monu-
ment at Springfield, Illinois, besides many statuettes,
portrait-busts, etc,

Mead, (MATTHEW,) an English nonconformist divine,
born in Buckinghamshire in 1629. He was the author
of "The Young Man's Remembrancer," and "Sermons
on Ezekiel's Wheels." Died in 1699.

Mead, (RICHARD,) a celebrated English physician,
son of the preceding, was born at Stepney in 1673. H*
studied at Leyden, and subsequently visited Italy, where
he took his medical degree at Padua. He was after-
wards elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the
College of Physicians, and on the accession of George
II. (1727) became his physician-in-ordinary. He was
the author of a " Mechanical Account of Poisons,"
(1702,) "A Short Discourse concerning Pestilential Con-
tagion," (1720,) which was translated into French and
Latin, "Medicina Sacra," (1749,) or an account of dis-
eases mentioned in the Bible, and other medical works
of a high character. Died in 1754-

Meade, meed, (GEORGE G.,) a distinguished American
general, was burn December 3t, 1815, at Cadiz, in Spain,
where his father, R. VV. Meade, was United States con-
sul. He graduated at West Point in 1835, served in the
Mexican war, (1846-47,) and became a captain in 1856.
He was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers in
August, 1861, and served in the battle of Gaines's Mill,
June 27, 1862. At Malvern Hill he received two wounds,
July I. He commanded a division at Antietam, Sep-
tember 17, 1862. Having been raised to the rank of
major-general, he directed a corps at the battle of Fred-
ericksburg, December 13, 1862, and at that of Chancel-
lorsville, May 2-3, 1863. On the 28th of June ensuing,
he was appointed commander-in-chief of the army of
the Potomac. Just before the date last named, Gen-
eral Lee had invaded Pennsylvania with a large army,
which the Union army encountered at Gettysburg on
the ist of July. General Meade, whose forces occu-
pied a good position on a range of hills, acted mostly on
the defensive at this battle, which lasted three days and
contributed largely to the triumph of the Union cause.
(See LEE, R. E.) General Meade reported that he took
at Gettysburg 13,621 prisoners, some of whom were
probably wounded, and he lost 16,643 killed and wounded.
He was promoted to be a brigadier-general of the regu-
lar army by a commission dated July 3, 1863. About
the l8th of July he moved his army across the Potomac
into Virginia, where he had several skirmishes with the
enemy in October and November, 1863. He was second
in command of the army of the Potomac in its operations
against Richmond in 1864. " I tried as far as possible,"
says General Grant, " to leave General Meade in inde-
pendent command of the army of the Potomac. My
instructions for that army were all through him, ana
were general in their nature, leaving all the details and the
execution to him. The campaigns that followed proved
kim to be the right man in the right place." In August,
1864, he was appointed a major-general of the regular
army. The army of which he had the immediate com-
- mand fought great battles at the Wilderness, Spottsyl-
vania Court-House, and Cold Harbour, and was em-
ployed many months in the siege of Petersburg. (See
GRANT, U. S.) General Meade was appointed com-
mander of the third military district, comprising Georgia,
Florida, and Alabama, in 1867. Died Nov. 6, 1872.

Meade, (RICHARD KIDDER,) an American soldier of
the Revolution, born in Nansemond county, Virginia,
about 1750, was one of General Washington's aides,
Died in 1805.

Meade, (RICHARD WORSAM,) an American ad-
miral, born at New York city in 1837. He entered
the navy in 1850, served through the civil war, and
continued in active service, becoming captain in 1880,
commodore in 1892, and rear-admiral in 1894. He
was naval commissioner to the Columbian Exposition

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 139 of 425)