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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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attention to Hebrew, with a view to correct the text
of the Bible. The principal fruit of his labours is an
edition of the Hebrew Bible, with Critical Notes and
a Latin Version, (4 vols., '753,) which is highly com-
mended. Died in Paris in 1783.

See J. F. ADRY, " Notice sur la Vie de C. F. Houbigant," 1806;
'* Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'raJe. "

Houbraken, how'bRa'ken, ( ARNOLD, ) a Dutch
painter, engraver, and critic, born at Dort in 1660. He
painted history and portraits with success at Amsterdam,
and wrote (in Dutch) " The Lives of Dutch and Flemish
Painters," with portraits, (3 vols., 1718,) a work of much
merit. Died in 1719.

See JAKOB CAMPO WEYERMAN, " De Schilderkonst der Neder-

Houbraken, (JACOB,) son of the preceding, was born
at Dort in 1698. He worked many years at Amsterdam,
was almost unrivalled as an engraver, and executed
several hundred portraits, among which are a collection
of " Illustrious Persons of Great Britain," (London,
1748.) He also engraved the "Sacrifice of Manoah,"
after Rembrandt, and the portraits in his father's " Lives
of the Dutch and Flemish Painters." Died in 1780.

See BASAN, " Dictionnaire des Graveurs."

Houcbard, oo'shiR', (JEAN NICOLAS,) a French
general, born at Forbach in 1740. He served in the
army before the Revolution, in which he espoused the
popular party. In 1792 he succeeded Custine in the
command of the armies of the Moselle and of the North.
In August, 1793, he gained a victory at Hondschoote,
and forced the British to raise the siege of Dunkirk;
but he was arrested by the dominant faction, and exe-
cuted, in 1793, on the charge that he had permitted the
enemy to escape after the battle just mentioned.

Houdard. See MOTTE, DE LA.

Houdart de la Motte. See MOTTE, DE LA.

Houdetot, oo'deh-to',* (LISABETH FRANCHISE
French lady, born about 1730, was the wife of General
Houdetot, the sister-in-law of Madame Epinay, and a
favourite of Rousseau, to whose passion and indiscretion
she chiefly owes the publicity of her name. Her liaison
with M. Saint-Lambert was well known. Died in 1813.


Houdon, oo'ddN',* (JEAN ANTOINE,) an eminent
French sculptor, born at Versailles in 1741. About 1760
lie won the grand prize for sculpture at the Academy,
and went to Rome with a pension. After remaining
there ten years, during which he executed an admired
statue of Saint Bruno, he returned to Paris, and was
admitted into the Royal Academy in 1775. About 1785
be received from Dr. Franklin a commission to execute
:he marble statue of Washington which adorns the State-
House at Richmond, Virginia. He came to Philadelphia
to obtain the model of this work. His reputation was
ncreased by his statues of Voltaire and Cicero, and his
Dusts of Rousseau, Buffon, Franklin, D'Alembert, Napo-
eon, Ney, etc. His heads of young girls are highly
successful in the expression of modesty and innocence.
Houdon was a member of the Institute. His personal
character was amiable and estimable. Died in 1828.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Houdry, oo'dRe',* (VINCENT,) a French Jesuit, born
at Tours in 1631, was employed as preacher in the chief
cities of France. He published sermons, and a compila-
tion entitled " Bibliotheque des Pre'dicateurs," (23 vols.,
1712 a seq.) Died in 1729.

Houel, //oo'll',* (JEAN PIERRE Louis LAURENT,) a

* There isperhaps no question in French pronunciation attended
with more difficulty than that respecting the aspiration of the letter k,
The best French authorities differ in regard to the initial k of many
names. Some respectable authorities assert that the k should never

as k; c as s: g A,irJ: g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as z: th as in this. (

Explanations, p. 2].)




French landscape-painter and engraver, bora at Rouen , of the inventors of the Thomson-Houston system of
in 1735. In a journey through Italy, Sicily, etc., he col- arc lighting, and was long connected with the Central
lected materials for an interesting work, entitled "A High School of Philadelphia; was also professor o
Picturesque Tour through Sicily, Malta, and the Lipari physics at the Franklin Institute. _ He has put

Islands,"' (4 vols., !782-*87, with 264 engravings.) Died
in 1813.

Hough, huf, (FRANKLIN BENJAMIN,) M.D., an Ameri-
can author, born at Martinsburg, New York, July 20,
1822. He graduated in arts at Union College in 1843,
in medicine at the Cleveland Medical College in 1848,
was superintendent of the New York State census in

an electrical dictionary, and works on physical geog-
raphy, elements of physics, etc.

Houston, (GEORGE SMITH,) an American Demo-
cratic politician, born in Tennessee in 1811. He
studied law, which he practised at Huntsville, Alabama,
and was elected a member of Congress in 1841. He
was chairman of the committee of ways and means in

1855 and 1865, was a surgeon in the Federal army, 1862- the i ower House, 1851-55. Died December 31, 1879.
63, and in 1 876 was appointed to carry on forestry inves- Houston, hu'stgn, (SAM*) an American general

tigations for the United States government. He is author born neaj Leidrigton, Virginia, in 1793, was taken to
and editor of many books and pamphlets on local, colo- Tennessee in his childhood. He studied law, which he


meteorology and on vital statistics. He wrote aiso-r-ic- passed - _ ..____

ments of Forestry," (1882,) etc. Died June u, Ib5- lived west o f Arkansas. About the end of 1832 he

Hough, huf, (JOHN,) D.D., an English scholar, born emigrated to Texas, where he took an active part in the

in Middlesex in 1651, was elected president of Magda- ensui re volt against the Mexican government Having

lene College, Oxford, in 1687, in opposition to the illegal faeen c |, osen commander-in-chief of the Texan army, he

dictation of James II. The king then sent a mandate defeated and captured Santa Anna at San Jacinto, April

to the Fellows to elect Parker, a Catholic. In this 2J jg 6 He was e ] ected president of Texas in July,

contest Hough firmly maintained his rights and those of lg ' 6 ;J nd re . e ] ected for a term of three years in 1841.

the college, and the king's agents broke open the door Af ^ (he annexat j on o f Texas to the Union, (1845.) he

in order to place Parker in the president's chair. In was chosen a United States Senator, and at the end of

1688 Hough was reinstated, and in 1690 was made his (erm ; n [g5 , was e ] ectc d for a second term. He

Bishop of Oxford. Translated to the see of Lichfield made an ab)e speec h against the Kansas-Nebraska bill

and Coventry in 1699, he refused the Archbishopric of jn March l& ,^ about wn j c h time he joined the Ameri-

Canterbury in 1715, and became Bishop of Worcester can /Know-Nothing) party. He was chosen Governor

in 1717. He was eminent for piety and learning. Died of Te xas in 1859. On the breaking out of the civil war

in 1743.


Houghton, ho'ton, MAJOR, an English traveller, who


he favoured the Union, but was overborne by a large
majority of the people. Died July 26, 1863.

Hous'tpn, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S., an English surgeon

.... and naturalist, born about 1695, studied under Boerhaave, sent by the African Company to explore the source at Ley deni j n 1728-29, and made there, with Van Swieten,
of the Niger. He started in 1790, ascended the Gambia experiments respecting the respiration of animals. About
many hundred miles, and afterwards proceeded by land. ,_, 2 ne made a voyage for scientific purposes to the
It is supposed that he died near Jarra, in 1791 ; but his Wes( j nd j eSi where he died in 1733, after collecting and
papers were never recovered. describing many rare plants. The results of his botanical

Houlakou or Houlagou. See HOOLAKOO. labours were published by Sir Joseph Banks.

Houlieres, des. See DESHOULIERES. _._. .n_ - TT .* r ..,;iio /,t'Ai'

Houllier, /iool'e-4', [Lat. HOLLE'RIUS,] (JACQUES.)

an eminent Frencrf"pnysician, born at Etampes, obtained tll , uuu . ..^ ^ , ... _,__,

a large practice in Paris, and was chosen Dean of the Christian Religion proved by Facts
Faculty in 1546. He wrote able commentaries on Hip-
pocrates, (1579,) and other works. Died in 1562.

Houmayoun or Houmaioon. See HOOMAYOON.

Houseman, (C.) See HUYSMAN.

House'man, (LAURENCE,) an English author and

artist, born July 18, 1867. He has published "A

Farm in Fairyland," (1894,) " Green Arras," (1896,)

'The Field of Clover," (1898,) etc., and illustrated

many works.


Houteville or Houtteviile, /ioot'vel', (CLAUDE
FRANCOIS,) a French priest of the Oratory, born in Pans
in 1686. He published, in 1722, "The Truth of the
Christian Religion proved by Facts," which attracted
much attention and hostile criticism. In 1723 he was
chosen a member of the French Academy. He was
elected perpetual secretary of the Academy in 1742, and
died in the same year.

Houtman, howt'man, (CoRNELis,) a Dutch navigator,

born at Gouda, was the pioneer or founder of the com
merce between Holland and the East Indies. As agent
of a company, he made the first voyage in 1595, and re-

turned home in 1597. In 1598 he renewed the enterprise
with two ships, and landed at Acheen, in Sumatra, where
he was arrested with some of his men, and kept a prisoner

Houssaye, >WsV, (ARSENE,) a successful French , unti , hjs deatlx Died a b ou t 1605.

littiratmr and poet, born near Laon in 1815. He pro- Houtteviile. See HOUTEVILLE.
duced "La Couronne des Bluets, (1836,) and many Houwaert, how'wSrt, ([EAN BAPTISTA,) a Flemish
other novels. His "History of Flemish and Dutch wrjter and po i itic i a n, born in 1533. He wrote in a
Painting" (1846) was received with favour. In 1844 he curjous mixture of Flemish and Burgundian, with many
published a "Gallery of Portraits of the Eighteenth ^ . ds and idioms His works include several

Century," (ist series 2 vols ) which was completed in classical subjects, and the remarkable didactic

5 vols. about 1850. From 1849 to 1856 he was director

of the Theatre Francais. He
on art, and published a volume of poems,
completes," (1849,) and " Le Roi Voltaire," (1858.) lie
was chosen inspector-general of the works of art and
Muslts m 1856, and subsequently produced " Histoire

9 to 15 e was irector .. p ides P]eyn ca lled also "The Palace of

also wrote able cr.tiques . Maidens b w hich discusses the varieties of love. Died
ume of poems, " Poesies r '

(1879,) etc. Died February 26, 1896.

Houston, (EDWIN JAMES,) an electrical engineer,
born at Alexandria, Virginia, July 9, 1844. He is one

be sounded in any case, others maintain that in certain words and
names it should be slightly sounded, while in others it is entirely mute.
Respecting this subject, see the remarks on French pronunciation in
the Introduction.

g v yjn ho / veh (ANTOON,) a Dutch historian
d L , b about died in ^^

H ovede H ri f huv'den or hov'den, de, (ROGER,) an
English historian, born at York, lived about 1170-1200,
He was professor of theology at Oxford, and filled re-
sponsible offices at the court of Henry II. He wiote, in
Latin, a " History of England from 731 to 1202,' -!:-
is commended by Leland, Selden, and others

See Vossius, "De Historicis Latinis."

Hovel. See HEVELIUS.

So called by himself.


Ccr u'

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; moon;




Ho'ven-d?n, (THOMAS,) an artist, born at Dunman-
way, county of Cork, Ireland, December 20, 1840. He
studied art in the Cork School of Design and in the
New York National Academy. In :88i he was elected
an associate, and in 1882 a full member of the National
Academy. He resided near Philadelphia. Amo..^ his
best works are " In HocSigno Vinces," (1880,) "Elaine,"
(1882,) "A Breton Interior," and "The Last Moments of
John Brown," (1884.) Accidentally killed Aug. 14, 1895.

Church. Representing Carlisle in Parliament, he acted
with the opposition during the ministries of Lord North
and Lord Shelburne. At the death of his father, in 1786,
ne became Duke of Norfolk. As a member of the
House of Lords, he opposed the measures of Pitt. Died
in 1815.

Howard, (Hon. EDWARD,) an English writer, a so
of Thomas, Earl of Berkshire, lived about 1650. H

, , r , j _ ,. wrote several unsuccessful dramas, and "The British

Hovey, huv'e, (ALVAH,) an American divine and Princes; a Heroic Poem," in which occur these lines.
author, bom in Chenango county, New York, about 1820. often quoted in ridicule :
He graduated at Dartmouth in 1843, and about 1850 be- j A p? i n ted vest Prince V Drtigem had on,

came a professor in the Baptist Theological Seminary , Which from a naked Pict his grandsire won.

at Newton, and president of the same in 1868.

Hovey, (ALVAN P.,) an American statesman and sol-
dier, entered the military service from Indiana in 1861,
became a brigadier-general in 1862, and commanded a
division at Champion's Hill, Mav 16, 1863. He was
minister to Peru from 1865 to 1870, and governor of
Indiana from 1888 till his death, November 23, 1891.

Hovey, (RICHARD,) an American poet, born at
Normal, Illinois, May 4, 1864. He became a jour-
nalist, actor, and dramatist, and wrote " Launcelot
and Guenevere," a dramatic poem, "Along the
Trails," " Songs from Vagabondia," (with Bliss Car-
man,) etc. Died February 26, 1900.

H6w, (WILLIAM,) M.D., born in London in 1619, *?hop ot Neocaesarea and coadjutor to the Cardinal-
became a captain in the royal army in the civil war, and Blsh P * Ffasc ^' ar ' d > ?77 " created a card nal.
afterwards practised medicine in his native city. He P" st - He , was also protector of the College
is said to have been the author of the first English* Flora, at R">. and In . l88 ' became arch-priest of Saint Peter s
("Phytologia Britannica," 1650,) which contains twelve I a ' ld P re! ^ ct .. of the congregation having care of the fabric
hundred and twenty plants. Died in 1656. I f *H** ^*? t *^&i5*L J _-

Pope, in the " Dunciad," alludes to him in these terms :

" And high-born Howard, more majestic sire,
With fool of quality completes the choir."

Howard, (EDWARD,) a popular English novelist, was
a lieutenant in the royal navy. He published "The
Old Commodore," (1837.) "Ratlin the Reefer," (1838,)
" Outward-Bound," etc. Died in 1842.

Howard, (EDWARD,) an English cardinal, born at
Nottingham, February 13, 1829, a cadet of the family of
the dukes of Norfolk. He became an officer of the
Lite-Guards, but when twenty-six years old took orders
at Rome, and became personally attached to the house-
hold of Pius IX. In 1872 he was consecrated Arch-

twenty plants. Died in 1656.
HJSw'ard, the name of an ancient and noble family

Howard, ( FRANK, )

an able English designer and

, , . | , , ''"f'xT 14 f'YlJ writer on art, a son of Henry Howard the painter. He

of England, the head of which >s_ the Duke of Norfolk b]ished .. The Spirit of ^ plays of sh kspeare) ex -

ne ,aris 01 .;L;,,J rt.,*i;n pu*<.c " /r , frt ic iQ^i-tt \ */! ,

3,) and the

ays ot bnal

hibited in Outline" Plates," (5 vols., 1827-3
"Science of Drawing," (1840.) Died in 1866.
Howard, (FREDERICK,) fifth Earl of Carlisle, an

a "Poetical Essay on Pope's Characters of Women," ! E n g lish P oet a " d statesman . born in '748. In 177
anH nth^r nnoms * ni-H in ,,fin. I he was ne of the commissioners sent to persuade the

and the premier peer of Great Britain. The
Carlisle and Suffolk also belong to the Howard family.

Howard, (ANNE,) daughter of Charles, Earl of Car-
lisle, was married to Richard, Viscount Irwin. She wrote

and other poems. Died in 1760.

HSw'ard, (BLANCHE WILLIS,) an American author- | P e P le of the Un ' ted Sta , tes to / u ' 1 )mlt to th 5 Bntlsl J
ess, born 'at Bangor, Maine, July 21, 1847. I" l8?S she le - He published a volume of Poems, and several
removed to Germany, and edited a magazine in English | tragedies, one of which, calle The father s Re-
al Stuttgart. Her principal works are the novels "One ', venge," was commended by Dr. Johnson. Died in
Summer," (1875,) " One Year Abroad," " Aunt Serena," ' 1825.

and "Guenn," (188^,) all of which were remarkably Howard, (GEOPGE EDMUND,) a British poet and
successful. She married Baron von Teuffel in 1890. architect, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He
Died October 7, 1898. .published in 1782 several volumes of miscellaneous

Howard, (BRONSON,) an American dramatist, works, the most important of which treat on the ex-
born at Detroit, Michigan, October 7, 1842. He wrote ' chequer, revenue, and trade of Ireland. Died in 1786.
a considerable number of plays, the best known being Howard, (GEORGE WILLIAM FREDERICK,) Earl of
"Saratoga," "Young Mrs. Winthrop," " Shenan- Carlisle and Viscount Morpeth, a statesman and author
rlnoh " "Th* BanVpr^ r>n,,,rht e r " , born in :8o2, was a grandson of Fredenck, fifth Earl

d0 Howarl he (CHtlVs,rLSrd er Emng C ham, or Lord | of Carlisle. He was styled Lord I Morpetl .before the
Howard of Effingham, an English admiral, born in 1536, deat !> f . hls father ' wh ! c occurred about 1848 Unde
was the son of William, Lord Effingham, and grandson the Whig ministry wmcH was dissolved in 1841 he was
of Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk. After ! ?tary for Ireland. In 1854 he published a Diary
important civil and military services, he was appointed '" Turkl ^ h and , Gr f , k ^ aters ' /;' hl = h ' s a w
in 1585 lord high admiral by Queen Elizabeth, and sue- merit. He was lord-lieutenant of Ireland about three
cessfully opposed the Invincible Armada in 1588. In years, (1855-58.) and was reappomted to that office
1596 he was associated with the Earl of Essex in the i by Palmerston in June,. 1859. He had the reput
victorious expedition against Cadiz, and was rewarded of a liberal statesman and benevolent man.
with the title of Earl of Nottingham. About three years 1864.

later, when another Spanish invasion was expected, the Howard, (HENRY,) Earl of Surrey, a celebrated
sole command of the army and navy for a short time was English poet, born about 1516, was the son of Thomas,
committed to him, with the title of lieutenant-general of , third Duke of Norfolk, and of Elizabeth Stafford. He
England. He retained his honours and offices under excelled in the accomplishments of a scholar, courtier,

James I. Died in 1624.

and soldier, and cultivated as well as patronized the

See CAMPBELL," Lives of British Admirals ;" J. BARROW, " Me- | fine arts. About 1535 he married Lady Frances Vere.
moirs of the Naval Worthies of Queen Elizabeth's Reign," 1845. In 1544 he accompanied Henry VIII. in his invasion of

Howard, (CHARLES,) tenth Duke of Norfolk, (pre- i France, was made a field-marshal, and was appointed
vious'.y Hon. CHARLES HOWARD, of Greystock Castle, governor of Boulogne after it was captured hv the
Cumberland,) succeeded to the dukedom in 1777. "- '' - - - .-<*" - t-


published "Thoughts, Essays, and Maxims, chiefly Re-
ligious and Political," (1768,) and " Historical Anecdotes
of some of the Howard Family." Died in 1786.

Howard, (CHARLES,) eleventh Duke of Norfolk, an
English nobleman, born in 1 746, was the son of the tenth
Duke. In 1780, being then styled the Earl of Surrey,
he exchanged the Catholic faith for that of the Anglican

English. Soon after this he became the object of the
king's suspicion. He was recalled in 1546, arrested
with his father, condemned, and executed in 1547. He
left two sons and three daughters. (With respect to
Surrey's guilt or innocence, see Froude's " History of
England," vol. iv. chap, xxiii.)

Surrey is the first who used blank verse in our lan-
guage, and is considered the first English classical

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as>; G, H, Yi,giMural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( Jp=See Explanations, p. 23. )




poet. He did much to improve the style of versification.
One of his principal productions is a translation into
blank verse of the second book of the " ^neid," which
is admired for its fidelity and poetic diction. He also
wrote numerous sonnets and songs. There is some
doubt of the reality of his romantic passion for Geral-
dine, who is the subject of his most admired effusions.
She was a child of thirteen, named Lady Elizabeth Fitz-
gerald, who afterwards became the wife of the Earl of

See HALLAM, "Introduction to the Literature of Europe;"
WARTON, " History of English Poetry ;" JOHNSON and CHALMERS,
'Lives of the English Poets;" " Edinburgh Review," vol. xlii.

Howard, (HENRY,) Earl of Northampton, second
son of the preceding, was born at Norfolk about 1539.
He was a person of much learning, but of bad principles.
He became a privy councillor at the accession of James
I., who made him Earl of Northampton. In 1608 he
was appointed lord privy seal. He was suspected of
complicity in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, and
in the disgraceful conduct of his relative, the Countess
of Essex. Died in 1614.

See GARDINER'S " History of England from 1603 to 1616," voL
i. chap. ii. pp. 63 and 64 ; also, chaps, x. and xii.

Howard, (HENRY,) born in 1757, was the son of
Philip Howard of Corby Castle, England, and a de-
scendant of the noble Earl of Surrey. He published
" Indication of Memorials, etc. of the Howard Family,"
(1834,) and other works. Died in 1842.

Howard, (HENRY,) an English painter, born in 1769,
entered the Royal Academy as a student in 1788. In
1790 he won two of the highest premiums, a gold
medal for the best historical painting, and a silver medal
for the best drawing from life. After a visit to Rome
he was chosen a member of the Royal Academy in 1808,
and secretary of that body in 1811. His favourite sub-
jects are classical and poetical, and are treated with
elegant taste. Among his best works are " The Birth
of Venus," "The Solar System," " The Circling Hours,"
uid "The Story of Pandora." Died in 1847.

Howard, (Sir JOHN,) was a son of Sir Robert Howard
and Margaret, a daughter of Thomas Mowbray, Duke
of Norfolk. He was a partisan of the house of York
during the wars of the Roses. He was created Duke
of Norfolk in 1483, and was killed with Richard III. at
Bosworth in 1485.

Howard, (JOHN,) F.R.S., a celebrated English phikn-
thropist, born at Hackney, near London, in 1726. He
was the son of a London tradesman, who died in his
minority and left him an independent fortune. Having
made a tour on the continent, he returned home and
took lodgings with a widow named Loidore, by whom he
was kindly nursed when his health required such atten-
tion, and whom he married out of mere gratitude in 1752,
although she was more than twenty years his senior.
After their marriage she Hved only three or four years.
In 1756 he embarked for Lisbon, in the desire to relieve
the miseries caused by the great earthquake of 1755, but
during the passage was taken by a French privateer, and
detained in prison long enough to excite his lasting sym-
pathy with prisoners and to impress him with the neces-
sity of a reform in their treatment. After he was re-
leased he returned home, and married in 1758 Henrietta
Leeds, with whom he lived happily at Cardington until
her death in 1765. He had by this marriage one son,
whose vicious habits produced first disease and then
incurable insanity. Having been appointed sheriff of
the county of Bedford in 1773, he witnessed with pain
the abuses and cruelties to which prisoners were usually
subjected. After visiting most of the county jails of Eng-
land, and collecting much information respecting them,
he induced the House of Commons in 1774 to begin a
reform in prison discipline, to which his life thenceforth
was constantly, heroically, and successfully devoted. In
1777 he published a valuable volume on "The State of
the Prisons in England," etc. From 1778 until his death
he was almost continually employed in traversing all
parts of Europe, visiting prisons and hospitals, relieving
the sick, and, as Burke expresses it, "taking the gauge
and dimensions of misery, depression, and contempt."
He died of fever in 1790, at Cherson, on the Black Sea.

His habits were simple, temperate, and self denying.
Having been educated among Protestant dissenters, he
continued in their fellowship through life.

See " Life of Howard," by W. HEPWORTH DIXON, 1849; another
Life, by JOHN FIELD, 1850; AIKIN, " Life of John Howard," 1791:

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 14 of 425)